New approaches for the early detection of tree health pests and pathogens

Lead Research Organisation: Food & Environment Research Agency -FERA
Department Name: Crop & Food Security

Abstract

The UK's forests, woods and trees are under threat from a growing number of pests and diseases. Many of these threats are alien; historically not present in the UK and having been introduced from overseas. Some of these threats may reach the UK naturally i.e. as wind-borne spores from continental Europe; potentially one pathway for introduction of the disease ash die-back. The alternative and probably more common pathway of introduction is via human activity, especially trade; for example moving infected plants (another pathway identified for ash die-back) or through the shipping of goods associated with infested timber (as was the case with the recent introduction of the Asian long-horn beetle into Kent in packaging crates for stone). These cases clearly demonstrate that we need to do more to improve our nation's biosecurity and protect our plants and trees; both cultivated and in the wider environment.
In order to do this we need better methods for detecting these pests and diseases that allow us to find them earlier and with greater efficiency. By detecting these threats earlier you can minimize the damage they cause, by either preventing an outbreak occurring in the first place or by finding it early and then stopping it from establishing and spreading further. At present we rely on trained inspectors to find these alien pests and pathogens, mainly via visual inspections of imported plants and plant-based products e.g. timber. However, given the volume of inspections required, the finite amount of resource available and the huge practical challenges associated with these inspections, this task is extremely difficult and the efficiency of detection is low.
This project is designed to change that situation by providing better methods for detecting tree pests and pathogens; both moving in trade and in the environment. It will look at new technologies for the detecting changes in infected plants; using either 'sniffer' technology to identify differences in the volatile chemicals given off by diseased and healthy plants or imaging techniques that can detect changes beyond the range of human vision. It will also look at developing and designing novel traps for capturing insects and DNA-based detection approaches that look for air- and water-borne pathogens. This will include better approaches for trapping spores and then applying high-throughput sequencing methods that will allow the identification of not only known pathogens but also new ones too.
However, developing these new technologies is only part of the challenge. It is also necessary to make sure these new methods are fit-for-purpose and that they work in a way that meets the needs of those enforcing tree health regulations (e.g. government), those upon who those regulation impact (e.g. woodland owners and industry) and the end-users who would be expected to use these new tools (e.g. inspectors in the field). We will also examine what type of end-users could be involved; this could be trained government inspectors (the traditional approach) or alternatives such as those working in the industry, volunteers or even the general public. So looking to see if a so-called 'citizen science' approach could be used for any of these new approaches.
It is also important to ensure that these new approaches can be deployed effectively, for example at locations that pose the greatest risk, and in a way that offers the best cost-benefit (i.e. the best balance between cost of using the technology and the improvements it can offer in terms of better pest and disease detection). In order to do this, we will take an interdisciplinary approach; getting experts from many different fields e.g. biology, mathematics, chemistry, engineering, physics, economics and social science, to work together to come up with the best overall solution that works technically, economically and socially.

Technical Summary

This project has 6 work packages (WP), each based around a different combination of skills and expertise. For WP2-6 there will be a focus on a particular detection technology, while WP1 will provide the technical oversight needed for effective deployment of these different technologies, as summarised:
WP1:a participatory interdisciplinary approach will be used to evaluate the needs of stakeholders and to ensure that the technologies meet these. It will also focus on the requirements of effective technology deployment, using mathematical modeling to develop sampling strategies, to create network-based risk maps and economic assessments of cost-effectiveness. Further aspects of deployment will be analysed using social science approaches including end-user acceptability and the potential for using citizen science.
WP2:analytical chemistry approaches will be used to identify diagnostic volatile organic compounds produced by pests, pathogens and diseased hosts and to translate these onto commercial-available portable platforms for use by inspectors in the field.
WP3:multispectral imaging will be used to identify markers for the early detection of biotic/abiotic stress in plants. A prototype bioimaging camera will be constructed that can be used to validate this approach in the field.
WP4:will develop mathematical models of spore movement and investigate metagenomics for broad-spectrum surveillance utilizing existing monitoring networks e.g. pollen traps. In addition, a novel integrated cyclone-based trapping and molecular detection system will be developed and evaluated.
WP5:novel semiochemical attractants will be identified for a range of wood-boring beetle pests, incorporated into traps designed for efficient detection and then deployed in a risk-based network.
WP6:methods for sampling and rapid screening water for Phytopthora spp., including 'unknowns' will be developed and validated. This will combine high-throughput sequencing with a rapid bioinformatic.

Planned Impact

The interdisciplinary design of this proposal will ensure maximum ongoing impact. Central to this is stakeholder engagement and our proposal has adopted a novel approach to facilliate this. Traditional approaches to developing new detection or diagnostic technologies have assumed the 'build it and they will come' approach; where the focus is on the technical aspects of the novel methodology, rather than the needs of end-users and the specifics of how it will be effectively deployed. This proposal reverses that by taking an inclusive view of what is required to achieve a successful outcome i.e. the deployment of a new technology that improves our biosecurity, and then co-designs technologies which fit that purpose. It achieves this by embracing an interdisciplinary approach and through establishing early engagement with stakeholders and end-users. Critical to this is the creation of a Learning Platform (Work package 1) which sits at the core of the project and cuts across the other technology-driven work packages (WPs 2-6). This platform will create communication channels, facilitate collaboration and knowledge sharing across work packages and stakeholder groups, actively disseminating project outcomes and enabling the pathways to impact. This will be delivered as a series of workshops; both cross-cutting (looking at the broader issues associated with detection and its successful deployment) and more focused (looking at specific issues associated with a particular technology and the contexts for its use). In addition to interacting with stakeholders (e.g. policy-makers, inspectors, NGOs, industry), this approach will use the breadth of expertise established within the consortium and assembled from across a wide-range of disciplines. This brings together 'technology-owners' (natural and physical scientists) with 'technology-evaluators' (mathematical and social sciences) to ensure that the best technological approaches are married with suitable sampling and risk-based deployment strategies, that they have stakeholder acceptability and offer genuine cost-efficiency benefits to public and private stakeholders alike.

In addition to the novel approach built into the project design, the effective delivery of impact will also benefit from a consortium which has an extremely strong track record of delivering translation science, to policy and industry alike. As government science agencies, the major remit for both Fera and Forest Research is to take science and technology and to translate it into policy-focused tools and evidence. This is a role they provide routinely for Defra and Forestry Commission, and their associated inspectors on the frontline in the field (e.g. Fera PHSI and FC Inspectors). In terms of delivery of technologies to end-users including industry, there is also a strong track record across the consortium in a whole range of contexts e.g. Worcester (horticulture industry diagnostics), JHI (potato industry diagnostics), Greenwich (pest trap deployment) and Fera (field diagnostics deployment). The integration of a number of SMEs within the consortium is another pathway to impact; providing a route for new technologies to be made freely available beyond the end of the project. Finally as plant and tree health sits within a European regulatory framework, the ability to engage with international partners and stakeholders is important. The consortium has a wealth of experience and contacts in this area, in particular through its central role in a range of related EU-funded projects e.g. Q-Detect (Fera-led), ISEFOR (Aberdeen-led) and PERMIT (FR-led). It will also build upon existing systems for knowledge exchange within our region, especially through the use of the European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). By working with EPPO, using activities such as its workshops and conferences, we will be able to reach out to tree health practitioners across Europe; in many cases the real frontline for UK biosecurity.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description 1. Development of two technology prototypes: a portable hyperspectral imaging camera and an automated spore sampling and DNA testing device
2. Development of novel methods for testing trapped fungal spores using new next generation sequencing-based metabarcoding approaches and advanced bioinformatic pipelines.
3. Improved system for trapping and testing for phytophthora pathogens in water
4. Further understanding of how citizen science can be used in plant health surveillance systems (based upon trials using insect pheromone traps)
5. Development of models to help understand the airborne spread of fungal pathogens and for analysing and evaluating the cost-benefit of different surveillance scenarios, for use as a contingency planning tool.
6. Further insight into the interdisciplinary working and how co-design approaches can assist with the more effective development and deployment of new technology, including the development of a bespoke TRL evaluation tool
Exploitation Route Throughout the project we have used the learning platform as a key tool for engagement with end-users and policy makers. These links will continue beyond the project via different, ongoing projects e.g. THPBI Phase 3 and Defra Future Proofing Plant Health . There have also been a range of engagement and learning activities including a major international dissemination conference - Innovation in Plant Biosecurity - held in March 2017, with over 150 delegates from 10 different countries
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

URL http://protectingtreehealth.org.uk/index.php
 
Description Some of the modelling approaches developed within the project are being investigated for use within plant health contingency planning by Defra
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description EPPO recommendation
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The recommendation was phrased as: "The importance of social engagement, in particular the need to consider stakeholder involvement, in the development and testing of new technologies, was recognised in order to optimise uptake and longer term collaboration." The staff of organisations involved in diagnostics indicated new understanding of this aspects in discussion at the conference.
URL http://archives.eppo.int/MEETINGS/2015_conferences/testa.htm
 
Description Future Proofing Plant Health
Amount £900,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2019
 
Description LWEC, Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative
Amount £1,250,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2019
 
Description PhD funding
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Worcester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Title hyperspectral imaging camera 
Description direct spectral imaging for the analysis of biotic and abiotic stresses in plants and leaf samples 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The technology is under development 
 
Title Atmospheric concentrations of selected ascospores at the species level 
Description Temporal variations of spore concentrations in the air obtained with two sets of detection devices explaining variations in atmospheric transport and coupled with fruiting body phenology 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Data are still being analysed for publication in 2017 
 
Title Components for WRF-Biochem 
Description A next generation atmospheric transport and transformation model for bioaerosols (BIO), chemistry (CHEM) and integrated weather and weather forecast (WRF). 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Still under development 
 
Title Controlled growth study 
Description Collection of spectral data from needles collected from Pine saplings grown in a controlled environment. Some of the saplings were infected with Dothistroma, while others were left uninfected as controls. Data set can be used to see the changes with time as the disease progresses. The disease status of the needles was confirmed with PCR genetic testing. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have used this dataset to simulate hyperspectral data and to build models to predict the disease status of a Pine sapling. Also to get an idea of when spectral methods can be used to detect Dothistroma in a sample. 
 
Description Detector manufacturer Ximea 
Organisation XMOS
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are jointly development of the control software and analysis of data from the detectors that we are using
Collaborator Contribution Iterative software and firmware upgrades based on our input to their detectors
Impact Knowledge exchange
Start Year 2015
 
Description Development of Statistical Analysis Techniques 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Statistics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have been able to provide spectral and hyperspectral data from healthy and diseased trees under controlled conditions. As well as time to carry out statistical analyses to refine and develop robust statistical models
Collaborator Contribution Dr Dan Lund from Department of Statistics, University of Oxford has been able to provide his expert opinion on the best way to analyse our data to develop the robust models to predict tree health
Impact development of statistical models for the detection of tree health. Multi-disciplinary collaboration between statistics and chemistry/physics
Start Year 2015
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Alba Trees
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Department Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate (PHSI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Community Woodlands Association
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Field Studies council (FSC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Forestry Commission
Department Observatree
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Ocean Optics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Russell IPM (Integrated Pest Management)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Scottish Forestry Trust
Country Unknown 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Suterra
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of a Learning Platform for the early detection of tree pests and pathogens 
Organisation Woodland Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am part of Work Package 1 in the LWEC project for early detection of tree pests and pathogens. By establishing this learning platform we hope to get more effective understanding and tools. I helped establish a database of these and more partners and design and run the workshops, coordinate newsletter and send out notifications by email and on web page.
Collaborator Contribution We are coordinating the partnership with a focus on early detection, particularly around new technology development
Impact learning platform reports and newsletter
Start Year 2014
 
Description Innovative Strategies for Prevention, Containment and Management of Emerging Pests Threatening EU Horticulture in Support of EU Plant Health Policy 
Organisation Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We lead bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Collaborator Contribution Partners in the bid
Impact Bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Innovative Strategies for Prevention, Containment and Management of Emerging Pests Threatening EU Horticulture in Support of EU Plant Health Policy 
Organisation East Malling Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Collaborator Contribution Partners in the bid
Impact Bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Innovative Strategies for Prevention, Containment and Management of Emerging Pests Threatening EU Horticulture in Support of EU Plant Health Policy 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We lead bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Collaborator Contribution Partners in the bid
Impact Bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Innovative Strategies for Prevention, Containment and Management of Emerging Pests Threatening EU Horticulture in Support of EU Plant Health Policy 
Organisation Julius Kuhn Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We lead bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Collaborator Contribution Partners in the bid
Impact Bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Innovative Strategies for Prevention, Containment and Management of Emerging Pests Threatening EU Horticulture in Support of EU Plant Health Policy 
Organisation University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Collaborator Contribution Partners in the bid
Impact Bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Innovative Strategies for Prevention, Containment and Management of Emerging Pests Threatening EU Horticulture in Support of EU Plant Health Policy 
Organisation University of Wageningen
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Collaborator Contribution Partners in the bid
Impact Bid to EU SFS-10-2017: Research and approaches for emerging pests and diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock.
Start Year 2016
 
Title High efficiency integrated cyclonic collection test platform for collect/detect system - 1st stage working prototype 
Description Our system incorporates a purpose-designed high efficiency cyclone directly integrated with a custom airmover incorporating a UH design, system matched, impeller to maximise volumetric air sampling while minimising the power requirement. Novel manufacture techniques incorporating 3D printing of metal and plastic was used extensively to validate theoretical models and the particle collection and retention capability of this series of prototypes was evaluated experimentally within our Aerosol test chamber. 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact We found that we could collect greater than 90% of particulate in our target size range for 1/5th the power required for previous prototype systems, thus providing longer term sampling capability for our detection platform front-end . Our system is capable of operating autonomously and at low power, with a high sensitivity to ambient particles. We are now reviewing protection and IP issues for this system. 
 
Title Hyperspectral imaging software 
Description collecting and processing hyperspectral images from Ximea cameras using Labview 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact we are able to collect and process the images from our Ximea hyperspectral cameras without having to use proprietary software 
 
Title Integrated automated cyclonic pathogen collection and LAMP based DNA detection system - final prototype 
Description This system integrates both the cyclonic pathogen collection module alongside the LAMP based DNA detection system into a single, field deployable unit. Sampling air at between 70-120 l/min the airborne pathogen collection system can be automated to run collection sequences as required by the end user. These collection profiles can be defined temporally or based on atmospheric conditions with inbuilt rain sensing. Setup of the instrument can be achieved via direct connection or through a secure wireless protocol. The platform has been developed with both Ash dieback and potential emerging threats in mind. DNA amplification is primer dependent and the experimental test protocol can be adapted to suit the system application from multiday, single target sampling to single sample broad spectrum multi-target analysis. 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact This system has been developed by the Microfluidics & Microengineering Research Group (MMRG) at the University of Hertfordshire. The completion of the instrument came at the end of the research and development project and as such has not yet been used more widely, however the system has been developed as a modular system to enable rapid modification, as required, to target new and emerging airborne pathogen threats and is the subject of ongoing discussions with Fera Science Ltd. and collaborators on the THAPBI project. 
 
Title Optimised automated cyclonic pathogen collection module - final prototype 
Description This module can be operated as a standalone or integrated system as part of the final Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative (THAPBI) autonomous collection system. This automated cyclonic collection system incorporates a purpose-designed high efficiency custom air moving system, optimally matched to a cyclone manifold. An electronically actuated carousel provides integration with one of 7 cyclone bodies for sequential testing with an additional sample tube providing a reservoir for chemical lysis/resuspension buffers. The complete system, including cyclone manifold, impeller and sub structure includes novel manufacture techniques incorporating 3D printing of metal and plastic and mini-scale 5 axis machining was used to extensively validate theoretical models of particle collection and retention capability evaluated experimentally within our Aerosol test chamber. 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact This system has been used extensively by the research team at UH in the development of the integrated tree health pathogen detection platform. The completion of the instrtument came at the end of the research and development phase of the project and as such has not yet been used more widely, however the system has been developed in a modular manane to enable rapid modification to target new and emerging airborne pathogen threats, as required. 
 
Title Optimised automated multiplex LAMP DNA amplification pathogen detection module - final prototype 
Description This module can be operated as a standalone or integrated system as part of the final Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative (THAPBI) autonomous collection system. This automated carousel sample system incorporates an array of 7 LAMP sample strips in an electronically actuated carousel mated to a microfluidic sample delivery system. The complete system is capable of delivering aqueous sample from source to between 1 and 56 reaction sites. In standard configuration the 8 tube LAMP system would delivery 6 aliquots of sample with the remaining 2 reaction tubes providing positive and negative controls. Electromechanical control is integrated with the LAMP detection electronics. The automated carousel unit also enable hot swapping of used reaction tubes by the end user to enable continuous, sequential sampling and detection to be conducted on the unit. 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact This system has been used extensively by the research team at UH in the development of the integrated tree health pathogen detection platform. The completion of the instrument came at the end of the research and development phase of the project and as such has not yet been used more widely, however the system has been developed as a modular system to enable rapid modification, as required, to target new and emerging airborne pathogen threats. 
 
Description "Plant health detection and surveillance: future challenges" Sensors in Agriculture. Birmingham, UK. 23rd February 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "Plant health detection and surveillance: future challenges" Sensors in Agriculture. Birmingham, UK. 23rd February 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2nd international PSA symposium. Bologna, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at a conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://eventi.unibo.it/psa2015
 
Description 6th International Barcode of Life Conference, Gwelph, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://dnabarcodes2015.org/
 
Description American Phytopathological Society Annual meeting 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "From NGS to LAMP - a UK perspective" American Phytopathological Society Annual meeting. Tampa, USA. Workshop - Bringing Advanced Diagnostic Methods to Your Lab 30July 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America (Portland, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented on pine sawyer, Monochamus galloprovincialis, vector of pine wilt nematode.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Annual Meeting of International Society of Chemical Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations on trapping Monochamus beetles and Dioryctria cone pest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Article in newsletter for RELU 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article in the newsletter of RELU describing the LWEC early detection of tree pests and pathogens projects and inviting participation and engagement in workshops etc. and describing success of LP1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.relu.ac.uk/landbridge/Relu%20Newsletter%20-%20January%202015.pdf
 
Description Biopesticides - Innovative technologies and strategies for pest control. Swansea University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at a conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.swansea.ac.uk/biosci/researchgroups/biocontrolandnaturalproductsgroup/banp/symposiuminfor...
 
Description Biosecurity Innovation conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Biosecurity Innovation conference is intended to wrap up the project within a wider context of biosecurity issues. Several themes will be involved:
agined and realised and these are reflected in the four main themes of the conference:

Emerging risks
How can we find out about new threats earlier, what can be done in the additional time and how beneficial is it?

Movement and borders
How can we work with the increasing scale and complexity of trade movements to reduce risk?

Behaviours
How can we understand, influence and nudge so as to adjust more bio-secure behaviours by stakeholders?

Technology
How can scientists produce tools that will be used effectively?

I talk in the behaviour theme, drawing on evidence of behaviour management from other areas of sustainability and environmental management. No impact has been seen yet but we hope to see support for an annual or biannual event subsequently.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://fera.co.uk/agriculture-horticulture/biosecurity.cfm
 
Description British Ecological Society conference talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at 'citizen science' session of British Ecological Society annual meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Development of a fieldable autonomous bio detection platform for collection of low concentration airborne tree and plant pathogens 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an invited presentation to Scientists and policy makers at the Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Porton Down. This was a one-off presentation specifically to provide a technical presenation on the development of a fieldable autonomous bio detection platform for collection of low concentration airborne tree and plant pathogens to a highly relevant community, assessihng cross cutting capability of the instrument.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ECSA conference poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented as part of the European Citizen Science Association conference leading to discussions about the role of citizen science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description EPPO - Conference on Diagnostics, Anges, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk (Tree disease surveillance: metabarcoding to identify fungi in spore traps) to 100 plant health scientists, diagnosticans and policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://archives.eppo.int/MEETINGS/2015_conferences/testa.htm
 
Description EPPO Diagnostics Conference, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engaged with more than 100 European diagnosticians, plant health scientists and policy specialists, both through chairing a session on Early Detection and through giving a presentation (entitled 'New approaches for the early detection of tree health pests and pathogens') about the work of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://archives.eppo.int/MEETINGS/2015_conferences/testa.htm
 
Description Final THPBI dissemination event, London, February 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation outlining progress of Early Detection project at BBSRC organised dissemination workshop, held in London in February 2018. Featured wide range of tree health stakeholders including funders, policy makers, researchers, industry and practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Garden Club presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I attended a local Garden Club to present information on plant health and "Reducing risks of Phytophthora on garden plants". Enthusiastic amateur gardeners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description IOBC Meeting "Pheromones and Other SemioChemicals in Integrated Production", Jerusalem, Israel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave plenary presentation on chemical ecology of Monochamus species and other lecture on Dioryctria
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Innovation in Plant Biosecurity 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International meeting organised at FERA. I could not attend personally but assisted our representative in preparation of a stand with video and other publicity material relating to our work on use of pheromone trapping for detection of invasive pests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://fera.co.uk/agriculture-horticulture/biosecurity.cfm
 
Description Innovation in Plant Biosecurity Conference Oral Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This activity will happen within teh reporting period but has yet to occur. This is a major conference bringing together plant health professionals and invasive species experts from across Great Britain & beyond, to discuss novel strategies for improving plant biosecurity and establish a sustainable knowledge exchange. The conference is organised against the backdrop of the Plant Biosecurity Strategy for Great Britain, as released in 2014, and revisions to the EU Plant Health Regime, which are soon to be realised. There are a number of ways in which biosecurity innovations can be imagined and realised and these are reflected in the four main themes of the conference with our submission primarily focusing on thematic area 1: 1. technology 2. emerging risks 3. movement and borders 4. behaviours
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://researchprofiles.herts.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/design-of-a-high-efficiency-cyclone-for-c...
 
Description Intelligent Sensing Systems for Early Detection of Animal and Plant Health Threats Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 70+ individuals from across the Animal and Plant Health protection arena met at a joint workshop organised and delivered by the BBSRC, ESPRC and DSTL to identify any existing gaps, potential opportunities and available knowledge &skills to adress emerging animal and plant health threats. The event was an opportunity for significant cross dicsiplinary discussion and potential multidisciplinary solutions to be discussed with a view to informing future BBSRC activities in future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited to Rothamsted Open Innovation Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Innovtaion Forum was an aopportunity to meet and work with international delegates from across the agri-food supply chain and beyond. Experts in crop protection, plant breeding, seeds, animal and crop traits, crop nutrition, animal breeding, animal feed, animal health, agronomy, primary production, food manufacturing and food retailing were in attendance and there were a variety of active break out sessions designed to engage and highlight existing barriers to the plant and agri-food sectors. During the event UH were able to present their existing to work and highlight capability in resolving technological challenges in particular with refernce to existing intelligent mechanical and electronic devices, sensors and equipment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://roif.co.uk/
 
Description LWEC TH&PBI projects mid term review workshop, October 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Engagement with workshop including all the LWEC TH&PBI projects, funders and stakeholders e.g. Defra PH policy, FC tree health. Gave two presentations about the 'New approaches for the early detection of tree health pests and pathogens' - an update on progress and future planning
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Learning Labs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Visiting potential end stakeholders for which our research with hyperspectral cameras could be useful, gave us opportunities to discuss their problems and our research techniques
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Learning Patform 3 held in London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 50 people attended the final Learning Platform meeting in London. It was an interactive day where project team members presented videos to demonstrate how their technologies (or the prototypes) could work in the field. The audience then gave good feedback on how technologies could be improve and future next steps.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://protectingtreehealth.org.uk
 
Description Learning Platform 1 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The first of three Learning Platforms had the following aims:

To establish a community of interest around early detection of UK tree pests and pathogens
To demonstrate the development and predicted impacts of five emerging technologies
To share lessons learnt around the use of previous and existing technologies
To identify stakeholder groups and individuals who could and would become involved in the development and testing of each technology
The presentations illustrated the need for new detection technologies and the initial interaction between the scientists developing such technologies and the stakeholders who would be implementing them. This dynamic interaction for the co-development of the technologies is a central theme of this LWEC THAPBI project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://protectingtreehealth.org.uk/learning-platform-1.php
 
Description Learning Platform 2 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The second Learning Platform Workshop was held in Edinburgh on 26th October 2015. The aims of this workshop were:

To further establish a community of interest around early detection of UK tree pests and pathogens
To capture the perspectives of policy makers, community woodland groups and citizens as well as other stakeholders on early detection of tree pests and pathogens
To update this community on the development of five emerging technologies
To discuss potential deployment opportunities and formats of these technologies with stakeholders
To explore future and wider possibilities for the framing of early detection technologies
It was a successful and interactive day!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://protectingtreehealth.org.uk/learning-platform-2.php
 
Description Learning Platform 3 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Project Learning Platform meeting for Plant Health authroties, commercial companies, other academics and general public. Video shown describing work done in the project and impact.on use of pheromones for detecting invasive pests. Other presentations given and focus group discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Learning Platform 3 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 50 people attended our Learning platform 3 workshop in London. It was an interactive day at which scientists presented videos to demonstrate how their technologies could work in the field and we had good feedback from participants about how technologies could be improved. As a result of this workshop we explored how citizen scientists might experience a biosecurity backlash in a further part of the study. As a result of this workshop scientists made slight modifications to technology development. Connected to this workshop we planned a Biosecurity Innovation conference for March 2017 in York and we are considering making this an annual event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://protectingtreehealth.org.uk/learning-platform-3.php
 
Description Learning Platform Workshop 1 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Interactive stakeholder workshop attended by over 60 tree health practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Learning lab "Import Inspection" Heathrow Airport and Southampton, Port. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting with Inspectors on site, understanding facilities and tasks carried out.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Lecture at ICGEB Theoretical and Practical Course "Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Technique for Rapid Detection of Phytoplasmas" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ICGEB funded course entitled : Theoretical and Practical Course "Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Technique for Rapid Detection of Phytoplasmas"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.icgeb.org/viet-nam-lamp-technique-2015.html
 
Description Metabarcoding meeting CEH Wallingford, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk (Tree disease surveillance: metabarcoding to identify fungi in spore traps) to UK scientists working on metabarcoding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Metabarcoding workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A joint THAPBI metabarcoding workshop was held to share knowledge and skills across three THAPBI projects and with CEH.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description NERC Planet Earth article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Contribution (via interview) to an article entitled 'The future of tree health', published in May 2015 in NERC's Plant Earth magazine. Presented an introduction to all seven of the LWEC TH&PBI projects: Early detection piece as below:

Better biosecurity through technology

An interdisciplinary group led by Dr Rick Mumford of the Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera) is building technologies to help stop pests and pathogens at the border, or at least detect them before they spread too far.

Insects and fungal spores can get to the UK naturally, but many arrive in plant shipments, so monitoring imports is essential. Two technologies will help inspectors at ports: an electronic 'nose' that can detect volatile chemicals emitted by many infected plants; and cameras that pick up subtle disease-induced changes by looking beyond the spectrum of visible light. Both can detect many problems long before they are visible to the naked eye.

Other projects aim to give early warning of pests and diseases in the wild to improve our chances of stopping them getting a foothold. 'Monitoring imports is vital, but it's a thin blue line around the country,' Mumford notes. 'If a new disease gets through it can be several years before we find out, and in that time it can spread a long way. We need better surveillance technology.'

His group aims to create systems that capture fungal spores and test for the DNA of known pathogens; detectors to pick up the genetic material of waterborne diseases like sudden oak death; and smart insect traps that catch invasive species with customised lures and then transmit images to base for identification. The researchers are working with citizen-science experts at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology to create risk maps to guide trap placement, drawing on the expertise of amateur entomologists.

Many of these technologies have already been developed in areas like homeland security, where they're used to detect explosives, drugs and other illegal items. Others are widely-used scientific instruments. The challenge is turning them from research tools into portable devices that are easy for plant inspectors, foresters and others to use in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://planetearth.nerc.ac.uk/features/story.aspx?id=1771&cookieConsent=A
 
Description Newsletter Jan 2016 for LWEC Early detection project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Newsletter summarising activities and inviting participation sent out to whole partnership database
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://protectingtreehealth.org.uk/documents/newsletter-jan-2016.pdf
 
Description Nurseries visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact There was a sociotechnical learning lab visit to nurseries near York to understand the needs of nurseries in early detection of tree pests and pathogens and to explore how our developing technologies might work there.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description OPM Working Group, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Working group to review Defra projects on oak processionary moth (OPM). Contributed to programme; attended by >50 researchers and tree health practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Organisation and hosting of Innovation in Plant Biosecurity Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Major two-day conference organised as part of the early detection project. Hosted by Fera at Sand Hutton in March 2017, this conference attracted over 150 delagates from 10 different countries, with participants including researchers and scientific experts covering plant health, invasive species and detection technologies, alongside policy makers, frontline practitioners e.g. inspectors, NGOs and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://fera.co.uk/agriculture-horticulture/biosecurity.cfm
 
Description Oxford Nanopore London Calling 2016 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given at international meeting talking about the application of next generation sequencing in plant health and crop protection. Included examples of work from TH&PBI Early Detection project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://londoncallingconf.co.uk/lc/2016
 
Description Plant Health and Seeds Inspectors annual technical meeting, Hinckley, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk (Resilience in Plant Health Diagnostics) to 150 inspectors and associated government stakeholders
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at the Fera Biosecurity Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on the Early Detection technologies Learning Platform
Enhancing socio-technological innovation through stakeholder participation in biosecurity technology development

Mariella Marzano, Forest Research (Mariella.marzano@forestry.gsi.gov.uk)
Rehema White, University of St Andrews (rmw11@st-andrews.ac.uk)
Glyn Jones, Fera (glyn.d.jones@fera.co.uk)


Robust science is required to develop new and emerging technologies. However, evidence suggests that socio-technological innovation also demands interactions across academics, end users and those involved in commercial development and marketing. Theoretically, stakeholder engagement can enhance the efficacy of new technologies, increase buy in as well as uptake and improve understanding between groups. Building relationships to increase 'preparedness' can also influence the social acceptability of technologies needed to improve biosecurity responses. We explore the role of stakeholder engagement and social learning in promoting socio-technological innovations through our involvement as social scientists in a research project aiming to bring five early detection technologies closer to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 9 (take off!). Our aims were both pragmatic and intellectual: to underpin the technological development using theoretical frameworks around socio-technological innovations, facilitate stakeholder engagement and ensure project legacy. Through a series of interviews and focus group discussions with scientists and other stakeholders we have identified barriers and opportunities for promoting technological development and tracked 'scientific progress' against adapted Diagnostic Technology Readiness Levels. Whilst it is agreed that stakeholder engagement will benefit socio-technological innovation, it seems that strategic interventions yield more than widescale and opportunistic encounters. It was concluded that collaborative approaches are critical in stimulating effective technology development, but they need resource and support to facilitate researcher-stakeholder dialogue at appropriate stages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation of the concepts and outcomes of the detection technology to BBC Countryfile 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Countryfile programme on Trees and Tree Health interviewed me to learn more about pathogen detection at the borders to prevent future invasive pathogens.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to EPPO conference, Angers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation on stakeholder engagement in technology development and deployment generated useful discussion and led to a recommendation from the biannual EPPO conference to reach all European plant protection organisations and departments. "The importance of social engagement, in particular the need to consider stakeholder involvement, in the development and testing of new technologies, was recognised in order to optimise uptake and longer term collaboration."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://archives.eppo.int/MEETINGS/2015_conferences/testa.htm
 
Description Presentations on the technology to key stakeholders at learning lab 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented the concepts of the detection technology to a group of stakeholders (policy and industry) at a 'learning lab' event at Fera
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presenting the project to New Zealand colleagues 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I am working on a project with SCION in New Zealand that explores the development of technologies for urban pest eradication. I am working with social scientists on social acceptability of technologies. In May 2016 I presented on the Early Detection technologies project at the science day (Scion, Christchurch, New Zealand).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Socio-technological Learning Lab (SLL) - visit to nurseries near York 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Project team visit to Wykeham nurseries, Wykeham mature nurseries and Johnson's of Whixley. The team were introduced to nursery practices and discussions focussed around technology needs for identifying tree pests and diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Socio-technological learning lab Heathrow inspectors 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We were recently lucky enough to be
hosted by the inspectors at Heathrow. We were shown the
pragmatic reality of inspecting, and discussed how new
technologies might increase rather than impede efficacy and
efficiency. We all visited a storage and inspection facility near
the airport and some of us went to see what happens on the
docks at Southampton.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://protectingtreehealth.org.uk/documents/newsletter-jan-2016.pdf
 
Description Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative (THAPBI) final project dissemination conference poster presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A Poster presentation and multi-user 'speed dating' technology talk was presented to the audience of the Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative dissemination event organised by the BBSRC. The poster presented detailed the 'Development of an automated smart trap for detection of Chalara Fraxinea [Hymenoscyphus fraxineus]'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative (THAPBI) final project dissemination event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This event was the final dissemination workshop of the Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative organised by the BBSRC. With keynote speakers including Lord Gardiner or Kimble, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Rural Affairs and Biosecurity and closing remarks by Dr Nicola Spence, Defra Chief Plant Health Officer, this event was an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to engage with the wider community, stakeholders and policy makers to showcase the achievements of the THAPBI programme. The University of Hertfordshire Microfluidics & Microengineering Research Group, under the "New Approaches for the early detection of tree health pests and pathogens" research programme, demonstrated the prototype Integrated automated pathogen collection and detection instrument.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description User engagement forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact As part of the SLL a user enegement workshop was held in Edinburgh where we presented the new technologies and received feed back on this
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description User engagement meeting was set up and attended by the water companies that would use the final instrument 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting was set up between the project partners and water industries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description lecturer on the Basic Aerobiological Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr. Skjoth participated as a lecturer on the Basic Aerobiological Course, Rzeszow 2016 by contributing on the modelling with HYSPLIT focusing on explaining detection of invasive species using airborne detection of pollen and spores.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://ragweed.eu/wp-content/uploads/Training-School_2015_Basic-Aerobiology-Course.pdf
 
Description user engagement forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A user engagement forum was held as part of the projects SLL. This enabled us to get feed back from users on the technologies that we are developing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015