ANIHWA CALL1:Improved Understanding of Epidemiology of PPR (IUEPPR)

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: Livestock Viral Diseases

Abstract

PPR is an economically important disease, especially affecting the household economy of the poorest people, affecting mainly domestic sheep and goats in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Its causative agent is a Morbillivirus closely related to rinderpest virus (RPV) which has just been eradicated, the first-ever animal virus eradicated And the second after smallpox virus. PPR virus (PPRV) infects a wide host range of cloven hoofed animals of the families Bovidae, Cervidae and Suidae, e.g. African buffalo Syncerus caffer, antelopes, deer, wild goat, sheep deer and pigs(Kock et al., 2006, 2008; Furley 1987; Abubakar et al., 2011). Many of these species are highly endangered (IUCN Red List 2012), especially those from mountainous and arid regions, where small livestock predominate. It is spreading rapidly despite availability of effective vaccines and diagnostic tests for PPR control. It is now in Turkey at the gateway to the European Union and threatening southern Africa. The failure to manage PPR is perhaps, linked to both cessation of RPV vaccination which was cross protective and widely used in domestic sheep and goats and inattention to the small livestock sector. Historically, PPR spill-over from infected domestic sheep and goats was observed in wild artiodactyls kept in fenced enclosures in the Middle East. More recently, natural infection was reported in free-ranging wildlife, notably in
bharal in Tibet (Bao et al., 2011 & 2012), ibex in Pakistan (Abubakar et al., 2011& 2012), and wild goats in Kurdistan (Hoffmann et al., 2012). All these wildlife outbreaks were associated with PPR-infected livestock. The role of wildlife in PPR epidemiology remains unclear (Banyard et al., 2010). It is not known whether wildlife contributes to the local transmission, spread and maintenance of PPRV, thus possibly linking otherwise separate livestock grazing areas (Baron et al., 2011).
PPRV wildlife data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Diagnostic tools for PPR surveillance exist but they are not able to detect field infection rapidly, precluding rapid control and rapid field tests, such as Lateral Flow Devices and Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), need to be developed and validated. A challenge is accessing wildlife samples, for technical and related costs. Current methods require animal capture for sampling. Recent success in obtaining antibody and virus antigen from faeces in livestock (Abubakar et al., 2012) suggest that this method might be applicable in wildlife. Urgent attention is needed at the borders of the pandemic. Turkey is the closest country to Europe that has reported outbreaks of PPR (though disease is less widespread in European Turkey in comparison to Asian Turkey, there were 20 laboratory confirmed PPR outbreaks reports in domestic sheep and goats in European Turkey 2011-2012). It hosts the same community of wild ruminants as Europe including representatives from the Caprinae (wild goats, chamois) and Cervidae. Wild goats are of high interest as the ancestor of the domestic goats; Cervidae (roe deer, red deer) are of importance because they are the most widespread and abundant wild ruminants in Europe. Theses wild ruminants might play the role of bridge species for PPRV transmission between distant populations of
infected and health domestic sheep and goats populations. Research is urgently needed to clarify the epidemiology of PPR in wildlife species and populations (Munir, 2013), including genomic, virulence and field eco-epidemiological studies, crucial to establish an efficient and effective control strategy for PPRV.

Technical Summary

PPR is an economically important disease, especially affecting the household economy of the poorest people, affecting mainly domestic sheep and goats in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Its causative agent is a Morbillivirus closely related to rinderpest virus (RPV).
In RPV eradication, wildlife proved to be prime sentinels after the initiation of the continental vaccination programme and the use of a similar strategy for PPRV requires the preliminary identification of wildlife sentinels and of the habitats and season of wildlife-livestock interface. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial N and F genes of circulating PPRV allows for them to be grouped into 4 lineages. However, full genome analysis by new generation sequencing (NGS) may provide more in-depth molecular epidemiological information, and insights into the evolution and spread of PPRV. It has already revealed the increasing prominence of PPRV Asian lineage IV affecting domestic species (including camels) in Africa (Kwiatek, 2011; Khalafalla et al., 2010), and in wildlife in Asia (Abubakar et al., 2011). High mortality observed in these outbreaks suggests a change in PPRV pathogenicity. Diagnostic tools for PPR surveillance exist but they are not able to detect field infection rapidly, precluding rapid control and rapid field tests, such as Lateral Flow Devices and Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), need to be developed and validated. Research is urgently needed to clarify the epidemiology of PPR in wildlife species and populations (Munir, 2013), including genomic, virulence and field eco-epidemiological studies, crucial to establish an efficient and effective control strategy for PPRV. Through this project, data will be collected on the epidemiology and risk factors related to PPR infected livestock and wildlife in study locations and from experimental infections. Using these data SEIR and diffusion models and high resolution transmission trees will be developed.

Planned Impact

PPR is an important cause of loss of productivity and due to its spread is considered to be the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. Research is urgently needed to clarify the epidemiology of PPR in wildlifespecies and populations, including genomic, virulence and field eco-epidemiological studies, crucial to establish an efficient and effective control strategy for PPRV. The proposed IUEPPR project will address the issues by bringing together major players in PPR research throughout Europe, Turkey and Africa including two world reference laboratories for PPR (CIRAD and Pirbright). Through this project, data will be collected on the epidemiology and risk factors related to PPR infected livestock and wildlife in study locations and from experimental infections. Using these data SEIR and diffusion models and high resolution transmission trees will be developed by high profile modellers and bioinformaticians from RVC and CIRAD to represent local PPRV transmission at the interface between wild and domestic livestock populations, as well as long-distance PPRV spread and this will contribute to further risk analysis on PPR.
The epidemiological data generated from this project will be of benefit to many stakeholders with an interest in improved PPR control. This includes vaccine manufacturers, policy makers and livestock industries. Better PPR control will increase productivity and export potential for global livestock industries improving international food security. The UN estimate that world food production will have to increase by 50% by 2030 to meet demand caused by population increases and rising prosperity and to double by 2050 to feed an anticipated population of 9 billion. Improved epidemiology, diagnosis of PPR will also help national and international agencies, such as Defra, the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and the Food and Agriculture Office (FAO) of the UN, in their work to develop sustainable PPR control strategies.
Staff working on the project will gain research and professional skills. Research training will include a broad range of molecular virology and immunology techniques. Transferable professional skills will include writing and presentation skills for both academic and non-academic audiences, and time and management tools.
Communication of the findings from the research will be undertaken by presentation at conferences, peer reviewed publications, presentations at farming events; discussions with veterinary officers; and via the web-sites and communications offices of the Pirbright Institute and other European partners (CIRAD France, FLI, Germany, SVA, Sweden and IAEA, Austria).All partners within the consortium have the responsibility to ensure dissemination of project results.

The Pirbright Institute has a product development pipeline which ensures early identification and protection of Intellectual Property. Genecom is the Pirbright Institute commercialisation partner and provides documentation and advice on agreements relating to research results, collaborations and exploitation.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description 1. Transboundary movement of PPR virus has been shown in central Asia. This is helping PPR control strategy in the region.
2. We proved that spill over of PPR virus usually happens from domesticated animals to wildlife. Therefore if the vaccination will be carried forward for domestic animals at the interface, the wildlife will be free of infection.This will help on the control/eradication strategy of PPR.
3. We have shown that nasal swab is the best sample for the detection of PPRV.
4.Further we have developed a field based PCR ( LAMP) for the use at Pen-side to detect PPR virus nucleotide which will tremendously help for quick detection of PPRV outbreaks in the field, so that preventive measure could be adapted as quick as possible to avoid further spread.
5.Our recent research in East Africa in Uganda indicates an epidemiological linkage between epizootic cycles in livestock and exposure in wildlife, denoting the importance of PPR surveillance on wild artiodactyls for both conservation and eradication programs.
6. In the Innovate UK grant which had been originated from this Anihwa grant, we have recently developed two field based qpcr for for FMD and PPR from the crude swab materials without the requirement of RNA extraction.
Exploitation Route 1. We proved that spill over of PPR virus usually happens from domesticated animals to wildlife. Therefore if the policy makers plan to vaccinate domestic animals at the interface, the wildlife will be free of infection.This will help on the control/eradication strategy of PPR.
2. The field based PCR should be validated to be used as pen-side tests.Also multiplex assay need to be be developed for differential diagnosis work.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description Transboundary movement of PPR virus has been shown in central Asia. This is helping PPR control strategy in the region. Role of wild life for spreading PPR to targeted animals (domestic small ruminants) is studied and the study is further on going in different African countries.This revealed that spill over of PPR virus usually happens from domesticated animals to wildlife. Therefore if the vaccination will be carried forward for domestic animals at the interface, the wildlife will be free of infection.This will help on the control/eradication strategy of PPR. As we have recently published the best method of PPR virus detection from nasal excretions and showed virus can be detected early and late phase of infection, it will help to save the expense to avoid collection of number of samples. this will save time and money. Further we have developed a field based PCR ( LAMP) for the use at Pen-side to detect PPR virus nucleotide which will tremendously help for quick detection of PPRV outbreaks in the field, so that preventive measure could be adapted as quick as possible to avoid further spread. Our recent research in East Africa in Uganda indicates an epidemiological linkage between epizootic cycles in livestock and exposure in wildlife, denoting the importance of PPR surveillance on wild artiodactyls for both conservation and eradication programs.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Development and Evaluation of PPR DIVA vaccines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease, severely affects small ruminants in almost 70 countries in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia. It causes USD 1.5 to 2 billion in losses each year in regions that are home to over 80% of the world's sheep and goats and to more than 330 million of the world's poorest people, many of whom depend on them for their livelihoods. The estimated current expenditure on PPR vaccination ranges between USD 270 and 380 million. The annual impact of PPR alone may be valued at between USD 1.45 and 2.1 billion per year. Approximately a third of the global financial burden of PPR is borne by Africa, with a further quarter borne by South Asia. This burden will be removed with the successful eradication of PPR. The undiscounted costs for a fifteen-year Global control Strategy of FAO and OIE are between USD 7.6 and 9.1 billion, with the first five years costing between USD 2.5 and 3.1 billion. (http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4460e.pdf). PPR is currently controlled by vaccination using mainly two live attenuated PPRV vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96). However, the current vaccines and serological tests are unable to enable Differentiation between naturally Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). This factor precludes meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn reducing the efficiency of control programmes. Therefore, it is almost impossible to assess the quality and efficacy of existing PPR vaccines without knowing whether positive animals are vaccinated or naturally infected. Unlike rinderpest, where cattle and buffalo were primary hosts, in PPR, new crops (about 30-40%) of lambs and kids are produced every year and are the most susceptible population to bring back new PPR outbreaks6&7. Therefore, it is likely that the cycle of vaccinations and PPR outbreaks will continue until and unless we reach the stage of 80-90% herd immunity. Therefore, development of a marker vaccine and associated DIVA diagnostics will enable the assessment of vaccine efficacy which is essential for any successful vaccination campaign. https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-peste-des-petits-ruminant The availability of a recombinant PPRV vaccine with a proven functionality is a prerequisite for the development of novel vaccines that may enable the development of DIVA tools for PPRV diagnostics. In the DBT-BBSRC FADH BB/L004801/1 grant we have rescued Sungri 96 and Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strains. Both the vaccine strains were rescued from respective synthetic c-DNA clones with mutations in the variable part of C terminus of the nucleocapsid (N) gene similar to Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) to enable negative marker DIVA vaccines. These two DIVA vaccines along with parental vaccines have been recently tested in a pilot studies in goats. Both the DIVA and parent vaccines provided safety, stability and protection for vaccinated goats whereas the control animals were clinically infected. Patent applications have been made to protect these DIVA vaccines. Agreements are being done with vaccine industries for the licensing and commercialisation.
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/press-releases/2018/09/pirbright-collaboration-provides-tools-peste-des-...
 
Description PPR virus spillover from domestic ruminats to wildlife.
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Citation in clinical reviews
 
Description Press release on threat of PPR to Europe
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact We have press released in May 2018 and the PPR out break, first in Europe main land, Happened in June-July 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/press-releases/2017/05/peste-des-petits-ruminants-neglected-disease-whic...
 
Description Quantifying Levels of Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus in Excretions from Experimentally Infected Goats and Its Importance for Nascent PPR Eradication Programme
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact This publication highlight the sample types to be used in the PPR eradication programme to detect the viral genome. Therefore without invasive sampling nasal swabs can be taken from the body of the infected animal for the detection of viral nucleotides. Also this publication highlight the pick period of virus excretion which shows the most probale period of virus transmission to the in contact animals. The manuscript has been sent to FAP and PPR secretariat and received well appreciation that the work will be helpful for eradication programme.
 
Description Development of multispecies validated serology protocols for complex ecosystems, focused on East Africa, in support of Global PPR eradication
Amount £697,673 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T015381/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 03/2021
 
Description GCRF Foundation Award
Amount £564,621 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P023002/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 05/2019
 
Description Investigating the feasibility of adapting a direct PCR diagnostics approach to in-field animal testing
Amount £864,356 (GBP)
Funding ID 104623 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 04/2020
 
Title Field LAMP assay to detect PPRV nucleotide at Pen-side 
Description Field LAMP assay to detect PPRV nucleotide at Pen-side is an easy method to detect PPRV infection at the field. This will immensely help in the ongoing eradication programme. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact There will be no need to send the samples to international reference laboratory which is expensive and many times the sample is putrefied during the shipment due to shortage of dry ice. This will save money and sample can be diagnosed at the spot , so the preventive measure can be taken forward ASAP. 
 
Title Identified the best sampling material for the PPR virus genome detection 
Description Quantifying the DNA from all the body fluids of PPR virus infected goats we demonstrated that non-invasive nasal samples are the best material for the genome detection as virus appears as early as 2 days post infection before any clinical signs appear and the virus detection linger for this sample type than any other sample. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact As we have shown the best sample type for the detection of PPR virus, we have not to do many sample analysis which save the money and effort during the eradication programme. 
 
Title NGS for PPR virus whole genome sequencing 
Description We have finalised a protocol to sequence the whole genome of PPR virus 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method has been described and shard with project partners and a draft has been written for publishing the methods 
 
Title Non-invassive sampling 
Description We have shown that faecal sample could be used for the detection of viral genome. Also we have shown the best sampling material for the detection of PPR virus. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Non-invasive faecal sampling will avoid capturing of wildlife in the national parks. 
 
Description Anihwa Call 1 
Organisation French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developed PCR to detect PPR viral genome in faecal samples for experimentally infected animals.
Collaborator Contribution Developed PCR and antigen ELISA to detect PPR viral genome in faecal samples for field animals including wild life.
Impact Please see publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description Anihwa Call 1 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution 1. Conducted challenge experiments in goats to study pathogenicity. 2. Developed NGS technology to sequence PPR whole genome.
Collaborator Contribution FLI has conducted transmission study between different species ( Goats, pig, camel). For the first time they showed that pigs are clinically infected by PPR virus.
Impact Joint Publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description Anihwa Call 1 
Organisation International Atomic Energy Agency
Country Austria 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution 1. Phylogenetic analysis and whole genome sequencing
Collaborator Contribution 1.Phylogenetic analysis and whole genome sequencing
Impact Joint publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description Anihwa Call 1 
Organisation Kimron Veterinary Institute
Country Israel 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution 1.Analysed evolution of PPR viruses from 1993 to 2017 circulating in Israel by conducting whole genome sequencing and Bayesian analysis .
Collaborator Contribution Submitted virus to Pirbright
Impact Joint publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Bareilly 
Organisation Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution 1. Development of PPR DIVA vaccine and DIVA tests 2. Early pathogenesis study
Collaborator Contribution Development of Biosensor diagnostic assay for PPR
Impact Joint publications. Sharing of knowledge.
Start Year 2014
 
Description LVRI, China 
Organisation Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute
Country China 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution 1.Established contact. 2. Exchange of visits between scientists.
Collaborator Contribution 1.Established contact. 2. Exchange of visits between scientists.
Impact Exchange of visits. Delivered talk on FMD and PPR vaccines. Agreed to apply for future grant call.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Delivered a lead talk and chaired a session at VIROCON international conference, New Delhi on Early events on PPRV pathogenesis- February 18-20, 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a lead talk at VIROCON international conference, New Delhi on Early events on PPRV pathogenesis- February 18-20, 2020. This parks questions and discussions after the talk. The scientists working on other morbilliviruses, example on Measles were keen to know the new fact I delivered that PPRV primarily infect immune cells in pharyngeal tonsil, but not in the epithelium of respiratory tract as believed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Delivered a lead talk at Indian Association of Vetrinary Microbiology and Immunology ( IAVMI) at IVRI, Bareilly on PPR and FMD control by vaccination- February 6-7th, 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a lead talk at Indian Association of Vetrinary Microbiology and Immunology ( IAVMI) at IVRI, Bareilly on PPR and FMD control by vaccination- February 6-7th, 2020. Further attended the panel meeting with FMD vaccine producers and FMD scientists at PDFMD and IVRI Bangalore to recommend Govt of India for the future control of FMD. Suggested boosting of the first dose FMDV vaccinated animals which will stimulate the immunity up to the second biannual vaccination to avoid any window for infection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Delivered an invited talk on Epidemiology of PPR at wildlife Arusha, Tanzania - 22.10.10-26.10.19 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Delivered an invited talk on PPR epidemiology at wildlife Arusha, Tanzania - 22.10.10-26.10.19
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Expert group meeting for PPR eradication at head quarters of WHO, Vienna, Austria, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In the FAO/PPR eradication meeting satya has presented work on PPR epidemiology and diagnosis. The talk was designed for the stakeholders and policy make to make aware on important points that are required for eradication of PPR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Faculty talk at IVRI, India in PPR DIVA vaccine and DIVA tests development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Satya Parida delivered an invited talk on PPR DIVA vaccine development using reverse genetics technique. Scientists and post graduate students were enjoyed the talk which sparked many questions and discussions afterwards and the joint Director of IVRI expressed interest on the work and further meetings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Final IUEPPR Anihwa Call meeting at SVA,Sweden, October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The final project meeting was conducted at SVA, Sweden. Partners presented the progress under this grant which was satisfactory. The final report writing was discussed. New application to EU call are planned.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Inception meeting for a Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) Global Research Translation Awards, 12.11.2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Inception meeting for a Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) Global Research Translation Awards, 12.11.2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Initiation of a mass vaccination campain ( 2018) in TamilNadu, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scientists from The Pirbright Institute's Vaccine Differentiation group have recently returned from Chennai in India, where they conducted a mass peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination campaign and awareness programme. They joined scientists from four specialist organisations; Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (NIAB) and National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI).
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), also known as goat plague, is highly contagious and infects small ruminants such as sheep and goats, causing up to 90% mortality. The disease is prevalent across large parts of Africa, the Middle East, India and China and is estimated to cost between US$1.4 billion and US$2.1 billion globally each year. In 2017, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) introduced a global eradication programme to reduce the devastating impact PPR has on the economy and food security of affected countries.
"Over 40 vets joined our vaccination campaign in the Tanir Kulum village of Tiruvallur District, TaminNadu (close to Chennai), where we administered vaccines to over 400 sheep and goats in a single day. We also ran an awareness camp where we provided farmers and vets alike with expert guidance on diagnosing clinical signs of PPR and what measures they could take to reduce its spread", said Professor Satya Parida from Pirbright, who led the collaborative effort with Dr Dhinakar Raj from TANUVAS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Invited faculty talk at Ryal veterinary College (RVC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Delivered an invited faculty talk on Epidemiology and pathology of PPR. Sparked questions and discussions afterwards and RVC reported increased interest in this subjects. Satya has been appointed as a visiting Professor at RVC after that.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk at Agricultural Science congress at New Delhi, India, February-2019- Use of reverse genetics to study the early pathogenesis and to develop marker vaccines for PPR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 1. In a DBT-BBSRC FADH grant, The Pirbright Institute in collaboration with four Indian partners (TANUVAS, IVRI, NIAB and NIVEDI) has developed a PPR vaccine, which will be the first to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), for which a patent application has been filed. Scientists have manipulated in the genome of PPR full length cDNA and rescued the DIVA vaccine virus using reverse genetic technique. Further this vaccine has been tested in goats providing full safety and potency upon virulent virus challenge. In contrast to current vaccine, this new DIVA vaccine can differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated animals, therefore will help in meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn increasing the efficiency of control programmes.
2. Little is known about the early events in the development of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus (PPRV) infection. The current dogma is that similar to RPV, PPRV replicates primarily in the epithelium of the respiratory tract before disseminating throughout the host. However, our investigations, using intranasal inoculation of PPRV containing GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) to mimic natural infection, indicate this is not the case and that immune cells in the pharyngeal tonsil is the primary target. This is a ground breaking discovery which changes the PPR pathogenesis. This infectious GFP virus is made from a synthetic cDNA of field virus (PPRV/Mor-08) using reverse genetics technique under FADH grant.
The presentation sparked questions and discussions after the talk. Two PPR DIVA vaccines developed and the mechanism of PPR virus pathogenesis explained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk on Epidemiology and vaccine development using reverse genetics techniques at Institute of Life science, Bhubaneswar India. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk on Epidemiology and vaccine development using reverse genetics techniques at Institute of Life science, Bhubaneswar India delivered on 5th of Feb, 2018. Students and scientists were encouraged to take forward the approach for human disease and some request obtained to visit our lab at the Pirbright, Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk on epidemiology of PPR at CAHEC, QUINGDAO, China at regional OIE meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion on PPR spread worldwide and its divergence was discussed in the OIE regional meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited talk to deliver at SEOC ( Spanish Vaterinary Society) and small ruminant research forum, Spain on threat of PPR to Euorope 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Due to recent spread of PPR in north Africa there is a threat of PPR to Europe. A clear discussion was made and an manuscript has been published on this talk in small ruminant journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Oral and poster presentation at European Society of veterinary Virology and EPIZONE (ESVV/EPIZONE) at Vienna, Austria 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation has been made on early events of PPR virus pathogenesis. The presentation reveled that PPR virus first taken up by the immune cells to the Pharyngeal tonsil and then to other lymph nodes before generalisation of the disease. Secondary replication happens in epithelial cells. This alters the existing believe that virus primarily replicate in the epithelial cells.
Similarly a poster presentation has been done to show the detection of nucleic acid of PPR virus during PPR eradication programme, nasal sample has been shown as the best sample for viral genome detection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PPR eradication meeting organised by FAO and OIE at Rome and talk has been delived on Development of DIVA vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Satya Parida is working as an expert to PPR eradication and he is being invited for few of FAO/OIE meetings. The meetings discussed about roadmap, vaccine production capacity and eradication policy.
Satya also presented work on PPR DIVA vaccine and DIVA tests developments and their evaluation in goats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PPR vaccine producers meeting at MCI, Morocco organised by FAO/OIE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact PPR vaccine producers meeting at MCI, Morocco organised by FAO/OIE. Almost all PPR vaccine producers through out world joined this meeting. Satya Parida has presented a talk on vaccine development and transmission of PPR virus in North Africa. There was hues interest on the talk particularly the spread of PPR in North Africa and new vaccine development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Poster presentation by PhD student and seior postdoc at SGM meeting and Negative Strand Virus (NSV) meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The work on early events on Pathogenesis of PPR virus has been presented that showed PPR virus primarily replicates in Tonsils, not in the mucosal epithelium as thought till date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Project close meeting at TANUVAS, Chennai July 2018- Delivering talk on outcome of the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team held their final workshop at TANUVAS, which concluded a four year Farmed Animal Disease and Health (FADH) grant joint funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Indian Government's Department of Biotechnology (DBT). "This grant has enabled us to collaborate with four organisations across India, and ensured that our research can be applied in the field to aid the campaign for PPR global eradication", said Professor Parida.The project covered many areas of research which are essential for understanding PPR and creating tools to help control and prevent the disease. The team have now filed a patent application for their newly developed PPR vaccine, which is the first to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) - a quality that enables livestock owners to protect their animals whilst continuing to trade.
The team have also investigated how the PPR virus (PPRV) infects sheep and goats and how their immune systems respond. By inserting green fluorescent protein into virulent PPRV and administering the modified virus to goats, they demonstrated that PPRV primarily infects the tonsils, challenging the earlier belief that the virus first replicates in the respiratory tract epithelial cells. The collaborative project has also generated better diagnostic tests for use in the field and laboratory, and preliminary research has identified why some Indian breeds of goats and sheep are resistant to the disease, which could help scientists to create PPRV resistant breeds in the future.
Project partners, scientists from the University and 40 field veterinarians have joined the meeting. An awareness training has been conducted on PPR disease and eradication for these field veterinarians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description The peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) Global Research and Expertise Network (GREN) meeting. Presented work on the future eradication of PPRV, 13-15.11.2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) Global Research and Expertise Network (GREN) meeting. Presented work on the future eradication of PPRV, 13-15.11.2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://rr-asia.oie.int/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/200622_ppr-gren-2-nairobi-november-2019-final-com...
 
Description Two PPR work shops organised at CIRAD, France and FLI, Berlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Workshop on PPR diagnosis, transmission, molecular epidemiology and surveillance in wildlife had been carried forward.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017