NanoLiquid

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Holloway, University of London
Department Name: Biological Sciences

Abstract

All biochemical processes, chemical reactions and physical transitions obey the laws of thermodynamics. Therefore, calorimetry provides a universal means for monitoring the rate of any chemical, physical or biological processes. A range of applications of calorimetry exceeds that for virtually any other modern analytical technique. The general tendency in modern calorimetry and thermal analysis is the reduction of the size of sample and the increase in sensitivity and resolution of measuring time and temperature. Calorimetry has been applied to a highly diverse range of targets used at a variety of scales from whole-body calorimetry down to sub-nanoliter sample volumes. Despite the general tendency towards miniaturisation, simply scaling down traditional calorimetric techniques, although beneficial for material sciences, may not work well for biological objects, which cannot always be scaled down to suit instrument size or taken out of their natural environment. One of the key challenges is therefore to be able to probe the thermodynamics of biological objects, e.g. individual cells, cell compartments or individual organelles and, ultimately individual molecules, such as enzymes, without removing them from their macroscopic environment and preferably remotely, without using artificially introduced markers or inserting any sensors into such cells or organelles.

In this project we aim to develop a high frequency hybrid AC/DC modulated liquid nanocalorimeter instrument capable of real-time and label-free analysis and suitable for the analysis of ultra-small quantities of biological material (of the order of few nanograms and below, which is orders of magnitude improvement over currently available commercial instruments) or the material localised within 10-100 nm of the surface of sensor chip even in bulk samples. Such capability should enable studying cellular metabolic processes and thermodynamics of molecular interactions and biochemical processes at cellular and sub-cellular levels, in the locality of the sensor even in the bulk samples. Such capability has not been achieved or reported previously.

Our approach is fundamentally different from the general trend followed by many researchers and instrument manufacturers where the aim is to MINIATURISE THE SAMPLE and then to conduct bulk calorimetry measurements (of the whole of the miniaturised sample). Such approach suits well material sciences but is not suitable for liquid biological samples. Contrary to that general trend we aim to build an instrument for measuring local thermal properties in the defined vicinity of the miniaturised sensor, irrespective of the overall sample/object size. Our approach is therefore ultimately suitable for biological objects, which cannot be taken out of their native biological environment or be miniaturised to suit instrument limitations. The instrument will be suitable for a wide range of applications in fundamental and applied biosciences, biomedical research. Our measurement principle should allow the development of universal miniaturised implantable calorimetric sensors.

Technical Summary

Fast, reliable and ultra-sensitive thermal characterisation platform suitable for both in vitro and in vivo experiments is of utmost importance for large number of applications in biology, medicine, pharmaceutical industries as well as security applications. Despite the widespread and growing use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in life sciences these techniques are usually limited to in vitro measurements, employ large quantities of biological material taken out of its natural environment, and simplified model experimental reaction conditions. Only a handful of dedicated in vivo studies have been published, mostly employing macroscopic preparations of bacterial cultures, whilst commercial liquid calorimetry instruments are limited to sub-millilitre volumes.

Contrary to the common trend, we do not aim to miniaturise the sample, instead we aim to utilise localized thermal wave propagation phenomena to limit the measurement area to the defined locality of the sensor, irrespective of the overall sample size. Exciting a sample by a periodic heat source, for example using a sinusoidal power oscillation, causes temperature oscillations inside the sample, which have the same mathematical expression as highly damped waves. The finite speed of thermal signals means that the depth of penetration of such thermal waves into the medium will depend on the thermal conductivity of the medium and the frequency of such signals, hence can be controlled and monitored. Having achieved ~ 1 ng sensitivity in the dry mode (some 6 orders of magnitude improvement compared to commercial instruments), we are confident that the same measurement approach should result in an equivalent improvement when used in liquid mode. The expected reduction in sensitivity because of the dumping of AC signal will be compensated by further reduction in the thermal mass of the sensor, galvanic insulation and the adjustment of readout principles.

Planned Impact

It is highly likely that combining new measurement approach with the improved sensor design will yield totally new nanocalorimetry instrument capable of analysing biological samples including in their natural bulk liquid environment. The new tool should boost a wide range of fundamental and applied multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research in life sciences, but also in material sciences and physics. The NanoLiquid project is poised to further strengthen UK pharmaceutical industry, which is one of the UK's top exporters. The new measurement platform will promote our own research into protein folding, protein-protein interaction and protein engineering and will further our academic goals. Given the potential of label-free real-time localised thermodynamics analysis for huge number of biochemical, biomedical and biophysical applications, the development and implementation of high frequency hybrid AC/DC liquid nanocalorimeter should be considered a priority task.

The sensor readout principle and sensor design will be the principle exploitable intellectual property (IP) generated from this study. Royal Holloway London has a policy of actively identifying, protecting and commercialising generated IP, which it believes to be of value. The Research and Enterprise department is specifically set to undertake this activity on the College's behalf, including filing patent applications in the College's name where appropriate and deciding the best commercialisation route. To the end, it works with a variety of organisations to ensure that this IP is commercially exploited in such a way as to realise its maximum potential. For the purposes of this project, it is expected that Royal Holloway Research and Enterprise will lead on the exploitation of the IP. Recent examples of joint patent applications negotiated by the College and involving IP generated by Dr Soloviev (PI) with collaborators form MRC-LMB Cambridge are factual proofs of the robustness of the operating procedures adhered to by Royal Holloway Research and Enterprise.

The dissemination of our results will be done, in first instance, through publication in refereed journals of international prestige, after clearing with the Research and Enterprise (IP and priority issues). Because of the short duration, technology oriented nature of this project and the likelihood of generating valuable IP, we envisage exploiting direct route where our proof of principle data will be communicated directly to representatives from biopharmaceutical industry and capital investors. In the course of previous work Dr Soloviev established a number of contacts with pharma companies. This was further helped by the existence of focused funding and the expertise of the Research and Enterprise staff, who were able to quickly contact hundreds of relevant company representatives and departments offering licensing opportunities.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We developed and tested an instrument for fast and ultra-sensitive thermal characterisation of materials. The new capabilities include ca 100 to 1000 fold increase in sensitivity compared to traditional commercial DSC instruments (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer) and ca 10 fold increase compared to similar chip-based commercial instruments (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo), and a unique ability to study small sub-microgram samples and surface sensing capability even in bulk media. Such capability is not available elsewhere in the UK or internationally. Despite the widespread and growing use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in life sciences these techniques are usually limited to in vitro measurements, employ large quantities of biological material taken out of its natural environment, and simplified model experimental reaction conditions. Only a handful of dedicated in vivo studies have been published, mostly employing macroscopic preparations of bacterial cultures, whilst commercial liquid calorimetry instruments are limited to sub-millilitre volumes.
The new platform should be suitable for both in vitro and in vivo experiments and will find many used and applications in biology, medicine, pharmaceutical industries as well as security applications.
The instrument is being tested and validation experiments have been completed.
Exploitation Route We envisage positive impact on interdisciplinary collaborations and following the completion of the project four key outputs: testing of the concept of high frequency AC modulated localised sensing principle, the sensor design and the working prototype of the instrument; and the new instrument validation data and experimental protocols obtained using relevant model biological systems. This was a short 18 month funding aimed at instrument development. We have now constructed second unit to facilitate collaborative research and adapted the instrument for use with biological samples to allow Life Science applications.
Sectors Chemicals,Creative Economy,Electronics,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Other

 
Description The 18-month long project was funded by BBSRC (Tools & Resources Development fund) and finished in December 2015. We are in the process of drafting papers and considering patent applications. The new instrument provides improved sensitivity compared to commercially available DSC instruments (10 to 1000 fold increase). The instrument provides AC mode in addition to DSC mode, such capability is not available in commercial chip-based calorimeters (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo). New instrument provides surface sensing capability even in bulk medium, such capability is not available elsewhere. We are in the process of drafting papers for publication and considering patent applications. We have informed scientific community at two events (New Materials and Developments in Sensor Technologies meeting organised by AAMG group of the RSC, London, UK, 18th June 2014 and Nanothermal Measurement and Heat Transport workshop held on 15-16 December 2015. Department of Physics, University of York). 2018 update: The instrument developed in this "Tools and resources development fund" yielded an interesting outcome (work in progress) that might result in a new way of achieving targeted and stimuli-responsive delivery of molecular therapeutics. Although at very early stages of work the potential benefits have attracted interest form Medical professional (Ashford and StPeters Hospital NHS). If proven successful new stimuli-responsive targeted delivery of therapeutics might provide beneficial to about one in 1,000 people in the UK.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Chemicals,Creative Economy,Electronics,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Other
Impact Types Economic

 
Description BBSRC DTP studentship funding through Imperial Collewge-Royal Holloway DTP partnership
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2019
 
Description BBSRC REP summer studentship funding
Amount £2,500 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 08/2017
 
Description RSC Analytical Chemistry Summer Studentships (ACSS)
Amount £1,520 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Society of Chemistry 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 08/2015
 
Title Nanocalorimeter instrument, dry mode 
Description A new instrument has been built for the analysis of thermal properties of polymers, as a step to meet the objective of the project to test commercial gas sensor chips and the concept of high frequency AC modulated localised sensing by utilising modified commercial calorimeter sensors in dry and wet modes. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The project has started less than 6 months ago and we successfully met first milestone of the current project, this allowed progression toward the next milestone. The new instrument was built by the project PDRA employed on this project. The instrument is in the School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London. 
 
Title Nanocalorimeter instrument, wet mode, liquid cell, new uses: thermal desorption to control molecular interactions 
Description A Nanocalorimeter instrument suitable for the analysis of sub-microgram (nanogram) quantities of dry or liquid materials has been created during a 18-month long project funded by BBSRC (Tools & Resources Development fund, finished in December 2015). The instrument relies on the concept of high frequency AC modulated localised sensing by utilising modified commercial calorimeter sensors in dry and wet modes. Most recently a liquid cell was designed and tested for use with the instrument. Combining the high sensitivity and AC mode detection enables surface sensing capability in bulk liquid media, including conductive media (e.g. water based). This capability was not previously possible. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Additional Impact 1: A further advance in fundamental nano-bio-sciences research through the development of new cross-disciplinary approaches and innovative methodologies. Additional Impact 2: Liquid cell combined with a nanocalorimeter sensor possesses the properties of both sensor and actuator and is especially suitable for use with temperature-sensitive self assembling/disassembling molecular devices. 
 
Title Nanocalorimeter instrument, wet mode, local mode, bulk mode 
Description A new instrument suitable for the analysis of sub-microgram (nanogram) quantities of dry or liquid materials has been built and validated. The instrument relies on the concept of high frequency AC modulated localised sensing by utilising modified commercial calorimeter sensors in dry and wet modes. The instrument provides improved sensitivity compared to commercially available DSC instruments. The instrument provides AC mode in addition to DSC mode, such capability is not available in commercial chip-based calorimeters (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo). New instrument provides surface sensing capability even in bulk medium, such capability is not available elsewhere. A new sensor chip has been designed and micro manufactured using electron-beam facilities (Department of Physics, Royal Holloway). The sensor is currently undergoing further tests. The 18-month long project was funded by BBSRC (Tools & Resources Development fund) and finished in December 2015. We are in the process of drafting papers and considering patent applications. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Impact 1: Advance in fundamental nano-bio-sciences research through the development of new cross-disciplinary approaches and innovative methodologies. The range and versatility of calorimetry applications exceeds that of virtually any other modern bioanalytical technique. However, few existing commercial instruments are suitable for use with biological samples and none allow localised thermal analysis of ultra-small quantities of material in bulk samples. Impact 2: The development of new equipment will bring about a step-change advancement in new interdisciplinary biosciences. Our technology has applications beyond traditional calorimetry. Nanocalorimetry sensors combine the properties of both sensor and actuator and should allow both studying and manipulating objects, e.g. cellular metabolism or engineering biological processes at cellular level, or constructing a bi-directional computer-cell interface. Impact 3: The commercialisation and exploitation of scientific knowledge, leading to the creation of new processes, products and services. This focused Tools and Resources Development Fund will aid in developing new instrument and the associated know-how to allow a range of commercially exploitable routes. Impact 4: Contributing to increasing public awareness and understanding of science. NanoLiquid project is especially suitable for promoting public engagement. Incandescent light provides an excitingly simple example of a device which is both sensor and actuator and will help demonstrate the principles and application of the new technology. The instrument provides improved sensitivity compared to commercially available DSC instruments. Ultimately ~ 10 fold increase in sensitivity. The instrument provides AC mode in addition to DSC mode, such capability is not available in commercial chip-based calorimeters (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo). New instrument provides surface sensing capability even in bulk medium, such capability is not available elsewhere. 
 
Description CNRS 
Organisation National Center for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS)
Department Institute of Materials Science of Mulhouse
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The project has started less than 6 months ago and no material contribution has yet been provided. We have contributed to the publication (already submitted and accepted)
Collaborator Contribution Provided know-how and designs of the earlier version of gas Nanocalorimeter - the original gas AC/DC nanocalorimeter prototype.
Impact Joint publication (2014); new instrument built in the School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London. Multidisciplinary: life sciences, material sciences, physical sciences, electronic engineering, software engineering. The project has only recently commenced (June 2014) and we expect four key outputs from the project. The first is the testing of the concept of high frequency AC modulated localised sensing principle to back up this project which is a genuine early concept development. The second and third outputs are the sensor design and the working prototype of the instrument including the software for data analysis, for use with the new sensors. And the fourth outcome is the new instrument validation data and experimental protocols obtained using relevant model biological systems. We have already (Nov 2014) built a prototype instrument and are proceeding with the tests. instrument and are proceeding with the tests.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Ferrari: protein engineering and self-assembly 
Organisation University of Lincoln
Department School of Life Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint research effort
Collaborator Contribution Joint research effort
Impact TBA
Start Year 2014
 
Description Petrashov: sensor manufacturing 
Organisation Royal Holloway, University of London
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint research funded by BBSRC (NANOLIQUID, BB/L018152/1) which yielded a new microscale sensor for thermodynamic analysis at the microscale and proved feasibility of a nanoscale sensor. Conceptual design, modelling, materials, CAD design and practical testing of the new sensors.
Collaborator Contribution Joint research funded by BBSRC (NANOLIQUID, BB/L018152/1) which yielded a new microscale sensor for thermodynamic analysis at the microscale and proved feasibility of a nanoscale sensor. Electron beam facility and manufacturing of the new sensors.
Impact New micrometre-sized sensor for the localised surface thermodynamics analyses. Staff training and development More outputs are expected dint he future
Start Year 2014
 
Description Siligardi: multi-component protein assembly and folding 
Organisation Diamond Light Source
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution TBA
Collaborator Contribution Expertise and access to equipment
Impact TBA
Start Year 2015
 
Description Yun: controlled molecular disassembly and drug delivery 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Chemical Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint research effort
Collaborator Contribution Joint research effort
Impact TBA
Start Year 2014
 
Title A novel application of chip-based gas sensor probe available from Xensor Inegration BV. 
Description A novel use of a chip-based gas sensor probe available from Xensor Inegration BV has been developed. The sensor was designed by the manufacturer to measure thermal conductivity in gases. We used gas sensors with our Nanocalorimeter instrument and demonstrated their use with solid (metals), amorphous polymers and liquid samples including at physiological temperatures and in water based conducting media. Technical specifications and description of the instrument are summarised below. As proposed in the grant, a new instrument was built for the analysis of thermal properties of materials. It utilises high frequency AC modulated measurement principle to achieve localised sensing in dry and wet modes. The instrument provides ca 1000 fold improved sensitivity compared to commercially available DSC instruments (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer). In terms of heating rates an increase of x100 to x1000 compared to conventional DSC (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer) and about x10 fold compared to chip based DSC (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo) has been achieved. But unlike commercial instruments, the newly developed tool is capable of both very low and a very high scanning rates. This is contrary to traditional instruments where heating/cooling rates are limited. Our instrument provides AC mode in addition to DSC mode, such capability is not available in commercial chip-based calorimeters (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo). New instrument provides surface sensing capability, such capability is not available elsewhere. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The developed tools and methods enable the use of the Nanocalorimeter for Life Science applications in addition to materials testing. 
 
Title Hardware Development - a Nanocalorimeter instrument 
Description As proposed in the grant, a new instrument was built for the analysis of thermal properties of materials. It utilises high frequency AC modulated measurement principle to achieve localised sensing in dry and wet modes. The instrument provides ca 1000 fold improved sensitivity compared to commercially available DSC instruments (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer). In terms of heating rates an increase of 100 to 1000 fold compared to conventional DSC (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer) and about 10 fold compared to chip based DSC (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo) has been achieved. But unlike commercial instruments, the newly developed tool is capable of both very low and a very high scanning rates. This is contrary to traditional instruments where heating/cooling rates are limited. Our instrument provides AC mode in addition to DSC mode, such capability is not available in commercial chip-based calorimeters (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo). New instrument provides surface sensing capability, such capability is not available elsewhere. 
Type Of Technology Systems, Materials & Instrumental Engineering 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Advance in fundamental nano-bio-sciences research through the development of new instrument and cross-disciplinary methodologies. In a longer term our technology has applications beyond traditional calorimetry. The creation of the Nanocalorimeter is an essential part of expanding and applying the technology to Life Sciences. Nanocalorimetry sensors combine the properties of both sensor and actuator and should allow both studying and manipulating objects, e.g. cellular metabolism or engineering biological processes at cellular level, or constructing a bi-directional computer-cell interface. 
 
Title Liquid cell prototype for Nanocalorimeter 
Description Prototype of a Liquid cell adaptor to convert commercially availabel gas sensor chips to liquid cells for use with Nanocalorimeter instrument. Technical specifications and description of the instrument are summarised below. As proposed in the grant, a new instrument was built for the analysis of thermal properties of materials. It utilises high frequency AC modulated measurement principle to achieve localised sensing in dry and wet modes. The instrument provides ca 1000 fold improved sensitivity compared to commercially available DSC instruments (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer). In terms of heating rates an increase of x100 to x1000 compared to conventional DSC (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer) and about x10 fold compared to chip based DSC (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo) has been achieved. But unlike commercial instruments, the newly developed tool is capable of both very low and a very high scanning rates. This is contrary to traditional instruments where heating/cooling rates are limited. Our instrument provides AC mode in addition to DSC mode, such capability is not available in commercial chip-based calorimeters (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo). New instrument provides surface sensing capability, such capability is not available elsewhere. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact To enable the use of the Nanocalorimeter for Life Science applications. In particular we intend to initially use this for studying controlled protein assembly and disassembly on surfaces in response to thermal stimuli. Liquid cell will enable quantitative analysis of heat-mediated protein-protein interactions (assembly and disassembly) at solid-liquid interfaces. 
 
Title Nanocalorimeter - Demo instrument built 
Description Having met the main objectives of the grant of building a new Nanocalorimeter we constructed second identical device to facilitate demonstration and collaboration. Technical specifications and description is identical to that of the originally built instrument: "As proposed in the grant, a new instrument was built for the analysis of thermal properties of materials. It utilises high frequency AC modulated measurement principle to achieve localised sensing in dry and wet modes. The instrument provides ca 1000 fold improved sensitivity compared to commercially available DSC instruments (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer). In terms of heating rates an increase of x100 to x1000 compared to conventional DSC (e.g. Diamond DSC, Perkin Elmer) and about x10 fold compared to chip based DSC (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo) has been achieved. But unlike commercial instruments, the newly developed tool is capable of both very low and a very high scanning rates. This is contrary to traditional instruments where heating/cooling rates are limited. Our instrument provides AC mode in addition to DSC mode, such capability is not available in commercial chip-based calorimeters (e.g. FlashDSC, Mettler Toledo). New instrument provides surface sensing capability, such capability is not available elsewhere. " 
Type Of Technology Physical Model/Kit 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Second unit has been built to facilitate demonstration and collaboration. 
 
Description Nanothermal Measurement and Heat Transport 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Nanothermal Measurement and Heat Transport EPSRC workshop. 15th & 16th December 2015. Department of Physics, University of York, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.york.ac.uk/physics/research/cmp/new-characterisation-methods/scanning-thermal-microscopy...
 
Description Nanothermal Measurement and Heat Workshop and Sandpit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Nanothermal Measurement and Heat Transport is funded by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) to stimulate the field of nanothermal measurement and heat transport in the UK. A key part of this endeavour is to organise two workshops to bring together expertise in the field and to promote collaborations and transfer of knowledge among the participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description New Materials and Developments in Sensor Technologies, The Royal Society of Chemistry 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference with Posters & Exhibition at The Royal Society of Chemistry, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London.
This is the sixth annual AAMG Conference concerning monitoring and analysis using sensor technologies.
http://aamg-rsc.org/meetings/sensors-2014/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Science festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact RHUL Science Day when hundreds attended the University and the School of Biological Sciences. Part of the exhibition organised by Soloviev and Odarchenko (PI and Postdoc funded through BB/L018152/1) attracted many visitors of all ages and sexes throughout the day. We were delighted to see many disables attendees attending our exhibition. We we happy to see such a strong interest in our science expressed by general public.
https://pure.royalholloway.ac.uk/portal/en/persons/mikhail-soloviev%282b06f036-2cc0-4375-87e1-57f662534d0d%29.html
https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/science/discoversciencedayhighlights.aspx
https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/science/sciencefestival/highlightsfromdiscoversciencedayvideo.aspx
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://pure.royalholloway.ac.uk/portal/en/persons/mikhail-soloviev%282b06f036-2cc0-4375-87e1-57f662...