Molecular epidemiology of brucellosis in northern Tanzania

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Medical, Veterinary &Life Sci

Abstract

This project will develop the evidence-base to inform the use of Brucella vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa and build capacity in Tanzanian laboratories to generate critical Brucella typing data. The research will be conducted hand-in-hand with Tanzanian government scientists charged with formulating national policies for the control of brucellosis.

Brucellosis is a disease caused by a number of species of bacteria collectively called Brucella. Brucellosis is one of most widespread human diseases acquired from animals, and is one of the highest priority animal diseases in Africa. Brucellosis infects many animal species, including key livestock species - cattle, sheep, and goats - and most human infections are acquired through direct contact with livestock or via indirect transmission through untreated milk products. Brucellosis has wide-ranging impacts that include animal losses due to abortion, lost milk production, killing of infected animals, and human illness causing reduced work capacity.

One third of the human population of sub-Saharan Africa lives and works closely with livestock. Areas with both high livestock populations and demand for livestock products offer the greatest opportunity for livestock to serve as a pathway out of poverty. Tanzania has been identified as a hotspot for endemic zoonoses burden, poverty burden and reliance on livestock. Sub-Saharan Africa also has the worlds fastest growing human population and highly dynamic societies undergoing rapid urbanization. Changes in connections between urban and rural populations and the supply of animal products into urban areas could lead to significant shifts in patterns of exposure to zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis.

Control programmes implemented previously demonstrate that the use of existing tools for brucellosis control can markedly improve the livelihoods of the poor communities that are most affected by brucellosis. However important gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa. To develop practical plans for brucellosis control it is crucial to understand which host species are infected by which Brucella species, and which routes are most important in transmitting brucellosis to humans in rural environments, towns and rapidly expanding cities.

This project will generate data, and tools, provide training, and establish and enhance national and trans-national partnerships critical to the development and implementation of a brucellosis control program for Tanzania. The development of diagnostic capacity in Tanzanian research laboratories necessary for species-level diagnosis of Brucella will enable detection of animal infections and - crucially - the identification and characterisation of the Brucella species present in different livestock and human populations. These data will be critical for identifying the ruminant species that act as sources of human infection and the Brucella species most responsible for human disease in rural and urban environments of northern Tanzania. This project will provide the first large systematic evidence base to guide which vaccine is best used in which different animal population. In the short term, this project will build significant laboratory diagnostic capacity and expertise in Tanzania and strengthen academic links between UK and Tanzanian laboratories working on brucellosis. Our team includes policy-makers in Tanzanian government and will help ensure that research findings are made directly available to those who need to know most (including vaccine producers). The project will provide the evidence-base specifically identified by the Tanzanian government to formulate national brucellosis control policy and place Tanzania on the roadmap for progressive control of this high priority disease.

Technical Summary

Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases and is identified as one of the highest priority animal diseases in Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa has the world's fastest growing human population and highly dynamic societies undergoing rapid urbanization. Changes in connections between urban and rural populations and the supply of animal products into urban areas could significantly shift patterns of exposure to brucellosis.

Effective brucellosis control requires integrated combinations of control measures, but targeted vaccination is a key tool in reducing prevalence of disease in livestock populations. However, to develop plans for the optimal use of existing vaccines we need to understand which host species are infected by which Brucella species, and which routes are most important in transmitting brucellosis to humans in different settings.

This project will generate data, and tools, provide training, and establish and enhance partnerships necessary for the development of a brucellosis control program for Tanzania. The development of diagnostic capacity in Tanzanian research laboratories needed for species-level diagnosis of Brucella will enable detection and identification of the Brucella species present in different livestock and human populations. These data will enable identification of the ruminant species acting as sources of human infection and the Brucella species responsible for human disease, providing the first systematic evidence-base to guide which brucellosis vaccine is best used in different animal populations. Our team includes policy-makers in Tanzanian government who will help ensure that research findings are made directly available to those who need to know most (including vaccine producers). The project will provide the evidence-base identified by the Tanzanian government that is needed to formulate national brucellosis control policy and place Tanzania on the roadmap for progressive control of this high priority disease.

Planned Impact

The outputs of this project will fill key data gaps that currently hinder the development and implementation of a national brucellosis control policy in Tanzania. The project will deliver impact over a range of time-scales. The ultimate long-term beneficiaries of brucellosis control are livestock keepers and their families, milk consumers, butchers, abattoir and slaughterhouse workers, and veterinary professionals.

In sub-Saharan African, endemic zoonoses are responsible for a considerable burden of human illness, mortality, and reduction in livestock productivity. There is a strong association between poverty, livestock keeping and zoonoses. Areas with both high livestock populations and rising demand for livestock products therefore offer the greatest opportunity for livestock to serve as a pathway out of poverty, making Sub-Saharan Africa, and Tanzania in particular, a prime beneficiary of improvements in the control of zoonotic diseases.

Brucellosis can be effectively controlled to reduce the burden of disease in both humans and animals through the application of a range of existing control approaches. When costs are distributed between health and veterinary sectors in proportion to the benefits accruing, livestock vaccination has been shown to be a highly cost-effective veterinary intervention. However, it is key to cost-effective control to ensure that the right interventions are targeted at the most appropriate control-points. In the case of brucellosis, which can be caused by a number of distinct pathogen species, identification of the pathogens and hosts that are most important in disease transmission is crucial, but this is largely unknown. Vaccines currently exist for a number of Brucella species, and this project will provide the first large-scale systematically compiled evidence-base to guide which vaccine should be used in which host population. In the long-term we believe that the provision of operational information on what vaccine to use in which populations will help persuade organizations such as GALVmed to distribute and deploy vaccines in the future. Our team has been developed specifically to engage policy-makers in the research, and researchers in the policy from the outset, and we present an analysis of the pathway to this long-term impact in 'Pathways to Impact'.

In the medium-term the project will strengthen academic links between UK and Tanzanian partner institutions working on brucellosis through the development of 4 primary partnerships. 1 - between KCMC in Tanzania and the AHVLA in the UK and 2 - between TVI/TVLA and the AHVLA to establish and maintain resilient diagnostic capacity at these Tanzanian institutions. 3 - between NMAIST and UG by training a future independent Tanzanian scientist, embedded within a supportive network of international experts, enabling the seeding of future research activities between these organizations. 4 -adding a new dimension to an existing relationship between MoLFD/TVI and UG, strengthening policy-forming units and enabling ministry officials charged with developing national disease control policy to access a nucleus of experts with a proven track record of translating one-health research into policy.

In the short-term, this project will build significant epidemiological and diagnostic capacity and expertise at research institutions in Tanzania, and provide individual training to a Tanzanian research scientist that will include opportunities to train at the AHVLA and take new skills and knowledge back to Tanzania to set up capacity in situ with ongoing financial and academic support from the UK and Tanzanian research consortium. Most importantly, this project will build sustainable laboratory capacity to provide the higher resolution, species-specific diagnostic testing necessary for the most effective use of available vaccines to ultimately reduce disease burden.

Publications

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Allan KJ (2018) Assessment of animal hosts of pathogenic Leptospira in northern Tanzania. in PLoS neglected tropical diseases

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Allan KJ (2015) Renewing the momentum for leptospirosis research in Africa. in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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Ao TT (2015) Global burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, 2010(1). in Emerging infectious diseases

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Carugati M (2018) Incidence of human brucellosis in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania in the periods 2007-2008 and 2012-2014. in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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Cash-Goldwasser S (2018) Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Northern Tanzania. in The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene

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Cleaveland S (2017) One Health contributions towards more effective and equitable approaches to health in low- and middle-income countries. in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

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Crump JA (2015) Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. in PLoS neglected tropical diseases

 
Title Graphical illustration - to communicate Brucella epidemiology with stakeholders 
Description Illustrations to share knowledge and promote discussions about stakeholder knowledge of brucellosis epidemiology and impacts. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Co-development of updated image sets based on inputs received from community leaders and members. 
 
Description • Brucella genus-level and species-specific qPCR assays have been established at KCRI in Moshi. Testing of ruminant swab samples from high seroprevalence areas reveals shedding of Brucella spp. by cattle (3.17%), sheep (1.92%) and goats (3.85%). Molecular typing of positive swab samples has identified B. ovis in a sheep swab sample, indicating that not all of these Brucella PCR positives are zoonotic Brucella species (B. ovis is not considered typically zoonotic but does affect sheep fertility).
• Surveillance of febrile patients presenting at Endulen hospital in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area was conducted August 2016 to October 2017. Brucella was isolated from eight febrile patients and Brucella spp. was the most common bloodstream infection in the study population. Seven isolates from human cases have been typed as Brucella melitensis and one typed as B. abortus. Using both culture and serology (SAT) test data, 6% of enrolled patients were defined as confirmed and/or probable human brucellosis cases.
• We have developed and applied novel modelling approaches to better understand Brucella transmission between species in northern Tanzania. These analyses identified sheep & goats as the most likely source of human Brucella exposure in this population. The number of sheep & goats kept also had a positive influence on infection probability in cattle and sheep & goats.
• Overall, our results indicate that B. melitensis, B. abortus and B. ovis are present in this northern Tanzania system, that B. melitensis is the predominant zoonotic Brucella species causing human brucellosis and that sheep & goats are the most likely animal source of these human infections.
Exploitation Route Findings from this study have been shared with the FAO supported team writing the brucellosis national strategy for Tanzania. We will hold a series of meetings at the end of the study to maximise opportunities to communicate the findings of this and subsequent work on the project to policy makers in Tanzania as well as international organisations such as GALVmed. Our findings will have important implications for the design of brucellosis control strategies in Tanzania, the East Africa region more widely and other low and middle income settings.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Findings from this study have been shared with Tanzanian policy makers and representatives of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Inputs from study team members were requested and provided to the team developing a national strategy on brucellosis for Tanzania. The national strategy document for brucellosis "National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Brucellosis IN Humans & Animals" and "Guidelines for Surveillance of Prioritised Zoonotic Diseases for Human and Animal Health in the United Republic of Tanzania" were published in 2018.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Anthrax and Brucellosis Contribution (ABC) - Input to National Strategy Development
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Continuing Medical Education NCA Aug 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The project provided a Continuing Medical Education session run by Dr Michael Maze for all clinical personnel (doctors, pharmacy technicians, laboratory technicians, nurses, clinical officers) at Endulen Hospital. The session included differential diagnoses, diagnostic test interpretation, evaluation of patient histories, physical exams, and risk factors and treatment protocols for brucellosis. This session was based on an evaluation of current practice and training requirements conducted by Fogarty Fellow Dr Shama Cash-Goldwasser in February 2016 as part of the brucellosis project. Audience reported change in views and knowledge gained. Questions raised about diagnostic testing tools and treatment options available in Tanzania and national management guidelines for brucellosis.
 
Description Impact Accelerator Workshop June 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Attended by 19 people representing Faraja Health Care Centre, Jaffery Charitable Medical Services, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Majengo Healthcare Centre, Mawenzi District Hospital, Moshi Upendo Healthcare Centre, Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Senior and Children, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Pasua Healthcare Centre, St Joseph's Hospital, and TPC Hospital. This workshop provided information about the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health pathogens to doctors from across northern Tanzania, and gathered feedback on what sorts of zoonoses doctors encountered, what kinds of information would be helpful for them to receive and what information would be useful for patients to receive regarding zoonotic disease.
 
Description Integrated priority zoonotic diseases surveillance guidelines development validation retreat Jan 2018
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Knowledge Exchange Workshop - Arusha Dec 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact This workshop on zoonotic disease surveillance brought together key stakeholders from the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) through to Ministerial partners. The main goal of the workshop was to identify ways to enhance zoonotic disease surveillance in the NCA and surrounding region and of improving integration across current projects and programs. A total of 34 participants were involved, representing human and animal health professionals and community leaders from the NCA and Ngorongoro District, NGOs, researchers, diagnostic laboratories, Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI) and the Ministries of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (MALF) and of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MHCDGEC).
 
Description Knowledge Exchange Workshop - NCA Aug 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Attended by 25 people (Community Animal Health Workers, Livestock Field Officers, nurses, medical attendants, hospital administrators, pastoral council representatives, medical doctors, medical attendants and clinical officers) representing nine wards of the eleven wards in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Ngoile, Ngorongoro, Olbalbal, Eyasi, Kakesio, Endulen, Laitole, Misigiyo, Alailelai). Content of the 3-day workshop focussed on anthrax and brucellosis, particularly identifying the nature of the challenges associated with these diseases and developing ideas for surveillance, prevention and treatment.
 
Description Livestock Modernization Initiative
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://agriprofocus.com/upload/post/Tanzania_Livestock_Modernization_Initiative1437567817.pdf
 
Description Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan workshop - Sept 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Attended by 35 representatives from Disaster Management Department of the Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Health, Gender, Children and Elders, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Ardhi Institute, TAWIRI, SUA, TVLA, NIMRI, SACIDs, SUA, MUHAS, Ministry of Health and Livestock Zanzibar, CDC, FAO, WHO country offices, USAID P&R - country and regional offices. Presentation of LLH research programme and feedback from LLH attendees contributed to incorporation of antimicrobial resistance, endemic zoonoses and non-infectious conditions.
 
Description Training - Triage Nurses at Endulen Hospital
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Our phlebotomists have trained several triage nurses at Endulen Hospital in study enrolment procedure. This includes validation systems for temperatures and weight which increase the accuracy of the measurement they can use for all patients and outpatients at Endulen Hospital
 
Description Writeshop to develop Strategic prevention and control plans for Anthrax and Brucellosis, August 2017
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Africa Award
Amount £174,670 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description BACTOCAP: Sequence capture for multiple bacterial zoonoses of international health importance
Amount £59,127 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2018
 
Description BBSRC Innovator of the Year Award 2017
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Funding ID International impact Category winner of BBSRC Innovator of the Year 2017 competition 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description Brucellosis in Kenya - understanding epidemiology and informing control at regional scales
Amount £77,506 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S004904/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 10/2019
 
Description Impact Accelerator 2015
Amount £5,900 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description Knowledge Exchange Fund
Amount £21,680 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description Lord Kelvin Adam Smith PhD Studentship Scheme
Amount £70,556 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description Operationalizing One Health Interventions in Tanzania (OOHTZ)
Amount £518,859 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S013857/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2021
 
Description STARS Training Grant: ASTRAL
Amount £93,590 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R020280/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 02/2020
 
Description Supporting Evidence Based Interventions
Amount $1,149,879 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Title Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description Collaboration - Aix Marseille Universite 
Organisation Aix-Marseille University
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Intellectual input and input into study and research opportunities
Collaborator Contribution Input into study and research opportunities and laboratory analysis of field samples
Impact Preliminary diagnostic data
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration - Animal and Plant Health Agency 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Intellectual input and regular input into study and research opportunities
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual input into study and research activities, training of staff and students, laboratory analysis of field samples.
Impact Training of 1 PhD student and 2 laboratory technicians at the Zoonoses Lab at the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute in Tanzania
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration - Centers for Disease Control 
Organisation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Intellectual input, study design, data generation, analysis and publication creation
Collaborator Contribution Training of colleagues, laboratory analysis of field samples and intellectual input into data analysis and publication creation
Impact Training of PhD student working on linked project. Diagnostic testing of study field samples. Poster presentation at international conference (ILS, 2017)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration - Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre 
Organisation Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMS)
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Regular contact with project collaborators, input into laboratory procedures, support for training of laboratory technicians.
Collaborator Contribution In-kind contribution of laboratory bench fees for the Zoonoses Laboratory. Regular intellectual input from team members in annual in-person meetings and monthyl skype calls. Professor Blandina Mmbaga attended the annual ZELS Grantholders' meetings in 2015 (Cambridge) and 2017 (Arusha).
Impact Continuing Medical Education Session in Endulen, NCA - Aug 2016 Contribution to Tanzania's One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Operationalization of a new Zoonoses Laboratory at the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute Training of triage nurses at Endulen Hospital Continuing Medical Education session at Endulen Hospital
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration - Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Regular meetings with partner institution representatives, including in person annually and via skype monthly. PDRA Halliday organizes annual Leverhulme-Royal Society Africa Award-funded One Health training course held at partner institution Nelson Mandela African Institution for Science and Technology (NM-AIST), held 2015, 2016 attended by NM-AIST post-graduate students.
Collaborator Contribution NM-AIST collaborators meeting annual in-person with team members and contribute intellectually to research activities. Collaborator Gabriel Shirima is leading exploration of how hospitals respond to and treat febrile patients.
Impact Successful Leverhulme-Royal Society Africa Award Successful AfriqueOne ASPIRE award Contribution to the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Publications: Chota AC, Magwisha HB, Stella B, Bunuma EK, Shirima GM, Mugambi JM, Omwenga SG, Wesonga HO, Mbatha P, Gathogo S. 2016. Prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans in east Africa. African Crop Science Journal. 24 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v24i1.5S Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JJ, Cleaveland S, Haydon DT, and Halliday J (2016) Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, 143(7), pp. 821-834. (doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044) (PMID:26935267)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration - Sokoine University of Agriculture 
Organisation Sokoine University of Agriculture
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Ongoing communications with research collaborators.
Collaborator Contribution Regular intellectual input into study and research activities via annual in-person meetings and monthly skype communications. Prof Kazwala represents the collaboration at policy meetings with government representatives.
Impact Successful application for the Molecular epidemiology of brucellosis in northern Tanzania BB/L018926/1 Contribution to the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 document Successful application for the Afrique One ASPIRE award Publications: Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JJ, Cleaveland S, Haydon DT, and Halliday J (2016) Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, 143(7), pp. 821-834. (doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044) (PMID:26935267) Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration - Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development 
Organisation Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Regular skype meetings and annual in-person meetings. Contributions to policy initiatives.
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual input into study and research initiatives. Representation of the collaboration and research outputs for policy development.
Impact Contribution to Tanzania's One Health Strategic Plan
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration - University of Otago 
Organisation University of Otago
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Team members communicate regularly with researchers at Otago
Collaborator Contribution Partners contribute intellectual input into study and research design, via in person meetings annually and via monthly skype calls.
Impact Successful application for the Molecular epidemiology of brucellosis in northern Tanzania award BB/L018926/1 Publications: Crump JA, Heyderman RS. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa.Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;61(S4):S235-40. DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ709 Crump JA, Kirk MD. 2015. Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9(12): e0004040. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004040 Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. 15 July 2015. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev doi:10.1128/CMR.00002-15. Penno EC, Baird SJ, Crump JA. 2015. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections for sepsis management in low resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93(4), 2015, pp. 850-860. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0083. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Crump JA. The highs and lows of typhoid disease burden: a story of inequities and moving targets. In symposium 510. Bridging the gap towards defining the burden of typhoid in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Crump JA. Insights on global epidemiology of severe febrile illness. In symposium 501: Febrile illness: epidemiology, diagnostics, management. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Hopkins H, Thomas NV, Crump JA, González IJ, Guérin PJ, Newton PN, Schellenberg D, Bell D, Reyburn H. Mapping fever aetiologies in malaria-endemic areas: an interactive, open-access, on-line map. Abstract. 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health, Basel Switzerland. 6-10 September 2015. Zhang HL, Omondi OM, Musyoka AM, Afwamba IA, Swai RP, Karia FP, Muiruri C, Reddy EA, Crump JA, Rubach MP. The challenges of maintaining Good Clinical Laboratory Practices in low-resource settings: a health program evaluation framework case study from East Africa. Abstract 1326. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015. Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Endulen Hospital 
Organisation Endulen Hospital
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We provide intellectual contributions, equipment, diagnostic resources and educational training for staff.
Collaborator Contribution The Hospital provides facilities and support for study recruitment activities.
Impact Isolation of Brucella from febrile patients Training of triage nurses in study enrolment procedures, which increase the accuracy of weight and temperature measurements for all patients and outpatients attending the hospital Continuing Medical Education Session for all clinical personnel at the hospital Field attachment for MSc student working with hospital diagnostic data.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Alaitole Ward Project Update Meeting October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Meeting with local representatives of the community where Brucella research was conducted. The purposes of the meeting included feedback of preliminary results of the study to local community and facilitation of discussion about brucellosis epidemiology and disease impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Brucellosis Control in sub-Saharan Africa: What Next? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Jo Halliday hosted a workshop for Brucellosis researchers and third sector organizations working on brucellosis. The purpose of the workshop was the current state of brucellosis control in Tanzania, Senegal, Ethiopia and Kenya, and the next steps required to progress each of those countries closer to control of this disease. Outcomes included plans for an additional meeting with Tanzanian focus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Brucellosis Research & Policy Links Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop was organized and hosted by Jo Halliday, utilizing additional funding secured from BBSRC. The meeting brought together representatives from Tanzanian and UK based organisation to: i) share findings from the ZELS Brucella project with a broad range of Tanzanian stakeholders ii) share updates on the Tanzanian brucellosis policy development process & iii) identify and prioritise next step research projects and/or linked activities that can help guide the development of sustainable brucellosis control. Several SEEDZ and HAZEL partners attended the meeting along with representatives from the Food and Agriculture Organization - Tanzania, Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Tanzania Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Endulen Hospital and the Arusha Archdiocese Ethiopia National Animal Diagnostic and Investigation Centre, Kenya Directorate of Veterinary Services, Tanzania National Institute for Medical Research, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Tanzania One Health Coordination Unit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Brucellosis in northern Tanzania: One Health research findings and implications for national strategy development Dec 2017 - AbdulHamid Lukambagire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of study findings and implications to the annual national meeting of the Tanzanian Veterinary Association (TVA)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Brucellosis in northern Tanzania: insights into human disease prevalence, mul8-species transmission processes and policy implications - Gabriel Shirima - Jan 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of study findings to researchers and students participating in ZELS funded projects as well as scheme funders and advisors. Talk sparked debate about findings, next step research projects and policy implications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Consultative meeting on combating zoonotic diseases in Tanzania with a special focus on Anthrax, Brucellosis and Q-fever - JB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This meeting was held at NM-AIST with the aim of reviewing the progress on identification of zoonotic pathogens identified in bush meat sold in Tanzania and the challenges associated with surveillance and control of anthrax, Brucellosis and Q-fever. Participants included NM-AIST faculty, Pennsylvania State University; The US Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA); One Health Desk (Prime Minister's Office); District Veterinary Officer, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development (MLFD), Ngorongoro; Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Game Officer, Monduli; Community based health workers, Ngorongoro; District Veterinary Officer, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development (MLFD), Monduli; District Medical Officer, Monduli; Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development (MLFD), Livestock Officer, Monduli; Arusha Regional Surveillance Officer Arusha (Ministry of Health); Regional Medical Officer, Arusha; Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Dealing with local diseases helps countries tackle new outbreaks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post for the Conversation and Conversation Africa to reach non-specialist audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://theconversation.com/dealing-with-local-diseases-helps-countries-tackle-new-outbreaks-82008
 
Description Endulen Clinical Team Interviews 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project team members Cash-Goldwasser and Melubo interviewed several clinical team members working at Endulen hospital in northern Tanzania.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Endulen Hospital Poster Presentation Feb 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of a scientific poster reporting results from local community surveillance for human brucellosis. Preliminary research outcomes made available to local medical practitioners in an easily accessible format
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Endulen Hospital Project Update Presentation Feb 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of ongoing Brucella study research outcomes to the hospital staff at the hospital where data collection was being conducted. Facilitation of discussion about human brucellosis epidemiology in the local community and treatment best practices with clinical personnel
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Endulen Ward Project Update Meeting October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Meeting with local representatives of the community where Brucella research was conducted. The purposes of the meeting included feedback of preliminary results of the study to local community and facilitation of discussion about brucellosis epidemiology and disease impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Final SEEDZ Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The SEEDZ project hosted a final two-day workshop in Arusha and invited a number of Tanzanian stakeholders to attend including representatives from the Tanzanian One Health Coordination Desk, TVLA, NIMR, MoH&SW, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, and FAO ECTAD, the Norhern Zonal Veterinary Centre (ZVC) and District Veterinary Officers from Karatu, Mbulu, Meru, Longido, Babati, Monduli, Simanjiro and Arusha District Coucils. Community leaders and local and international NGOs also attended, including GALVmed and Haki Kazi Catalyst. Researchers from Tanzanian and International institutions were also in attendance, including the University of Glasgow, Institute of Development Studies, Washington State University, University of Otago, Duke University, Scotland's Rural College, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Soikoine University of Africulture, University of Dar es Salaam and the International Livestock Research Institute. The first day was attended by 69 people and provided an overview of the work being carried out across Tanzania as part of the ZELS programme, including outputs from the SEEDZ, HAZEL and Brucella projects and the Life on the Edge project. The second day involved a participatory problem-solving session using Ketso? tools and focussed on interventions and policy implications of the research presented on the first day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description HAZEL presentation at SEEDZ close-out workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact HAZEL presentations by K Thomas, L Waldman and J Crump at end of project workshop in Arusha, Tanzania, for SEEDZ, on 4 September 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Hospital Visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project team members Halliday, Shirima & Maro visited several hospitals serving northern Tanzania. The team met with healthcare providers and gathered preliminary data on brucellosis impacts and identified research priorities and knowledge gaps most relevant for the health care providers. Hospitals visited: Endulen District Hospital, Dareda Hospital, and the FAME clinic in Karatu.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Integrative & Innovative Approaches: Why social sciences are central to zoonoses research workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This one-day workshop, to run ahead of the annual DFiD-RCUK-funder meeting annual meeting of the Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems research groups (ZELS) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in January 2018, will draw out some of the lesson's learned and best practices from integrating social sciences into zoonoses research. Drawing on experience from the ZELS research projects and elsewhere, the workshop will present state of the art research and explore challenges still facing both social sciences research in zoonoses, and the integration of these approaches to interdisciplinary projects. The workshop is intended to reach all ZELS scientists, both social and non-social scientists alike who will highlight their experiences in interdisciplinary research. The workshop will also present a range of useful approaches and practices to improve integrative research in the future. The one-day event should be of interest to all researchers interested in zoonoses and will not assume a social science background.

Expected workshop outcomes:
" Detailed presentation and discussion about the importance of social science and social science themes in interdisciplinary zoonoses research.
" Best practices based on ZELS project processes and outcomes to help further/inform interdisciplinary research in the future
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited to present a session on "The role of social science in zoonosis research" to an international workshop: Addressing the challenge of zoonotic disease with inter-disciplinary research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, 27-29th March. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to a meeting of predominantly biomedical researchers to explain the importance of including social science researchers, questions and methods in zoonoses research. The workshop was attended by an international audience, and aimed to establish a new research project. Discussion on the day indicated a positive response in terms of audience members realising the value of social science contributions to health research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Kakesio Ward Project Update Meeting October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Meeting with local representatives of the community where Brucella research was conducted. The purposes of the meeting included feedback of preliminary results of the study to local community and facilitation of discussion about brucellosis epidemiology and disease impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description LLH Facebook Page 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The intended purpose of the facebook page is to highlight activity related to the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health programme and raise awareness of issues related to zoonotic disease. From Sept 2015 to Mar 2017, the number of "likes" has increased from 79 to 892.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/livestocklivelihoodsandhealth
 
Description LLH Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Livestock, Livelihoods and Health (LLH) programme, comprising the three Glasgow-based ZELS projects, launched in August 2015 to provide information on the projects and a home to the team's blog.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org
 
Description Meeting with Ministry of ALF Feb 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Team member Gabriel Shirima met with with policy implementers as part of ongoing communication on policy issues relating to brucellosis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Meeting with Ministry of ALF Shirima Feb2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meeting to seek input from national policymakers on project development and communications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Misigiyo Ward Project Update Meeting October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Meeting with local representatives of the community where Brucella research was conducted. The purposes of the meeting included feedback of preliminary results of the study to local community and facilitation of discussion about brucellosis epidemiology and disease impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Multi-Host Epidemiology of Bacterial Zoonoses in northern Tanzania - Aberdeen - March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at workshop to inform development of research approaches for future funding applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Ngorongoro Ward Project Update Meeting October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Meeting with local representatives of the community where Brucella research was conducted. The purposes of the meeting included feedback of preliminary results of the study to local community and facilitation of discussion about brucellosis epidemiology and disease impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description One Health in Tanzania, keynote presentation One Health EcoHealth Congress, Melbourne 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Overview of One Health research in Tanzania given as a keynote presentation at the One Health EcoHealth conference in Melbourne, with > 500 participants in attendance, and sparking a wide range of questions and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description One Health research and impact: Insights from northern Tanzania - BBSRC Presentation - Sept 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Presentation at BBSRC to share insights from past projects with funders and developers of future funding schemes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description One Health: understanding interactions, informing interventions, keynote presentation, St. George's University, October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attended by veterinary and medical researchers and practitioners, sparked discussion on further research relating to zoonotic pathogens in Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sgu.edu/news-and-events/sgu-host-international-ohom-symposium/
 
Description Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Conducted December 2014 in Arusha, Tanzania. Included representatives of The Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC), SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (TTRI), Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, GALVmed, Arusha town council, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development (MoLFD). Led by Naomi Marks and Linda Waldman.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Project Intro Meeting - Endulen Jun 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project team members met with community and local administrative organisation representatives - leaders and representatives of the communities from which the target study population comes. List of questions asked was compiled and used to guide development of training and awareness raising content for future engagement meetings and CME sessions. Plans made for further meetings to update community on project progress over time.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Project Intro Meeting - Eserere Jun 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project team members met with community and local administrative organisation representatives - leaders and representatives of the communities from which the target study population comes. List of questions asked was compiled and used to guide development of training and awareness raising content for future engagement meetings and CME sessions. Plans made for further meetings to update community on project progress over time.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Project Intro Meeting - Osinoni Jun 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project team members met with community and local administrative organisation representatives - leaders and representatives of the communities from which the target study population comes. List of questions asked was compiled and used to guide development of training and awareness raising content for future engagement meetings and CME sessions. Plans made for further meetings to update community on project progress over time.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Royal Highland Show - June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Representatives from the Glasgow ZELS projects attended the Royal Highland Show at the request of DFID to engage with the public at the UK Government in Scotland marquee regarding DFID-funded, including the ZELS project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Source attribution for livestock zoonoses: brucellosis as a case study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Symposium presentation to international research audience - predominantly human clinical - at ASTMH 2018. Presentation sparked discussion of translation of research findings into policy and implications for regional policy development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Brucella team members Gabriel Shirima, Blandina Mmbaga, Rudovick Kazwala and Emmanuel Swai attended a retreat to operationalize the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Attendees (35) included representatives from the Disaster Management Department of the Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Health, Gender, Children and Elders, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Ardhi Institute, TAWIRI, SUA,TVLA, NIMRI, SACIDs, SUA, MUHAS, Ministry of Health and Livestock Zanzibar, CDC,FAO, WHO country offices, USAID P&R- country and regional offices. The broad aim of the retreat was to operationalize the Tanzania OH strategic Plan 2015-2020. Feedback from LLH attendees contributed to incorporation of anti-microbial resistance, endemic zoonoses and non-infectious conditions. Brucella team member Gabriel Shirima presented the LLH research programme and the work was well-received by the attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/one-health-plan/
 
Description Twitter feed 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Livestock, Livelihoods and Health twitter feed is used to provide updates on programme activity and engage with the public and interested parties regarding zoonotic disease research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description ZELS Dissemination Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact The aim of the meeting was to disseminate the achievements and outcomes of the ZELS programme. The ZELS Molecular epidemiology of brucellosis in northern Tanzania and Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livetock meat pathways (HAZEL) were presented by Jo Halliday and Jo Sharp respectively.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019