Controlling and monitoring emerging zoonoses in the poultry farming and trading system in Bangladesh: an interplay between pathogens, people, policy

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Veterinary College
Department Name: Clinical Sciences and Services

Abstract

Early in the 20th century, about 20 million people died from a great influenza epidemic which swept across the whole world. Since then, there have been other, smaller but still significant global influenza epidemics. Influenza is a zoonotic disease. It is caused by a family of viruses which live in pigs, poultry, humans and some other animals and birds, both domestic and wild. It is able to shift genetic material around between different versions of the virus found in these diverse species. This ability to for influenza viruses to combine and change makes it hard to develop generally effective vaccines for different strains. Global and national health authorities are constantly on the lookout for signs that a new global pandemic of this potentially fatal disease is about to move from a localised outbreak to a global pandemic.
Increases in living standards and in global trade mean that there is a rapidly rising demand for and supply of animal protein. Poultry and specifically chickens are the major source of all protein consumed in the world. Bangladesh is undergoing large changes in economic and social development. Poverty alleviation through livestock production plays an increasing part in these developments. Due to their high reproduction and growth rates as well as the ease of scaling up production from backyard to large industrial farms, poultry production adapts better than any other livestock sector to increased demand, and will further expand in the near future. But with these advantages comes increased risk of outbreaks of novel influenza strains, some of them highly pathogenic, as in the case of the recent H5N1. Such outbreaks can have up to 100% mortality in chickens and other domestic poultry and very high mortality rates in human beings when the influenza "jumps" species from the animal/bird reservoir to humans - a process called zoonosis.
In the face of disease outbreaks in poultry, farmers and traders worry about economic loss. They may change their behaviour to avoid such loss and in the process may facilitate the spread of infection. Such behavioural changes can modify the way disease spreads, and even prolong and strengthen the epidemic so that it becomes a widespread "pandemic" moving beyond a local area to the whole world. This research will study the behaviour of people working in the Bangladeshi poultry farming and trading system so as to understand how to develop effective policies which will (a) reduce the risk that people's behaviour will spread the disease (b) develop practical and effective interventions which will control widespread disease dissemination.
The team will do this by combining two areas of work: (a) sophisticated mathematical modelling of how poultry production and marketing works; (b) detailed qualitative and quantitative study of the social, cultural and economic factors which may promote disease maintenance and dissemination in Bangladesh. An innovation in this study will be the inclusion of an experimental component whereby farmers and traders will be asked to play a number of epidemiological "games". This approach will mean that the insights from the qualitative study of cultural socio-economics will feed into a more sophisticated understanding of people's behaviour in the face of disease outbreaks. This in turn will enable refinement of the systems modelling component of the project.
The approaches we will adopt in this research will produce both specific local knowledge and more general knowledge which will be useful for understanding influenza outbreaks and even some aspects of other animal and human infectious disease outbreaks and pandemics in other parts of the world.

Technical Summary

The trade of live birds, a common practice in Bangladesh, provides smallholders with an important source of income and can provide a route out of poverty. However, it can also play a major role in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, such as avian influenza viruses (AIV). The structure of the network shaped by the movements of live bird traders influences the potential of a pathogen to invade the poultry population, the scale of the epidemic, and the level of human exposure. Outbreaks of zoonotic diseases negatively impact on the health and livelihoods of poultry production stakeholders. In the face of an outbreak, key stakeholders may change their farming and trading practices in order to reduce this impact, thus triggering changes in the structure of the trade networks. These changes will, in turn, affect the potential of a pathogen to spread, as well as the efficacy of any mitigation strategies attempting to control the disease.
In this project, we aim to identify the socio-economic, cultural, and epidemiological factors that shape the structure of live bird trade networks in Bangladesh, and the types of changes in the network structure which could facilitate the emergence of zoonotic pathogens and influence their maintenance and dissemination. Based on this understanding of the underlying system behaviour, the project seeks to develop novel control and surveillance strategies tailored to the evolving characteristics of live bird trade networks.
Employing an inter-disciplinary perspective, this project will involve a combination of traditional ethnographic techniques, such as observations and semi-structured interviews, innovative techniques using methods developed in experimental economics, biological sampling from both humans and poultry, and the development of joint epidemiological and socioeconomic models. AIV, in particular H5N1, will be used as a model to study the traders' and farmers' responses to disease risk.

Planned Impact

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is endemic in poultry in Bangladesh and particularly affects small-holder farmers. This detailed study of risk perceptions and behavioural adaptations among people who work intimately with poultry will generate practical, evidence-based policy recommendations that promote livelihoods and are also relevant to public health, animal health, agriculture, and trade sector policy-makers in Bangladesh.
Public health risk posed by HPAI H5N1 and other emerging zoonotic diseases are primarily addressed after they are diagnosed in the human population. This project aims to alter strategy and priorities in the policy environment, from emergency response to prevention at the source. The emphasis will be directed away from particular pathogens towards the characteristics of the human-animal systems that maintain and spread these diseases. This will foster a significant shift in how policy makers address disease control and surveillance programming.
Recognition of the inter-related social, economic, cultural, and biological drivers underlying disease spread and maintenance will minimise unintended impacts which are often associated with top-down policies like market closure and culling; unintended impacts include under-reporting, loss of livelihood, illegal trade, and poultry smuggling. Policy recommendations will not only improve disease control and surveillance, but also create conditions for achieving a sustainable reduction in smallholders' vulnerability, both in terms of health and livelihoods. Women are primarily responsible for rearing poultry in much of Bangladesh and thus policy recommendations will aim to benefit these key stakeholders. Given that this research focuses on the characteristics of the human-animal system, recommendations will be tailored to these systems, in turn contributing to the resilience of the production system to zoonotic disease emergence and, ultimately, promote livestock keeping as a durable pathway out of poverty. Importantly, policy recommendations will also be relevant for the surveillance and control of present and future disease emergences in Bangladesh.
The translation of research outputs into policy recommendations, and subsequently into action, will be promoted through continuous engagement throughout the course of this project with policy-makers, NGOs, and poultry production stakeholders in Bangladesh. The feasibility, acceptance of, and likely compliance to, potential control strategies and surveillance schemes will be assessed, and workshops will be held to inform stakeholders of research findings, and to introduce them to different measures - such as behavioural changes - that may allow them to reduce the risk for their own health and livelihood. The uptake of research in policy will be fostered by policy consultations to identify policy gaps and institutional barriers across sectors to the implementation of potential interventions. This will ensure that research outputs are presented in the most appropriate form and communicated through the most appropriate routes, as well as promoting a durable interaction between the policy environment and the research community in Bangladesh.
Although these recommendations will be tailored to the characteristics of the poultry sector in Bangladesh, the inter-disciplinary approach developed for this project will be generalizable, and key findings will be extrapolated to be adaptable for other contexts, and to foster sustainable relationships across sectors for the surveillance and control of zoonotic disease threats. To ensure a wide audience for findings, Chatham House roundtables, organised at the beginning and at the end of this project, will involve international beneficiaries, including: international organizations such as WHO, FAO and OIE, and policy-makers involved in livestock trade, and the veterinary and public health sectors from other Asian countries where HPAI H5N1 is recurrent or endemic.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description The project aimed to assess (1) the socio-economic factors shaping Bangladeshi poultry value chains and (2) the consequences for the control of the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to poultry and humans. Demand and availability of poultry were found to vary greatly according to breeds and species. While this resulted in different poultry origin and market destination patterns, value chains intertwined in markets, promoting the mixing of poultry of all breeds, species and geographical origins, as well as of their viruses. Although infection of market workers by AIVs was rare, market air and environment were highly contaminated. AIV bird-level prevalence in marketed poultry was more than 10-times as high as in farms supplying those markets, and co-infection with multiple strains was common. Model results suggested that this viral amplification from farms to markets resulted from transmission events mainly occurring at the farm gate and during transportation, rather than at markets. Moreover, the value chains' topologies likely resulted in various viral strain mixing patterns depending on poultry types and market locations, with consequences for the design of surveillance programmes. These model outputs are currently being validated through phylodynamic analyses and field experiments. We identified various forms of value appropriation processes and key roles - such as credit providers - whose choices and transaction decisions shaped poultry trade, influencing AIV spread. A novel framework was developed to integrate ethnographic knowledge into mathematical models using an experimental design inspired by behavioural economics. It was applied to assess the impact of epidemiological and socioeconomic factors on farmers' decisions about biosecurity, and, subsequently, on AIV dynamics. Engagement with policy and production stakeholders was continuous throughout the project, and led to the joint and cross-sectoral development of policy options to control poultry-related zoonoses in Bangladesh, and to improve the policy environment within which options are considered and implemented.
In conclusion, trading practices created conditions for the co-circulation of multiple AIV strains at high prevalence levels in the Bangladeshi poultry trading system, increasing the risk of viral reassortment. Our investigations suggested that not only the target of control interventions should change, but also the very nature of those interventions. To mitigate risks associated with the ongoing circulation of AIVs, it is essential to alter value chain structures by influencing transaction dynamics through economic incentives and promoting access to economic capital and information.
Exploitation Route We are now working with local policy makers to incorporate changes into Bangladesh's national influenza pandemic preparedness plan, The process is ongoing and has been somewhat delayed by the recent national elections.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare

 
Description A stakeholder analysis followed by a roundtable discussion in Dhaka and facilitated by the Chatham House were organised in 2016. It led to the development of recommendations to improve the policy environment within which options are considered and implemented. Establishment of an inter-ministerial One Health Secretariat to facilitate development of One Health zoonotic disease control policies was thus advocated and approved a few months later. A second roundtable to review progress was convened in 2018. This dialogue was informed by an extensive policy consultation together with research evidence from BALZAC and other projects led by ICDDR,B and EcoHealth Alliance. Forty stakeholders from across government, research, industry and NGO/multilateral organisations attended the roundtable, and the event was used to communicate the results and ideas developed in this research. The main outcome was wide agreement amongst national stakeholders to adoption of a novel interdisciplinary approach to AI control intervention. Based on BALZAC research evidence, policy options for the control of poultry-related zoonoses were developed and are directly contributing to the National Avian and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan 2018-2022 which is currently under development. It was also decided to form multi-sectoral working groups to explore the implementation of these control options.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Contribution to the National Avian and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan 2018-2022
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Contribution to the establishment of the inter-ministerial One Health Secretariat
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description GCRF One Health Poultry Hub
Amount £18,152,563 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S011269/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 05/2024
 
Description LANSA, Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Title Experimental interview tools 
Description Experimental interview tools inspired by behavioural economics methodology have been developed. They have been implemented in the field (in Bangladesh and Viet Nam) from September to December 2017. Their design will be described in open-access peer-reviewed scientific publications. These tools will be useful for public and animal health specialists aiming to design behavioural change interventions. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Impact will be achieved following the publication of the method 
 
Title Protocol for random sampling in live bird markets 
Description Development of a new protocol for the random selection of birds and environmental sites to be sampled in live bird markets. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The protocol has been adopted by CVASU and BLRI (reference laboratory for avian influenza in Bangladesh) and is now used for routine surveillance. 
 
Title Avian influenza virus diversity and prevalence in markets and farms 
Description The prevalence of infection in farms and markets is being estimated, and isolated viruses are being sequenced. Part of market prevalence results have been published so far. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This information will allow the animal health services to complement their surveillance data and to refine the intensity at which interventions should be implemented. Improving the effectiveness of mitigation measures will reduce the public health risk and economic burden of the disease for poor female backyard poultry owners. The resulting papers will be available in open-access and genetic sequences will be made available on GenBank. 
URL https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/12/18-0879_article
 
Title Broiler movement data 
Description Experiments for project 1.1 have generated substantial datasets which could be used for future research or student projects. These include lots of movement data and behaviour measured on a continuous scale. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data will allow further analyses of broiler movements within the context of the experimental setup used in this project. 
 
Title Live bird market census database 
Description Census of LBMs in the two main urban areas in Bangladesh, namely Dhaka and Chittagong. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This data was provided to the Department of Livestock Services and the FAO. They are using it to design their surveillance programs, and will provide it to scientists requesting it. Moreover, this data will also be published as part of a collaborative paper coordinated by Marius Gilbert (Université Libre de Bruxelles) aiming to model the spatial distribution of LBMs in several South, Southeast and East Asian countries. 
 
Title Live bird market model 
Description Mathematical models simulating the spread of infectious diseases within live bird markets. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Description of the model and model equations is available through their publication in an open-access journal. The manuscript has been published 
URL http://www.nature.com/articles/srep29463
 
Title Live bird trading practices in Bangladesh - database 
Description Description of the live bird trading network supplying Dhaka and Chittagong, and the practices of traders which are at risk of amplifying viral circulation in LBMs. Part of this research has been published. Further results will soon be submitted for publication. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The resulting papers will be open access, and provide information that would be relevant to policy-makers and researchers for informing the selection of LBMs for surveillance, and to interpret the results of virological testing. 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767022/
 
Title Modelling behavioural adaptations 
Description The model jointly simulates the spread of an animal disease between farms, and the behavioural adaptations of farmers in terms of their investments in biosecurity interventions. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Description of the model and model equations will be made available through their publication in an open-access journal. 
 
Title Poultry population dynamics model 
Description A model simulating the flow of poultry from producing areas to consumers, while accounting for the different stages of the value chains through which poultry transit, and the time they spend at each stage. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Description of the model and model equations will be available through their publication in an open-access journal. 
 
Title Poultry transaction chain drivers 
Description The cultural and socio-economic drivers shaping the poultry transaction chain were identified through an ethnographic fieldwork. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The identification of the power relationships and their determinants along the transaction chain will allow us to identify the way in which (1) the networks could be "rewired" to mitigate disease risk, and (2) interventions could be designed to increase the income generated by smallholders (in particular women) through the sale of their poultry. Results will be published in open-access publications. 
 
Title Rationales for risky practices in markets 
Description The rationales for risky practices in markets were identified and listed. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This would help improving the effectiveness and acceptability of interventions and health messages aiming to upgrade hygiene practices in markets. In addition to reducing the spread of viruses among poultry and the risk of zoonotic transfer, these interventions may also increase the economic value of the poultry and poultry products sold in markets, and allow poor market workers as well as upstream smallholders to increase their incomes. Results will be published in open-access publications. 
 
Description Behavioural economics: field experiments in Viet Nam 
Organisation Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution They will be included as co-authors in publications
Collaborator Contribution CIRAD will facilitate the implementation of the fieldwork aiming to develop and test experimental economic methods. They have been established in Ha Noi for many years, conducting collaborative research with local research organisations and animal health services. They will provide fieldworkers, and ensure the administrative and logistical organisation of the fieldwork. This collaboration also involves the Ha Noi University of Agriculture and the National Institute of Animal Sciences.
Impact No outputs or outcomes yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration - microbiological air sampler provided by the University of Minnesota 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The project team collected and analysed samples. Collaborators will be associated to publications.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Montserrat Torremorell (College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA) lent us a microbiological air sampler.
Impact Samples have been collected and are being analysed. Joint publications will be produced.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Microneutralisation testing of human serum samples 
Organisation University of Hong Kong
Country Hong Kong 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution They will be included as co-authors in publications
Collaborator Contribution Prof Malik Peiris' group will conduct the microneutralisation testing of the human serum samples we collected in Bangladesh.
Impact The laboratory analyses are currently ongoing.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Spatial modelling of poultry commercial movements 
Organisation University Libre Bruxelles (Université Libre de Bruxelles ULB)
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution They will be included as co-authors in publications
Collaborator Contribution Marius Gilbert is collaborating to develop gravity models aiming to predict commercial movements of poultry from producing areas to consumers.
Impact Not any output or outcome yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Supply of equipment and consumables 
Organisation World Health Organization (WHO)
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The project team collected and analysed samples. Results will be shared with collaborators.
Collaborator Contribution World Health Organisation: They provided equipment and consumables which are worth about £50,000. These include a microbiological air sampler and RT-PCR equipment and reagents.
Impact Samples have been collected and their analysis is ongoing. Once the analyses are finalised, results will be shared.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Technical support for virological laboratory analyses 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution They will be included as co-authors in publications
Collaborator Contribution They provided technical support for the design of biological sampling of poultry in farms and live bird markets and the laboratory testing of the samples. They provided test assurance by offering a mini-panel to evaluate PCR methodology established in the partner Bangladeshi laboratories. They will sequence virological isolates, and contribute to the bioinformatic analysis of the data. In November 2017, they have organised a 5-day bespoke workshop on avian influenza and Newcastle diseases diagnostic for 8 Bangladeshi project partners.
Impact Test assurance by offering a mini-panel to evaluate PCR methodology established in the partner Bangladeshi laboratories. Improvement of diagnostic capacity through the delivery of a 5-day bespoke training workshop. A joint publication (see publication list, Kim et al, 2018, EID). Production of genomic data. Further outputs (genomic data and joint publications) will generated throughout the course of the project.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Chatham House roundtable 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact During the first roundtable held in May 2016, the establishment of an inter-ministerial One Health Secretariat to facilitate the development of One Health zoonotic disease control policies was advocated and approved a few months later. A second roundtable to review progress was convened in 2018. This dialogue was informed by an extensive policy consultation together with research evidence from BALZAC and other projects led by ICDDR,B and EcoHealth Alliance. Forty stakeholders from across government, research, industry and NGO/multilateral organisations attended the roundtable, and the event was used to communicate the results and ideas developed in this research. The main outcome was wide agreement amongst national stakeholders to adoption of a novel interdisciplinary approach to avian influenza control intervention. Recommendations were jointly developed, and presented in a policy briefing sent to the relevant ministries. These recommendations are now considered in the review of the national avian influenza and pandemic preparedness and response plan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Chatham House roundtable (Dhaka) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Attended by members of governmental institutions (Ministry of Environment and Forest, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare), international organisations (FAO, WHO, World bank), NGOs (BRAC), foreign governmental development agencies (USAID), Bangladeshi research organisations and representatives of the poultry farming association, it promoted dialogue among stakeholders and led to the development of recommendations for the development and implementation of One Health policies in Bangladesh.A policy briefing presenting these recommendations has been produced and sent to the abovementioned ministries.
Establishment of an inter-ministerial One Health Secretariat to facilitate the development of One Health zoonotic disease control policies was advocated and approved a few months later.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.chathamhouse.org/about/structure/global-health-security/zoonoses-and-emerging-livestock-...
 
Description Communication: press conference (Dhaka) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact In conjunction with the Chatham House roundtable, we presented and discussed the objectives of the BALZAC project with Bangladeshi journalists. Articles about the project have been published in several Bangladeshi newspapers, including:
http://www.thedailystar.net/city/govt-project-underway-check-bird-flu-outbreak-1224595
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thedailystar.net/city/govt-project-underway-check-bird-flu-outbreak-1224595
 
Description Inter-disciplinary training workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Five workshops were organised. (1) A 2-day workshop entitled "A Practical Workshop on the Design and Analysis of Epidemiological Surveys" was organised in December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Science University (CVASU). It gathered 29 participants, including members from the animal health, wildlife and public health services, undergraduate veterinary students, and MSc students in public health and veterinary epidemiology. (2) A one-day workshop entitled "An introduction to the analysis of clustered data" was held at CVASU in May 2015. It was attended by 25 participants, including MSc students in veterinary epidemiology. (3) A one-day workshop entitled "Ethnography of Avian Influenza Risk" was held at CVASU in November 2015. It was attended by postgraduate students and members from the animal health, wildlife and public health services. (4) A training workshop on sample size calculation, survey design, data management was organised at CVASU on 7th May 2017. It was attended by 20 participants (all academics and MSc students). (5) A one-day workshop on social network analysis was organised on 24 September 2017 at CVASU. It gathered 25 participants, who were MSc students, academics, FAO officer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2017
 
Description Meetings with provincial veterinary services 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact At the start of the project, a meeting was held in Dhaka with the Department of Livestock Services, and was attended by the Chief Veterinary Officer. The project objectives, the targeted outputs and their relevance for policy development in Bangladesh were discussed. Participatory meetings were held with province-level veterinary officers. It gathered 35 veterinary officers in Chittagong province, and 5 veterinary officers in Comilla province. The heads of the provincial veterinary services joined these meetings. The research activities to be conducted in the respective provinces were discussed, as well as the involvement of the veterinary services.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description National DVM Research Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The conference was held at CVASU on 19-20 September 2018 and co-organised by a project co-investigator (Ahasanul Hoque). It was an opportunity to build awareness among veterinary students, academics and veterinary practitioners (number of participants: 200-250) about the importance of interdisciplinary approaches at the interface between natural and social science to explore the epidemiology of animal and zoonotic diseases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description One Health Bangladesh meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The project objectives and research progresses were presented and discussed during meetings organised by "One Health Bangladesh." This forum gathers major stakeholders from public health and animal health sectors, research and academic institutions and NGOs. Each meeting is generally attended by 20 to 70 participants, with 4-5 meetings/year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
 
Description One Health and food safety conference (Chittagong) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A 2-day scientific conference on One Health and food safety was organised at CVASU on the 1st and 2nd April 2017 and co-organised by two project co-investigators (Ahasanul Hoque and Paritosh Biswas). It was attended by local researchers and veterinary service staff (about 100 participants). It was an opportunity to communicate research findings to the local scientific community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description One Health conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A 3-day One Health conference was organised by two project co-investigators (Nitish Debnath and Mahmudur Rahman) in Bangladesh from the 29th to the 31st March 2015, and gathered 349 participants (inc. 79 women), including researchers and policy-makers from the animal health, public health and environment sector. It was attended, among others, by the Minister of Health, the Minister of Livestock and Fisheries, the Minister of Environment and Forests, the director generals of health services, livestock services and environment services, and WHO and FAO representatives. The project PI, Dirk Pfeiffer, gave a keynote lecture entitled "A system perspective on avian influenza". This conference was a unique forum for emphasising the importance of adopting a cross-sectoral approach to tackle the major zoonotic threats affecting Bangladesh.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description One Health conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The project took part the organisation of the 9th One Health Bangladesh conference, which was coordinated by two project co-investigators (Nitish Debnath and Meejardy Flora). The conference was held in Dhaka on the 17th and 18th September 2017. A total of 4 oral and 5 poster presentations were given on the project research outputs and impact activities. The conference gathered about 600 participants, including researchers and policy-makers from the animal health, public health and environment sector. It was attended, among others, by the Minister of Health, the Minister of Livestock and Fisheries, the Minister of Environment and Forests, the director generals of health services, livestock services and environment services, and WHO and FAO representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://bdnews24.com/health/2017/09/17/one-health-concept-important-for-bangladesh-who-representativ...
 
Description One Health conference (Chittagong) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A 2-day scientific conference on One Health and food safety was organised at CVASU on the 2nd and 3rd April 2016 and co-organised by a project co-investigator (Ahasanul Hoque). It was not only attended by local researchers, but also by the veterinary services (196 participants). A keynote presentation was given about the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Participatory meetings with poultry production stakeholders (Chittagong) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A series of 6 participatory meetings with poultry production stakeholders (poultry traders, feed dealers, field veterinarians) and customers: these meeting were organised to explore stakeholders' perception about HPAI and to increase awareness about avian influenza, zoonotic diseases, food safety and preventive hygiene measures. These meetings were held at CVASU, in Chittagong: Each meeting gathered from 4 to 14 participants (total number of participants: 48).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Presentation: One Health in practice 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Following the Chatham House roundtable, a presentation on One Health research and policy was given by a project co-investigator, Prof David Heymann. The presentation was followed by a discussion in which roundtable participants took part, as well as public and animal health academics, researchers, MSc and PhD students. The importance of shifting the focus of zoonotic disease threat control from emergency response to prevention at the source was emphasised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Stakeholder meeting (Dhaka) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A stakeholder meeting was held in Dhaka on 22 November 2015. Representatives from NGOs (BRAC), international organisations (FAO), and from the public health, animal health and environmental government sectors at both the national and district levels were informed about project progress and were invited to provide feedback about the project activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Study participants' feedback sessions 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Study participants were visited, and project results directly relevant to their daily practice were presented and discussed, individually or in small groups. Participants reported changes in their understanding of the way in which risk of infection for themselves and their flock can be influenced by their practices.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019