Zoonoses in Livestock in Kenya (ZooLINK)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Institute of Infection and Global Health

Abstract

The goal the Zoonoses in Livestock in Kenya project (ZooLinK) is to enable Kenya to develop an effective national surveillance programme for zoonoses (meaning infectious diseases acquired through contact with animals or their products). To achieve this goal we will work in close collaboration with Kenyan government departments to set up a project in western Kenya as a model for a national programme.

The rationale for ZooLinK is that the burden of disease caused by zoonoses is greatly underestimated - as we know from our own research in the study region. In one recent but relatively small-scale study, we found 14 different zoonoses circulating in humans and their livestock. In addition, we expect this burden to change in the future as a result of continuing changes to livestock production systems in Kenya and elsewhere in order to satisfy increased demand for livestock products - again, we have good evidence of this taking place. The most important changes are the commercialisation and intensification of what was previously subsistence farming, changes in trading patterns (e.g. the distances that livestock and their products are transported), and changes in favoured breeds. All of these affect the risk of zoonoses and other infectious diseases. For example, our work has indicated that genes from exotic dairy cattle are 'leaking' into local cattle populations and altering susceptibilities to specific infections.

There is therefore a pressing need for good surveillance of zoonoses in order to establish their true burden and how that is changing. Importantly, this does not have to be set up from scratch. Kenya already has veterinary surveillance for infectious diseases in place at livestock markets, slaughterhouses and butcheries and in the wider farming community. It also has clinics and hospitals reporting infectious diseases in people. So the systems exist and are manned by trained staff. What is needed, and will be provided by ZooLinK, is increased awareness of zoonoses, better diagnostic support, better ways to record, share, analyse and interpret data, and closer integration between the human and animal health sectors.

In order to convince potential funders of the value of a national programme, we need to provide evidence that an enhanced surveillance system can contribute to improving public health in a cost-effective manner. For this reason, during our project we will closely monitor our enhanced system's performance and compare it to the current situation, identifying which activities do (or do not) provide good value for money. ZooLinK will also provide a platform for Kenyan public and animal health workers to get hands-on training (e.g. in diagnostic methods or electronic data systems) and to become familiar with a 'One Health' approach to surveillance. Training will be coordinated by Kenyan partners and will generate a cadre of individuals with first-hand experience of this way of working - this should leave a very strong legacy in its own right.

In addition to addressing these practical issues, ZooLinK will also provide a unique scientific evidence base which will help us to understand and anticipate changes in zoonotic disease burdens and to recommend effective interventions. This will involve detailed study of economic, social, demographic, genetic, and epidemiological drivers and the way that these combine to produce an overall burden of disease and risk of disease outbreaks. In this context the unusually comprehensive nature of ZooLinK is a major advantage: there are obvious limitations to studying single diseases or drivers in isolation (e.g. changes that favour one disease may reduce the risk of another; or effects due to changes in one driver may be outweighed by changes in another). The high quality data to be collected by ZooLinK, supported by state-of-the-art, diagnostics, genetics, and economic, statistical and mathematical modelling, will allow us to tackle such questions.

Technical Summary

We will establish an enhanced zoonotic disease surveillance system in an area of western Kenya where we have prior evidence of a substantial burden of zoonotic and food-borne diseases. This will involve the development of mobile phone-based data collection tools and training of staff in their use. At the same time we will assess the operation, performance and costs of existing surveillance activities.

We will deploy diagnostic tests for 14 different zoonotic pathogens, plus common coinfections, in both humans and livestock. We will also develop new multiplex systems using bead-based technologies and paper-based assays (as a longer term goal aimed at point-of-decision diagnosis).

We will screen 7500 livestock at markets and slaughterhouses, and 5000 humans reporting to health care facilities with suspected zoonotic disease, to obtain baseline epidemiological data on the prevalence/incidence of zoonotic infections in the study populations. We will identify risk factors in individuals and at specific locations. There will be more detailed studies of a subset of individuals (600 per species) in a case-control format; for humans this will include trace-back to residence. For cattle and pigs the subset will be genotyped using state-of-the-art SNP chips, primarily to establish ancestry and estimate levels of introgression.

We will develop a risk network model of zoonotic disease distribution in different species and locations, parameterised from and validated against the field data. The models will be used to test different ways of allocating resources to surveillance, by species and location, in order to maximise cost-effectiveness (as DALY-weighted numbers of cases detected).

We will develop projections of demographic and agricultural changes, particularly trends towards the commercialisation and intensification of livestock production, and use the risk network model to estimate consequent changes in zoonotic disease risk and economic burden.

Planned Impact

Immediate impacts will include the provision of an enhanced, integrated human-animal health surveillance capacity serving 1.5M people in western Kenya and improved care for >6000 patients, together with new data on zoonotic disease burdens, including contamination of the food chain. Medium term impacts will include provision of a scientific evidence base, including cost-effectiveness data and operational experience to justify and facilitate the setting up of a national zoonoses surveillance system managed by the Kenya Zoonotic Disease Unit (ZDU). Long term impacts will ultimately depend on the link between evidence of the public health burden due to zoonotic diseases and future investment in appropriate control or prevention strategies. This will be facilitated by explicit comparison between the cost-effectiveness of currently operating surveillance systems and ZooLinK's enhanced, integrated system. One encouraging example from our previous work is the case of human African sleeping sickness, for which the Ugandan government introduced (within 5 years of publication of the scientific evidence) cattle market-based screening to prevent introduction of the disease into new areas.

Beyond the impacts listed above, we foresee multiple beneficiaries within the project's timeframe.
- Improved diagnostic systems could potentially benefit those exposed to the target zoonoses throughout Africa.
- Improved training of a cohort of animal health assistants will benefit veterinary public health throughout Kenya.
- The reduced risk of zoonotic diseases in livestock achieved through enhanced surveillance will improve the marketability of livestock products - nationally and internationally - across the entire study area; this will especially benefit those intending to farm commercially - at however small a scale - and all those involved in the value chain for livestock and livestock products.

Institutions benefiting will include Kenya's Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation and the Department of Veterinary Services within the Ministry of Livestock Development. ZDU is a joint initiative of the two Ministries with direct links to them, and is a key partner in ZooLinK. Importantly, the frameworks for surveillance and disease control are already in place (e.g. the ZDU "One Health" Operational Plan); ZooLinK will add in the operational capacity and evidence of cost-effectiveness. Other countries in the region may wish to learn from the Kenyan model, and we will support study visits by policy makers from elsewhere to see ZooLinK at first hand.

Other beneficiaries will be international organisations including WHO, FAO, OIE and AU-IBAR. All are concerned with improving surveillance and the capacity to detect and control zoonoses.

Targeting policy bodies serves the primary purpose of contributing to the livelihoods of poor livestock keepers in Kenya and the East African region. This project is built on the observation that subsistence farmers are intensifying production, but this transition is not an easy one, demanding an ability to compete in such markets. We know from our existing work that, in practice, zoonoses are a barrier to growth in this sector in the study region. For example, large numbers of potentially successful pig keepers are currently excluded from national pork value chains because a major meat processor (rightly) perceives the zoonotic disease risk (specifically for T. solium cysticercosis) in the Lake Victoria basin to be too high. Improving confidence in the quality of livestock products from this region will create significant marketing and trade opportunities. Consumer health will benefit directly.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have acheived the objectives of Work Pakcage One, a full and comprehensive review of surveillance systems in Kenya. This is being shared with DFID country offices in East Africa.

We have instituted a surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever in Kenya in collaboration with the National Veterinary Authority, in response to the threat of an outbreak given the El Nino rains.

We have contributed to the development of a national brucellosis strategy for Kenya based on work published from this project
Exploitation Route Findings of the RVF study have been comminicated through national fora and will be taken up in to systems of national surveillance.

DFID country offices will use the surveillance review to assist with the implementation of other DFID projects in the health sector.
Sectors Environment,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description The project has been the impetus to convene national and subnational decision makers around the issue of zoonoses.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Government of Kenya Zoonotic Disease Technical Working Group
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Directly influenced systems of national disease surveillance, ranking of priority diseases at a national level
 
Description Kenyan National Avian Influenza Advisory team
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Participated in the design of a National Avian Influenza Surveillance activity
 
Description Kenyan National Brucellosis Policy Forum
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact This task force drew on ours and others work to begin the framework discussions for the first Kenyan National Brucellosis Control Strategy. It brought together research parterns, policy makers and government technocrats to discuss the evidence base and make recommendations.
 
Description Kenyan National MERS Taskforce
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The MERS Talk Force has implemented national surveys to understand the epidemiology of MERS in the country and develop control strategies
 
Description Training course - deciphering phylogenetics
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Conducted a training of private and public sector representatives (n=12) in understanding phylogentic analysis and how to interpret phylogentic science to apply it to policy and practice. Funding for this was linked to the project but was separately obtained through the BBSRC Impact Accelerator Award to the University of Liverpool (2016/2017).
 
Description World Health Organization Human AFrican Trypanosomiasis Technical Advisory Group
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Design of international guidelines for human african trypanosomiasis elimination, as well as indicators for elimination
 
Description World Health Organization Working Group on Zoonotic Neglected Tropical Diseases
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description BBSRC GCRF IAA University of Liverpool
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description BBSRC Impact Accelerator Award
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/GCRF-IAA/12 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 04/2017
 
Description BBSRC Translational Awards
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R020051/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 10/2019
 
Description CGIAR A4NH
Amount $20,000,000 (USD)
Organisation CGIAR 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Global
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2018
 
Description Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) on Quantification and Management of Risk & Uncertainty in Complex Systems & Environments
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2019
 
Description DAAD-ILRI studentship
Amount $78,000 (USD)
Organisation German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2019
 
Description Darwin Trust - Evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants between and within livestock and humans in Kenya
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description Government of Brazil PhD Sandwich programme: Characterization of extended-spectrum-betalactamase resistant E. coli from milk in low- income countries using whole genome sequencing
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Brazil 
Sector Public
Country Brazil
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2018
 
Description Government of Kenya - Characterization of non-typhoidal salmonella (nts) isolates from domestic animals and humans in busia, a rural county in western Kenya
Amount £200,000 (KES)
Organisation Maseno University 
Sector Academic/University
Country Kenya
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2018
 
Description Laura Falzon Seed Grant
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Liverpool 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 06/2017
 
Description Melissa Ward Fellowship
Amount £1,500,000 (GBP)
Funding ID WT103953MA 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Muloi PhD
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Society for the History of Science (BSHS) 
Department Darwin Trust of Edinburgh
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description RCUK DTP; Human and livestock movement patterns and zoonotic disease risk in Kenya
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2017
 
Description US-UK Partnership Award
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N022513/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2020
 
Description University of Liverpool Pump-priming grant- Lian Thomas
Amount £900 (GBP)
Organisation University of Liverpool 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 07/2018
 
Description Wellcome Trust Research Taster Award - Prevalence and anti-microbial resistance (AMR) profile of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) of livestock and humans in Kenya and Malawi
Amount £48,606 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 06/2017
 
Title Biobank of samples 
Description Approximately 4000 samples collected through the project or in part through the project are housed in the ILRI based AZIZI biobank in Kenya. These are available in an open access format to the scientific community on request. This biobank continues to grow. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Several scientific papers 
URL http://azizi.ilri.cgiar.org/
 
Title Sample biobank 
Description Biobank of biological samples and associated metadata from East African field research in humans and animals 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None yet 
URL http://azizi.ilri.cgiar.org/
 
Description A4NH 
Organisation International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Department Agriculture for Nutrition and Health
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Technical expertise
Collaborator Contribution Funding for sub-projects (eg on human nutrition in urban value chains), as well as technical staff support and some consumables
Impact Interdiciplinary. Outputs still in preparation
Start Year 2013
 
Description AHITI 
Organisation Government of Kenya
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our project pays a minimum cost for internships for Government of Kenya trained individuals, who are attached to the project and work on One Health issues
Collaborator Contribution The Government of Kenya provides the human resource, and the training that backs up the interns who are attached to our programme.
Impact Hands on training in the field and the lab; Contributions to a diverse range of project outputs; Capacity development
Start Year 2016
 
Description DVS 
Organisation Veterinary Services Department
Country Kenya 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution Training for fresh veterinary graduates who are attached to our programme at no cost to us for 52 weeks
Collaborator Contribution Partners are administering contracts for newly qualified vets who are attached to our programme
Impact Wide ranging contributions to project outputs more generally
Start Year 2018
 
Description EPT-2 USAID/FAO 
Organisation United States Agency for International Development
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have contributed policy advice and samples to the EPT2 programme in Kenya
Collaborator Contribution EPT2 have contributed samples
Impact Analysed samples awaiting publication
Start Year 2016
 
Description Erasmus Holland 
Organisation Erasmus University Medical Center
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sharing of samples and joint analysis of data leading to outputs
Collaborator Contribution Laboratory consumables, laboratory personnnel time, shipping costs
Impact PLoS One. 2015 Oct 16;10(10):e0140125. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140125. eCollection 2015. Serological Evidence of MERS-CoV Antibodies in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Laikipia County, Kenya. Deem SL1, Fèvre EM2, Kinnaird M3, Browne AS4, Muloi D5, Godeke GJ6, Koopmans M7, Reusken CB6.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Kenya FELTP 
Organisation Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT)
Department Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We train FELTP residents in our programme
Collaborator Contribution Provide 3x full time trainees every year (total of 6 trainees at any given time) at no cost to our programme. Effectively, we are given 6 free members of full time staff.
Impact MSc theses x3 so far Papers x 3 in preparation 6x theses expected over the next 2 years
Start Year 2015
 
Description LIDC 
Organisation London International Development Centre
Department Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Access to data and study sites, and analytical tools
Collaborator Contribution 100% of a joint PhD student
Impact PhD student appointed
Start Year 2012
 
Description PREDICT-USAID 
Organisation United States Agency for International Development
Department PREDICT
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have contributed samples and intellectual inputs to the PREDICT program
Collaborator Contribution USAID -PREDICT program has been a partner on wildlife sampling, sharing materials, protocols and staff time
Impact Agreed shared protocols
Start Year 2015
 
Description St Louis Zoo 
Organisation Saint Louis Zoo
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Joint work in the field and joint analysis of data leading to publications
Collaborator Contribution Funding from their fundraising activitites
Impact PLoS One. 2015 Oct 16;10(10):e0140125. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140125. eCollection 2015. Serological Evidence of MERS-CoV Antibodies in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Laikipia County, Kenya. Deem SL1, Fèvre EM2, Kinnaird M3, Browne AS4, Muloi D5, Godeke GJ6, Koopmans M7, Reusken CB6.
Start Year 2013
 
Description University of Navarra, Spain 
Organisation University of Navarra
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have tested a hundreds of samples with shared reagents, and this has been writtem up as a manuscript. The studies have also generated results which have been taken up by policy partners.
Collaborator Contribution Prof Ignacio Moryion from the University of Navarra provided reagents for brucellosis diagnostics free of charge to our project over a period of many years.
Impact Peer reviewed publication in press
Start Year 2012
 
Description ZDU Kenya 
Organisation Government of Kenya
Department Zoonotic Disease Unit
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution ZDU is a policy partner to whom we have contributed policy advice for national level policy making
Collaborator Contribution Facilitation to work in Kenya
Impact Formal advice to policy fora. Involvment of the PI in two national task forces.
Start Year 2012
 
Title Electronic data recording system 
Description Technology developed for the ZooLinK project by a commercial partner. This is a secure, digital data recording system for disease detection and surveillance, available to the research team, government partners and other stakeholders. Data are housed on a managed secure server. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Easier access to zoonotic disease data for research team and government staff responsible for surveillance 
 
Description 15th International Symposium of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Chiang Mai, Thailand 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ISVEE is a global forum for interdisciplinary collaboration and communication among graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, practitioners, junior and senior researchers, as well as policymakers, health, veterinary public health, social science, and animal health economic professionals, to learn and share with a vision of building a better life tomorrow for veterinary epidemiology at the local, regional, and international levels.over 700 participants from 70 countries attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://isvee.net/
 
Description An oral presenatation of Field observations on animal welfare and its impact on production and food hygiene during the Kenyan Veterinary Association Conference - Western Branch, Busia, Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to national Veterinary practitioners to share ZooLinK field observations on animal welfare and its impact on production and food hygiene. This was during the Kenya Veterinary Association Conference - Western Branch, Busia, Kenya. over 100 veterinarians and practitioners attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBC news article on AMR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC News article reporting the wider context around a project output on AMR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-34276557
 
Description BBSRC IAA SME event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Bioscience for Agricultural Development

An event jointly hosted by the International Livestock Research Institute (www.ilri.org; Kenya) and the University of Liverpool (www.liverpool.ac.uk; UK)

Tuesday 21 March-Wednesday 22 March 2017
ILRI Campus, Nairobi

This event was held with the support of the UK's Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (grant number BB/GCRF-IAA/12)

Introduction
In 2016, the University of Liverpool was awarded a Global Challenge Research Fund Impact Accelerator Award from the BBSRC (BBSRC GCRF-IAA). One element of this award was to organise an interaction between small to medium enterprises from the UK and counterparts in East Africa, together with representatives from key policy and research institutions and NGOs. The objective of the event was to create a forum for interaction between small enterprises, NGOs and the research community involved in agricultural development and to facilitate linkages between the communities in the UK and East Africa. The intention was to foster partnerships between non-research actors and research actors in the UK and Kenya. The University of Liverpool and the International Livestock Research Institute co-hosted this event, by exploiting existing links in place through BBSRC-sponsored research activities (specifically the BBSRC ZELS ZooLinK programme, grant reference BB/L019019/1.


Invited organisations were:

UK:
Aqua 21 (www.aqua21.co.uk)
Barefoot Lightning (www.barefootlightning.com)
H2OVenture Partners (http://www.h2ovp.com)

Kenya:
iCow (http://www.icow.co.ke/
iShamba (http://ishamba.com/)
Kenya Livestock Breeding Organisation (http://www.klbo.co.ke/)
Kenya Livestock Producers Organisation (http://www.klpakenya.org/)
Bandili Innovations (https://vc4a.com/ventures/badili-innovations/)
Kenya Markets Trust (http://www.kenyamarkets.org/)
Mara Beef (http://www.marabeef.com/)
Kenya Department of Veterinary Services (http://www.kilimo.go.ke/livestock/index.php/veterinary-services/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description CGIAR Science Forum, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CGIAR Science Forum 2018 (SF18), was held from 10-12 October 2018 in Stellenbosch, South Africa. SF18 was organized by the CGIAR'S Independent Science and Partnership Council (ISPC) and co-hosted by the South African Agricultural Research Council.

The objective of SF18 was to identify substantial interactions between the Sustainable Development Goals (both positive and negative), the role of agricultural research in augmenting synergies and managing trade-offs, and the ensuing implications for the science-policy interface. Results will contribute to the discussion of developing research themes and frameworks in CGIAR.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.scienceforum2018.org/about
 
Description Converstaion article: From farm to table: poor hygiene in slaughterhouses in rural Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Academic blog site The Conversation article "From farm to table: poor hygiene in slaughterhouses in rural Kenya" Summarising research from our field activities and reaching a mass audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://theconversation.com/from-farm-to-table-poor-hygiene-in-slaughterhouses-in-rural-kenya-71820
 
Description Converstaion article: How an 'urban zoo' project in Kenya is helping unpack the spread of disease 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article on the academic blog site The Conversation entitled 'How an 'urban zoo' project in Kenya is helping unpack the spread of disease'
Written and published by EM Fevre on 17 November 2016. Downloaded 59,289 times by March 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://theconversation.com/how-an-urban-zoo-project-in-kenya-is-helping-unpack-the-spread-of-diseas...
 
Description Converstaion article: Studying African camels is key to learning more about the MERS virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Converstation academic blog site article entitled "Studying African camels is key to learning more about the MERS virus".
Downloaded 944 times by March 2017
Led to requests to participate in new grants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/studying-african-camels-is-key-to-learning-more-about-the-mers-virus-487...
 
Description Feedback Engagement with Livestock traders and Butchers, in Western Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Public engagement with livestock traders and butchers at Myanga slaughterhouse and livestock market in Bungoma County and in Shinyalu slaughterhouse and livestock market in Kakamega County. The objective was to share research sampling results so far, to inform everyone of the work we do, diseases under the study and offer recommendations on control of the diseases. The participants were also updated on the project's next steps. The engagement was done through short stories of the various diseases, Talks and Pamphlets/Booklets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.zoonotic-diseases.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ZooLink-feedback_Shinyalu_Final.pdf
 
Description Feedback Engagement with hospital staff- medical officer of health, public health officer, nursing staff and clinical officers, Western Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Feedback engagement with Medical officers of health, public health officers, nursing officers, clinical officers and laboratory staff at Bumula sub county hospital in Busia County, Mukumu mission hospital in Kakamega county and Lukolis health center in Bungoma County. The participants were updated on the research findings from samples collected in their hospitals through talks, information about the diagnostics of the various diseases was also shared through talks and written information on zoonoses was shared in Booklets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description ISESSAH-InnovSur 2018 Conference, Montpellier, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The objectives of the forum was to highlight the innovations in terms of health surveillance design and evaluation.
To Review the needs for translational research to promote innovation uptake as well as Brainstorm on the challenges behind integrated health surveillance.
130-150 professional practitioners attended
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International society for the social sciences and economics of animal health,14th-17th May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk was on modelling the cost effectiveness of a novel Teania solium control strategy with an aim to establish the most cost effective control methods
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International veterinary vaccinology network, Nairobi. 26th March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lian Thomas gave a talk on improving use of socioeconomics in veterinary vaccinology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Kenya Government Zoonotic Disease Technical Advisory Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Expert Member of the Zoonotic Disease Technical Advisory Group, the independent panel of experts who advise the Government of Kenya Zoonotic Disease Unit on scientific and technical issues in the area of zoonoses and disease surveillance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://zdukenya.org
 
Description Member of the Avian Influenza Task Force coordinated by Director of Veterinary Services 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The purpose of this task force was in five themes 1) Surveillance; (2) Research & Laboratory; (3) Case Management; (4) Information, Communication and Education; and (5) Funding.

So far, several surveillance work has been done to evaluate the Avian Influenza prevalence and in particular highly pathogenic strains, among wild bird populations, including both migratory and resident bird species; and to provide technical support to the national surveillance programme through capacity building of national counterparts on sampling techniques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Member of the MERS Technical Working Group/ Task force coordinated by the Director of Veterinary Services, Kenya. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact To deliberate on issues of MERS and to give technical advice on the surveillance and control of MERS in the region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description News article in national Kenyan paper the Daily Nation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article on zoonoses together with policy partners in a national daily newspaper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nation.co.ke/lifestyle/DN2/Take-care-how-you-interact-with-animals/-/957860/3108294/-/15f...
 
Description News article: Kenya tackles growing threat of deadly animal viruses transmitted to humans 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Two page spread article in the Kenyan daily paper the "Business Daily" on March 2 2017 entitled 'Kenya tackles growing threat of deadly animal viruses transmitted to humans'. Article the results of a series of interviews with project staff by a science journalist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.businessdailyafrica.com/corporate/Kenya-tackles-growing-threat-of-deadly-animal-viruses-/...
 
Description News viewpoint: Achieving a common good 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact News item in the Veterinary Record: Achieving a common good resulting from a conference talk in September 2016, at the meeting of the Royal Soceity of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.i5006
 
Description Open Data Kit Training 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Training on ODK to build the capacity of project field staff on designing research questionnaires and administering the designed forms in the field. The training also involved interpretation of the outputs from the ODK platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster Presentation on surveillance for cystic echinococcosis in western Kenya: Distribution and genetic diversity at the 27th congress of the World Association of Echinococcosis in Algiers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One of our PhD students on German DAAD scholarship made a poster presentation on his research findings so far, during this Congress. Echinococcosis is one of the diseases that the ZooLinK project is carrying out research on, in western Kenya. The purpose was to increase interaction with researchers working on Echinococcosis and share his research findings to the expert panels for discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10568/90723
 
Description Presentation to the UK Cheif Scientist, Sir Mark Walport 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Sir Mark Walport, the UK Cheif Scientist, visited Kenya and was invited to the International Livestock Research Institute where PIs for the project presented the work we are doing to him and his team.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://news.ilri.org/2015/07/22/uk-chief-scientific-adviser-visits-kenya-part-2-one-health-surveilla...
 
Description Public Engagement in ZooLinK sampling sites in Western Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Healthcare providers (including students) were engaged by ZooLinK project staff within hospitals and health centers where the project has been carrying out field work in 3 counties of western Kenya: Busia, Bungoma and Kakamega.
Slaughter house and livestock staff were also engaged in the animal sampling sites in the three counties.
Preliminary study results were shared with participants and info-booklets with ZooLinK diseases of study were distributed to all.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Quote and photo in Daily Nation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Brief piece in the Kenyan Daily Nation newspaper reporting on urban health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Syndromic surviellance course for stakeholders 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We obtained additional funding linked to the ZooLinK project to run a 3 day course on syndromic surveillance for public sector practionners, MSc and PhD students and decision makers at local levels (eg County Level District Veterinary Officers). 26 people trained over 3 days by project postdoc Laura Falzon and external expert John Berezowski from the University of Bern in Switzerland. Day was was presentations and active discussion, days 2 and 3 were practical computer based training sessions based on real data from the region/study site. The activity took place in the ZELS supported laboratory facility in Busia, Kenya.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Twitter social media activity on @ZoonoticDisease 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our team uses twitter on @ZoonoticDisease with almost 1800 followers to date (March 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL https://twitter.com/ZoonoticDisease
 
Description Uppsala Health Summit 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Uppala Health Summit; The overall goal for this year's summit is to bring together a diverse group ofpolicy-makers, scientists, industry representatives and civil society to stimulate dialogue around the One Health concept as approach to emerging infectious disease threats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.uppsalahealthsummit.se/our-summits/tackling-infectious-disease-threats-with-a-one-health-...
 
Description WHO Strategic Advisory Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact WHO working group appointed by the WHO Director General considering issues of Zoonotic Diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/stag_nzd_call_nominations/en/
 
Description Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Curated website with rich content, receiving approx 950 hits per month from a global audience. Includes newsletters specific to the projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.zoonotic-diseases.org/
 
Description Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems Grantholders' Meeting, Hanoi, Vietnam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The 2 day event, included the social science day, the grant holders workshop and ZELS-AS students meeting.
The ZELS projects gave an update on project activities going on in Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Togo, Burundi, Cameroon, Niger, Senegal, and Vietnam
During the Social science day the critical role played by social science in ZELS projects was discussed at length and consensus reached on need for participation of social scientists in the initial stages of project planning.
Advantages within multidisciplinarity were highlighted as: broader understanding of problems, acquisition of new conceptual and physical tools, and intellectual growth.
During the ZELS-AS students meeting, students, their supervisors and funders engaged in discussions for the ongoing students' activities. The critique of students' work by supervisors and funders greatly helped the students develop more in-depth view of their specific projects. The students got to net work and share ideas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description nvestigating the potential for a syndromic surveillance system based on meat inspection records in western Kenya during the Kenya Veterinary Association 52nd Annual Scientific Conference, in Nyeri, Kenya. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Investigating the potential for a syndromic surveillance system based on meat inspection records in western Kenya during the Kenya Veterinary Association 52nd Annual Scientific Conference, in Nyeri, Kenya. The purpose was to share the project activities to participants and show how meat inspection records can be used to establish a surveillance system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018