Exploitation of Burkholderia bacteria as novel antibiotic producers using a genome mining approach

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: School of Biosciences

Abstract

USING NOVEL DISCOVERY TOOLS AND PRODUCER BACTERIA TO IDENTIFY RESISTANCE-BUSTING ANTIBIOTICS

There is an urgent need to discover and develop new antibiotics to treat resistant infections caused by superbugs. Most of the antibiotics we use today are produced by one group of soil bacteria, the Streptomyces. Researchers at Cardiff University discovered that another group of bacteria, known as Burkholderia, produce novel antibiotics that kill superbugs that have become resistant to current antibiotics such as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To enable clinical and commercial development, the chemical structures of antibiotics must be determined to see if they are novel compounds. Via collaboration with experts at the University of Warwick's Department of Chemistry, we have determined complete structures for one Burkholderia antibiotic, enacyloxin IIa, and partially determined the structures of two novel antibiotics, gladiolin and vietnamycin.

Purifying and determining the chemical structures of antibiotics takes time and considerable expertise, therefore researchers are now using a new tool for antibiotic discovery called genome mining. This approach takes the entire genetic code (genome sequence) of an antibiotic producing bacterium and then searches it for genes involved in the production of novel antibiotics. The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) are pioneers in bacterial genome sequencing and have new technology called Pacific Biosciences sequencing, which is ideally suited to rapid bacterial genome determination in a single sequence run. In collaboration with researchers at WTSI, we sequenced the genome of the gladiolin producing strain and were able to identify the genes involved in production of this antibiotic. Using this extra sequence information, we can now determine the full structure of gladiolin which is needed to take the antibiotic forward into clinical development.

Overall, our preliminary research has shown that Burkholderia are an untapped, promising source of new antibiotics to combat multidrug-resistant superbugs. To determine if Burkholderia can be as successful as the Streptomyces bacteria which produce the majority of the antibiotics we use today, we will use genome mining as a new Burkholderia antibiotic discovery tool, and aim to:

1. Genome sequence 24 antibiotic producing Burkholderia using the Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology. Firstly, to advance characterization of vietnamycin, our anti-MRSA antibiotic, the Burkholderia strain producing this antibiotic will be sequenced. 23 more strains which kill current drug resistant bacteria will then be selected from our large collection. In total, the 24 antibiotic producing Burkholderia genomes will create a unique library of DNA for genome mining and discovery of new antibiotics.

2. Fully identify the structure for gladiolin and vietnamycin, using a combination of chemistry and genetic analysis of their genomes and production pathways.

3. Carry out a unique genome mining survey of Burkholderia antibiotic capacity using the genomes of the 24 strains known to have novel resistance-busting activity. The first two goals of the grant described above will create the genome mining data and also train the researchers on the grant in all the skills necessary to implement this new approach to antibiotic discovery. We will also investigate if "silent pathways" which encode novel antibiotics within the genomes of these Burkholderia can be switched on.

4. The last objective of our research will be to prepare a panel of five novel antibiotics to take forward into preclinical development as drugs to combat resistance. In addition to gladiolin and vietnamycin, we will use the information from genome mining to complete the structure and activity analysis of three further novel Burkholderia antibiotics.

Technical Summary

We discovered that Burkholderia bacteria are an untapped resource of novel antibiotics that can overcome current antimicrobial resistance. Our published data on Burkholderia enacyloxin, a potent anti-Gram negative antibiotic, showed that it is produced by a novel hybrid polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway and is highly exploitable as a member of the successful polyketide antibiotic family. Single Burkholderia strains produce multiple antibiotics and we have now identified a novel macrolide, gladiolin, and another mupirocin-like polyketide, vietnamycin, both active on multidrug resistant Gram positive bacteria. Without genome sequences for these promising antibiotic-producing Burkholderia, the speed at which we can progress both structure and pathway analysis is limited. Therefore we obtained a near complete draft genome of the gladiolin producer strain using long read next generation sequencing from Pacific Biosciences. With few errors and an excellent assembly, the 10 contig draft genome was ideally suited to genome mining, immediately allowing identification of a PKS pathway functionally congruent with gladiolin biosynthesis.

This preliminary data has led us to postulate that "The biotechnological potential of Burkholderia bacteria will be rapidly unlocked by implementing a multidisciplinary genome mining approach to the discovery of novel antibiotics and their biosynthetic pathways." To explore this hypothesis, 24 strains which produce antibiotics overcoming current resistance will be genome sequenced using Pacific Biosciences sequencing and full structure-pathway analysis performed on gladiolin, vietnamycin, and 3 novel antibiotics from the genome mining screen. Methods to switch on cryptic pathways will also be explored to expand the diversity of antibiotics identified by our screens. This genome mining dataset combined with the structure and activity data for a total of antibiotics will establish Burkholderia as a novel antibiotic discovery source.

Planned Impact

Our Burkholderia antibiotic discovery research will have multiple socio-economic impacts on stakeholders as follows:

1. Public health

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now widely acknowledged as being one of the greatest threats to global human health; it also impacts animal health and hence global food security. AMR is World Health Organization priority and UK Government recently published a five year AMR Action Plan (2013-2018; https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-antimicrobial-resistance-strategy-and-action-plan-engagement-exercise). A key action point was to ""facilitate and encourage the development of new drugs" by "encouraging their discovery and development."

Our novel, resistance-busting Burkholderia antibiotics will offer timely solution AMR if they are developed further. It is also likely that other Burkholderia metabolites we discover may have activity on cancer cells or prove useful for the treatment of diseases beyond infection. Our research has broad-reaching potential to save lives and considerably improve the quality of life for individuals who suffer from antibiotic resistant infections. The increased understanding of Burkholderia bacteria as cystic fibrosis pathogens will also impact this group of vulnerable people.

2. Pharmaceutical industry

The UK was once a world leader in natural product antibiotic discovery but due to under investment and the industry shift towards high profit "lifestyle" drugs, the development of new antibiotics by big pharma has largely ceased. The accompanying industry expertise in this area has also been lost. The UK's Chief Medical Officer has recently stated (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-21178718): "There is a broken market model for making new antibiotics, so it's an empty pipeline, so as...[these bugs]... become resistant, there will not be new antibiotics to come."

We are uniquely placed to re-fill this medicinal chemistry pipeline and re-establish the lead the UK once had in natural product antibiotic drug discovery. By filing robust structure-based patents on our Burkholderia antibiotics, we can approach pharma to take on preclinical development of these antibiotics. In addition, the potential to use bioengineering to derive novel antibiotics from the modular Burkholderia polyketide pathways will also bring future benefit to industry.

3. Training of highly-qualified individuals in interdisciplinary drug discovery research

Our research team brings together experts in microbiology, natural product chemistry and genomics, to carry out a state-of-the-art genome mining approach to antibiotic drug discovery. By training in these interdisciplinary skills, the MicroPD and ChemPD will be able to keep pace with cutting edge approaches used in modern antibiotic discovery programs. These skills are vitally needed by both industry and academia.

4. Public education on AMR and the need for new antibiotics.

A key component of the 2013-2018 UK Government Action Plan on AMR was public engagement on the responsible use of antibiotics and awareness that we urgently need to discover and invest in new drugs. The cost of antibiotic development is expensive but the public are used to paying very little for them. Ideologically for example the public are prepared to pay a lot for a new anti-cancer drug and fundraise extensively for these agents. Would they do the same for a new antibiotic? The researchers employed on this grant will explore these dilemmas and philosophical arguments. They will development an AMR/drug development awareness program with schoolchildren in South Wales and the West Midlands, educating them on the need to use antibiotics carefully, develop new drugs and not take continued antibiotic efficacy for granted. Cardiff and Warwick universities have excellent public engagement officers who will assist with these outreach programs.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Using genome sequencing and chemistry we have discovered that the potential for Burkholderia bacteria to produce novel antibiotics is significant. This work on the grant extends and validates our original published findings from Mahenthiralingam et al. 2011 (see URL below). A total of 5 novel antibiotic compounds have been discovered and we are now developing publications and considering intellectual property on these agents. We published on the novel antibiotic gladiolin which can kill resistant tuberculosis bacteria in May 2017. We have also progressed research on how Burkholderia protect germinating crop seeds from attack by fungal pathogens and a BBSRC grant to develop the biopesticidal role of these bacteria is being developed.
Exploitation Route We have patented 2 antibiotics and a number of producing strains and are seeking to perform preclinical toxicity testing on lead compounds. If toxicity is minimal, we will aim to attract commercial interest to clinically translate these antibiotics. In addition, we have now published the basis for biopesticidal protection by Burkholderia ambifaria as being the antibiotic cepacin; this protects germinating crop seeds such as pea from attack by oomycete damping-off pathogens such as Pythium. This research can be exploited by the biopesticide industry and used for sustainable crop production. We have obtained a new BBSRC award to follow up on these findings and fully develop effective, safe and non-persistent Burkholderia biopesticides.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL https://naturemicrobiologycommunity.nature.com/channels/346-behind-the-paper/posts/43397-natural-bacterial-biopesticides-weighing-up-the-risk-of-pathogenic-versus-beneficial-properties
 
Description We are now working with Public Health Wales in delivering their antimicrobial resistance strategy by strengthening research on both antibiotic discovery and antibiotic resistance. We have formed a local Cardiff University research network on Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection (CURE-Infection), bringing together interdisciplinary researchers and external stakeholders who are tackling the challenges in this area. We have also been able to expand the research to look at Burkholderia antimicrobials which are important in agriculture and this has opened up interactions with this economic sector. Finally, the Masschelein et al 2019 Nature Chemistry study opens up the possibility to engineer the antibiotic enacyloxin for therapeutic approaches such as treatment of Burkholderia infection in the cystic fibrosis lung. We are now exploring the opportunity to develop this clinical application.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description BBSRC SWBio Doctoral Training Partnership
Amount £94,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description Cardiff University Research Opportunities Program
Amount £1,600 (GBP)
Funding ID
Organisation Cardiff University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 08/2017
 
Description Cardiff University Synthetic Biology Initiative Project Grant
Amount £45,906 (GBP)
Organisation Cardiff University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2014 
End 12/2015
 
Description Establishing the Efficacy, Safety and Persistence of biopesticides based on naturally occurring beneficial bacteria
Amount £1,067,313 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S007652/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Description Industrial research contract
Amount £2,982 (GBP)
Organisation BBI Healthcare 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description Knowledge Transfer Partnership
Amount £194,859 (GBP)
Funding ID KTP10966 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 06/2020
 
Description Life Sciences Bridging Fund from the Welsh Government
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Funding ID R2-004 
Organisation Government of Wales 
Department Life Sciences Hub
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 04/2017
 
Description Life Sciences Research Network Wales Impact Award
Amount £49,918 (GBP)
Funding ID NRNRG4Mar039 
Organisation Life Sciences Research Network Wales 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 07/2018
 
Description Life Sciences Research Network Wales PhD studentship
Amount £4,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NRNSAPR14019 
Organisation Life Sciences Research Network Wales 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 12/2017
 
Description Society for Applied Microbiology Students into Work Grant
Amount £2,500 (GBP)
Organisation Society for Applied Microbiology 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 09/2017
 
Description South West Biosciences Doctoral Training Program
Amount £93,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 1103583 (submitted via the University of Bristol) 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2018
 
Description University Research Network - Cardiff University Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Biology Network (CURE-infection)
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation Cardiff University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2019
 
Description Wellcome Trust Cardiff University Institutional Strategic Seedcorn Funds
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 513079 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Department Wellcome Trust Strategic Award
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 07/2018
 
Title Attenuation of virulence in a Burkholderia biopesticide 
Description Third replicon deletion was used to attenuate virulence in a Burkholderia ambifaria biopesticide, but enable its plant protective function, the production of cepacin to remain intact in a seed coat germination assay 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We will be able to re-evaluate how we can make bacterial biopesticides such as Burkholderia safer using this strategy 
URL https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-019-0383-z
 
Title Genomic Assemblies of Members of Burkholderia and Related Genera as a Resource for Natural Product Discovery 
Description Dataset of 450 genomes to accompany Burkholderia bacteria in our strain collection 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Resource of natural product discovery and increased collaborative research requests 
URL https://mra.asm.org/content/9/42/e00485-20
 
Description Characterising antibiotic producing bacteria from natural environments and medicinal plants in the Western Ghats, India 
Organisation University of Mysore
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have begun to work with Prof. Ravishankar Rai at the University of Mysore, Mysore, India as part of a Cardiff University funded international fellowship scheme.
Collaborator Contribution We have assisted Prof. Rai in identifying and genome sequencing antibiotic producing bacteria his team have isolated in India.
Impact A publication is being developed on the first parts of the collaborative research which started in November 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Physiochemical properties of Burkholderia antibiotics 
Organisation University of Limerick
Department Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences
Country Ireland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing Dr. Sarah Hudson's research team with novel Burkholderia antibiotics to examine their basic physiochemical properties with an ultimate aim to develop novel nano-particle ways of delivering antibiotics
Collaborator Contribution They have provided basic solubility and crystal data
Impact We have been provided with basic solubility data for enacyloxin IIa. This is an interdisciplinary collaboration between chemistry researchers and our microbiology group.
Start Year 2015
 
Title Antimicrobial agents 
Description This patent describe the Burkholderia gladioli antibiotic gladiolin which is a novel macrolide with excellent antibiotic activity 
IP Reference WO2015145152 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed No
Impact This patent describe the Burkholderia gladioli antibiotic gladiolin which is a novel macrolide with excellent antibiotic activity
 
Description Antibiotic Resistance and Discovery Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A 2 hour presentation and discussion event was developed to celebrate the completion of BBSRC grant BB/L021692/1 Exploitation of Burkholderia bacteria as novel antibiotic producers using a genome mining approach. Three research talks and an open debate were hosted at Cardiff University on 25 September 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BBC Wales media article on antibiotic discovery (in the medium of Welsh) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr. Cerith Jones (the postdoctoral researcher on the grant) wrote a Welsh language mainstream media article about the antibiotic crisis, "Dyfodol y Gwrthfiotig"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/cymrufyw/35631598
 
Description CITER SOCIETY WORKSHOP - THE SCIENCE OF SURVIVAL: AVERTING GLOBAL THREATS TO LIFE ON EARTH 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This workshop was aimed at School children, but the general public were also encouraged to attend. It was organised by the Cardiff Institute of Tissue Engineering and Repair (CITER). Professor Eshwar Mahenthiralingam, Cardiff School of Biosciences gave 25 minute talk on "Antibiotic wars; resistance versus discovery" which highlighted research being undertaken on the BBSRC grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://healthcaresciences.cf.ac.uk/feedreader/blog/2015/10/26/citer-soc-workshop-the-science-of-sur...
 
Description Cardiff University Chemistry in Health Week Schools Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This was a schools event put on by Cardiff University and the Royal Society for chemistry, as part of the Chemistry in Health week of activities to highlight BBSRC and other funded projects. Sixth form pupils from 7 local schools and colleges attended. They were given a talk on "Mixing chemistry with genetics: Genome mining for new antibiotics" and then participated in 2 hours of workshop activities on antibiotic resistance and discovery. The schools reported good interest from the students in chemistry, genetics and antibiotic resistance. The teachers also noted they would benefit from a session on antibiotics as part of continuous professional development to teach the new curriculum which has this as a key subject.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/news/view/168467-chemistry-in-health
 
Description Engagement talk with stakeholder 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Mahenthiralingam, E. 2016. Developing new antibiotics (from Burkholderia bacteria) Public Health Wales, Antimicrobial Stewardship Forum, 22 November 2016 (20 minute talk), Glamorgan Building, Cardiff University. I was invited to lead a task and finish group on antibiotic discovery and resistance research in Wales as a result of this activity. The strategic plan is outlined in the URL below.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sitesplus/documents/888/Antimicrobial%20Resistance%20Delivery%20Plan.pdf
 
Description Genetic Roadshow at Glantaf School, Cardiff 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dr. Cerith Jones (the postdoctoral researcher on the grant) was a speaker at Genetics Roadshow event, arranged by Cardiff Gene Parks, on "Exploiting Genetics to disocver antibiotics". The entire event was delivered in Welsh to provide greater access to students studying in this language.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Genetics Road Show Coleg Sir Gar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The was a school outreach talk given to 16-18 year olds on the use of genetics to discover antibiotics. The students learnt about antibiotic resistance and the problems with discovering new antibiotics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Genetics Roadshow Whitchurch High School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dr. Cerith Jones (the postdoctoral researcher on the grant) presented at Genetics Roadshow event, arranged by Cardiff Gene Park, on "Exploiting Genetics to disocover antibiotics". The talk was delivered to 16-18 year olds at Whitchurch High School as part of an outreach event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Genomic analysis of antibiotics from pathogenic Burkholderia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A research talk was given in the "Sequencing for Science and Impact" workshop organised by Cardiff University / Wales Gene Park, 13 September 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International news article and interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Prof. Challis and I worked with the Economist to publicise our discovery of the novel antibiotic gladiolin which can kill problematic tuberculosis bacteria.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21723816-bug-infects-people-cystic-fibrosis-ma...
 
Description International research meeting presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Jones, C. 2016. Genome mining and characterisation of multiple bioactive compounds from a Burkholderia gladioli isolate collection. 9th Joint Natural Products Conference, Copenhagen (Oral Presentation; July 2016). This talked highlighted Burkholderia as an interesting source of antibiotics to the natural products research community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.conferencemanager.dk/JointNaturalProductsConference2016/home.html
 
Description International research meeting talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Jones, C. 2016. Species-wide analysis of Burkholderia gladioli bioactive secondary metabolites. International Burkholderia cepacia Working Group, Columbus Ohio (Oral Presentation; April 2016)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ibcwg.org/index.php/2015/07/06/ibcwg-2016-meeting/
 
Description National meeting presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Jones, C. 2016. Mining the genomes of Burkholderia bacteria for novel antibiotics. Bioactive Natural Products: Translating promise into practice, Royal Society of Chemistry, University of Oxford (Invited Speaker; July 2016). This highlighted Burkholderia bacteria as antibiotic producers to the chemistry community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.rsc.org/events/detail/21151/bioactive-natural-products-translating-promise-into-practice
 
Description Presentation at a research conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Mahenthiralingam, E. 2016. AMR from new molecules to applications: an academic perspective (problems associated with going beyond new molecule discovery). Society for Applied Microbiology Antimicrobial Resistance Meeting, 24 November 2016, London (25 minute talk).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://member.sfam.org.uk/SfAM/Events/Event_Display.aspx?EventKey=AMR2016&WebsiteKey=2cbdaa23-1541-...
 
Description Public engagement talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Mahenthiralingam, E. 2016. Multifaceted Burkholderia bacteria: Understanding resistance and discovering new antibiotics within the same bug! Tackling antibiotic resistance - a public workshop (May 11, 2016) organised by the Cardiff Institute of Tissue Engineering and Repair (CITER) Cardiff University. This 1 day public symposium was organised by postgraduate students in CITER and a 25 minute talk followed by debate was given on antibiotic discovery and resistance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Regional meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Jones, C. 2016. 2016. Exploiting genetics to discover antibiotics from Burkholderia bacteria. Cynhadledd wyddonol Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol. Aberystwyth University (Invited Speaker; May 2016)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description School Visit (Pontypridd) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A schools workshop showing how we can discover antibiotics using genetics and computers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description South Wales Microbiology and Infection Translational Research Group Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a conference talk by the postdoctoral researcher employed on the grant to a wider microbiology audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The past and future of antibiotic discovery" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr. Cerith Jones was a Speaker at Pint of Science Festival and discussed "The past and future of antibiotic discovery" in Cardiff, 14-16 May 2017. The public talk presented and discussed research from BBSRC award BB/L021692/1.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/event/superbugs