Using crop genetics to understand the importance of dietary resistant starches for maintaining healthy glucose homeostasis

Lead Research Organisation: John Innes Centre
Department Name: Metabolic Biology

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is a major and increasing problem worldwide and is particularly prevalent among the aging population. Over 2.5 million individuals in the UK are affected, costing the NHS around £10 billion per year (almost 10% of its budget). The risk of diabetes is thought to increase with age because of poor control of blood glucose levels. This in turn is due to a progressive decline in the capacity of cells in the pancreas (beta-cells) to secrete insulin, the hormone that controls glucose levels. The decline in beta-cell function can be accelerated by a poor diet and lifestyle, thus increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
There is much evidence that diets rich in a type of carbohydrate called resistant starch have a positive impact on controlling of blood glucose levels, and hence reduce susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Resistant starch, as the name suggests, is not completely digested in upper parts of the digestive tract, and so is fermented by bacteria in the colon. The products of fermentation, known as short-chain fatty acids, are thought to improve beta-cell function and thus insulin secretion. There are a variety of fruits and vegetables that contain various amounts of resistant starch, but UK diets are generally low in resistant starch. Thus there is great potential to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the long term by promoting the widespread consumption of resistant starch. However, very little is known about why particular types of starch are resistant to digestion and whether resistant starches from different food sources differ in their capacity to improve beta-cell function. Plugging these gaps in our knowledge will help the development of strategies to increase the amount of resistant consumed in the UK diet, thus helping to reduce the rates of onset of type 2 diabetes.

Our aim is to study systematically which features of starch structure are important in making it resistant to digestion and in allowing it to improve betacell function. As well as studying resistant starch itself, we will study the influence of the type of food in which the starch is contained, and the way in which the food is cooked prior to consumption. Our study will focus on peas, as they are a range of naturally occurring variants or mutants known to contain different types of resistant starch. These seeds, and starch extracted from them, will be digested in an artificial gut, allowing us to assess which features of the starch and the food are important for maximum fermentation in the colon. In parallel, selected types of peas will be fed to human volunteers to determine the digestibility of the starch in vivo, together with a full spectrum of short and medium term physiological responses relevant to beta-cell function and control of blood glucose levels to be monitored.

We will also study the best way to process/prepare the peas, as some resistant starch can behave differently, so that they can be used in a wide range of foods.

This project will provide new insights into the relationship between resistant starch and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Importantly it will also inform crop breeders about which genes in crop plants are associated with types of starch that provide the best protection against type 2 diabetes. This will immediately allow the directed breeding of peas that provide maximal protection against this disease. It will also increase the flexibility of peas by investigating the use of pea flour in commonly consumed foods.

Technical Summary

Our aim is to develop a systematic basis for increasing the intake of resistant starch in the diet in order to protect the function of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells and improve blood glucose homeostasis in an ageing population. Age related declines in beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis increase susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, the incidence of which has doubled in the UK since 1996. We and others have shown that carbohydrates such as resistant starch that escape digestion in the small intestine lead to improved insulin sensitivity and first phase insulin response. We propose that short chain fatty acids liberated by colonic carbohydrate fermentation causes receptor-mediated improvements in beta-cell function. In this project we will define which starches and food matrices are most effective in protecting beta-cell function and discover the basis of this protection. The results will underpin development of a roadmap for increasing the most effective types of resistant starch in the diet via a concerted approach involving crop breeding and food processing.
Our project utilises a suite of genetically-defined natural mutants of peas, representing two types of resistant starch in a variety of genetic backgrounds. Experiments with static and dynamic digestion models will examine starch digestibility and colonic fermentability in raw and processed materials and purified starch. Selected samples will be physically characterised to establish which starch/matrix features determine digestibility and fermentability, which will be confirmed in human studies. In parallel we will carry out human trials on selected peas to assess effectiveness in beta-cell protection. Volunteers aged 55 - 65 will be used to assess physiological functions related to susceptibility to diabetes including measures of insulin release, gut hormones, colonic microbiota and the microbiota activity.

Planned Impact

This project addresses one of UKs major diet-related health challenges. It has huge potential for long term impact on a wide range of stakeholders from consumers to policy makers. In addition to the academic beneficiaries listed, the outputs of the research will impact on the following stakeholder groups:-

Food Industry: The outputs from this project will enable the food industry to develop a new generation of foods targeted at reducing the incidence of type 2 diabetes through improved delivery of functional carbohydrates to the colon. Further research will allow the generic design principles to be incorporated into a wide range of food and beverages. Results from the project will inform efforts to ensure that new resistant-starch foods have consumer acceptability comparable to currently-available foods, making it more convenient for consumers to adopt healthier options. Food with high nutritional impact is a growing sector of the food industry and robust scientific evidence of positive health benefits arising from this and future projects will support health claims and further growth and give the UK food industry a competitive advantage.
Consumers: Individual consumers will have new knowledge regarding the health benefits of certain foods, together with a wider choice of manufactured foods with specific, proven health benefits. Care must be taken with the health communication aspects as consumption of these foods may only be effective as part of a healthy balanced diet. In the long term, the benefits of reducing the prevalence of diabetes will impact on lifelong health and wellbeing of individuals and improve the quality of life into old age.
Pharmaceutical Industry: The generic principles involved in this research are expected to stimulate further research to improve the targeted delivery of carbohydrates, polymers and other therapeutic and health promoting compounds to the colon.
National Health Service and Government: The number of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the UK has roughly doubled since 1996 to about 2.6 million, with over 70% of cases being over the age of 55. Older diabetes patients often develop complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations leading to disability and premature mortality. The direct cost to the NHS and other health care providers for treating type 2 diabetes and related conditions is around £10 billion per year (approx. 10% of the NHS budget). The total cost of diabetes to the nation including direct care, loss of working days due to sickness and loss of productivity is estimated to be £23.7 billion. Any reduction in the prevalence of diabetes would have a huge impact through fewer hospital admissions, fewer surgical interventions and fewer prescriptions, hence lower health costs. The basic knowledge generated from this project and further research targeted at foods which would naturally deliver fermentable starch to the colon, will also help Government agencies to develop dietary advice for individuals at risk from developing diabetes in later life.

To maximise impact, we will assemble an Advisory Panel composed of various stakeholders including academics, beneficiaries, end users and industry (see Pathways to Impact). The panel will meet three times during the project to review progress and advise on future directions, application and exploitation. In addition, two further open meetings will be held at the end of the project to consult with a broader group of stakeholders.
 
Description The integration of data related to plant genetics, the in vitro and in vivo studies of starch structure and the downstream impact on digestion in humans represents the major outcome of the project. The integrated data are being assembled into what will be a high-impact publication, drawing on all partner contributions. The outputs and their relevance to positively impacting on a major disease nationally and globally have been well-received by stakeholders (see below and Narrative Impact).

The sbeI mutations have been studied in several contexts - biochemical, agronomic - and the naturally-occurring sbeI variant was multiplied up to sufficient quantities to enable its introduction into a number of commonly consumed foods (biscuits, soup, hummous). The human intervention trials carried out by ICL partners revealed a significant reduction in the blood glucose spike resulting from intake of the foods containing the sbeI variant pea when compared with the wild-type control pea line within a short time interval following consumption. Additional related studies by partners at the University of Glasgow followed the fate of labelled sugars and the impact of the sbeI variation on short-chain fatty acid production, which has positive impact on the pancreas and insulin production. The impact of the contrasting foods on the gut microbial populations was also investigated. The results clearly indicate the positive impact on related aspects of glucose responses in humans and the potential for controlling Type 2 diabetes, a disease of major national and global importance, through the use of appropriate plant variants in common foods. The data gathering and analysis has continued beyond the grant end date, working towards the primary publication.
Exploitation Route The knowledge is relevant to plant breeders, the food industry, policy makers and health service providers. An industrial stakeholder meeting was held in January 2018 to ensure the translation of outcomes to breeding programmes; the response to this meeting has been very positive (see Narrative Impact). An application for a follow-on fund is being planned to extend the intervention trials, to test pea products in the production of a wide range of foods and to introduce the best allelic variants of the relevant mutations into breeding programmes.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare

 
Description We held an industrial stakeholder meeting In January 2018 to disseminate the means by which starch quality in foods could ameliorate the onset of diseases linked to Type 2 diabetes. This was well-received by the breeding communities and other industries, with whom we have followed up with a questionnaire to see what support might exist for a follow-on grant proposal. Clearly there is much enthusiasm for progressing the outputs of the pea seed reserach to a) breeding programmes and b) industrial-scale processing for the production of healthy foods.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops 
Organisation CGIAR
Department International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Country Colombia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Impact 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops document.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops 
Organisation CGIAR
Country Global 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Impact 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops document.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops 
Organisation Emerging Ag Inc
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Impact 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops document.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Country India 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Impact 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops document.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Impact 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops document.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops 
Organisation University of Auckland
Department Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Impact 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops document.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops 
Organisation University of Saskatchewan
Department Division of Nutrition and Dietetics
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Impact 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops document.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops 
Organisation Versant Vision LLC
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation and advisory role in the 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops report document.
Impact 10-Year Research Strategy for Pulse Crops document.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Progress towards the perfect pea - Article on BBSRC website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Article on the BBSRC website discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/food-security/2015/150814-pr-progress-toward-the-perfect-pea/
 
Description 'International Year of Pulses at JIC' talk at Breeders' Day 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Breeders Day is an annual event held at JIC to demonstrate the the research that takes place at the JIC, within a context of breeding, agriculture and industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 'Pulse Research Update' at John Innes Centre - PGRO & press visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact 'Pulse Research Update' at John Innes Centre - PGRO & press visit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 1st workshop meeting of the MRC Global Nutrition and Health Health Outcomes in Undernutrition - The Role of Nutrients, Gut Dysfunction and the Gut Microbiome (HUNGer) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Attended the 1st workshop meeting of the MRC Global Nutrition and Health: Health Outcomes in Undernutrition - The Role of Nutrients, Gut Dysfunction and the Gut Microbiome (HUNGer)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2016 Celebration of Peas, Beans and Legumes at The Cut Science Cafe in Halesworth, Suffolk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Science Café is a series of regular meetings held at The Cut in Halesworth, Suffolk to explore and discuss the latest ideas in Science and Technology in an informal atmosphere. Talk was given by Claire Domoney and Mike Ambrose, titled '2016 Celebration of Peas, Beans and Legumes' with debate/discussion after.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description A new species of peas source of valuable protein - Article in Farmer.pl 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in Farmer.pl discussing the John Innes Center research which has developed a new type of pea (Pidum elatius), which assists in the absorption of animal protein from food.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.farmer.pl/produkcja-zwierzeca/bydlo-i-mleko/nowy-gatunek-grochu-zrodlem-cennego-bialka,59...
 
Description Attendance at Mardlers event where speaker was Minette Batters, Deputy President of the NFU 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Mardlers - the Norfolk farmers group of which JIC is an official member, meet once a month to listen to outside speakers and discuss various issues. On this occasion the speaker was Minette Batters the Deputy President of the NFU.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Celebrating 50 years of John Innes research in Norwich at The Cut Science Cafe in Halesworth, Suffolk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Celebrating 50 years of John Innes research in Norwich at The Cut Science Cafe in Halesworth, Suffolk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cereals 2015 at Boothby Graffoe in Lincolnshire 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Cereals Event is an arable farming event which takes annually.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Exhibition at the Norfolk Farming Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Exhibition at the Norfolk Farming Conference 2017, JIC Conference Centre, Norwich, Norfolk, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Exhibition at the Norwich Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Pea TimeVine display at the Norwich Science Festival. Part of the '50 years of John Innes Centre Research in Norwich' display at the Norwich Forum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Exhibition stand at Cereals 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Cereals Event is an arable farming event which takes annually.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Institute Open Day - Breeders Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Tour of JIC caged pea plot area at Breeders' Day 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Institute Open Day - JIC Open Day 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact JIC Open Day 2017: Pea TimeVine and displays based around the research from the Domoney Lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://storify.com/JIC_Comms/open-day-2017
 
Description Interview with Chris Hill, Agricultural, Food and Farming Editor at Archant, including plant photography session for an Agriculture Review article. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with Chris Hill, Agricultural, Food and Farming Editor at Archant, including plant photography session for an Agriculture Review article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview with Di Cunningham on Future Radio's breakfast show 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Di Cunningham on Future Radio's breakfast show.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description JIC exhibition stand at Royal Norfolk Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Royal Norfolk Show is an annual event held over 2 days celebrating Norfolk's agriculture past, present and future and showcasing local food, farming and countryside.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description JIC research on pea seed traits and UK agriculture - Interview on BBC Look East 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on BBC Look East (local news programme) discussing JIC research on pea seed traits and UK agriculture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description JIC research on pea seed traits and UK agriculture - Interview on BBC Radio 4 Farming Today programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on BBC Radio 4 Farming Today programme discussing JIC research on pea seed traits and UK agriculture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description LEGATO-EUROLEGUME International Conference - Advances in grain legume cultivation and use 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Attendance at LEGATO-EUROLEGUME International Conference - Advances in grain legume cultivation and use
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MRC Confidence in Global Nutrition Skype conference: The Role of Nutrients, Gut Dysfunction and the Gut Microbiome in Determining Health Outcomes in Undernutrition. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Project collaborator Skype conference meeting on The Role of Nutrients, Gut Dysfunction and the Gut Microbiome in Determining Health Outcomes in Undernutrition.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Mardlers visit to JIC. Overview of projects talk given. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Mardlers - the Norfolk farmers group of which JIC is an official member, meet once a month to listen to outside speakers and discuss various issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Meeting with MRC project collaborators 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Meeting with MRC project collaborators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description New Pea Variety Could Benefit Pig Protein Intake - Article on The Pig Site 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact News article on 'The Pig Site' discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet. The new peas will cut costs for farmers because fewer of the novel peas will give the same or higher nutritional benefit than standard peas. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thepigsite.com/swinenews/40282/new-pea-variety-could-benefit-pig-protein-intake/
 
Description New Pea Variety Could Help Livestock, Poultry Protein Intake - Article on The Beef Site 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact News article on 'The Beef Site' discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet. The new peas will cut costs for farmers because fewer of the novel peas will give the same or higher nutritional benefit than standard peas. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thebeefsite.com/news/48481/new-pea-variety-could-help-livestock-poultry-protein-intake/
 
Description New Pea Variety Could Help Livestock, Poultry Protein Intake - Article on The Cattle Site 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact News article on 'The Cattle Site' discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet. The new peas will cut costs for farmers because fewer of the novel peas will give the same or higher nutritional benefit than standard peas. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thecattlesite.com/news/48481/new-pea-variety-could-help-livestock-poultry-protein-intake/
 
Description New Pea Variety Could Help Poultry Protein Intake - Article on The Poultry Site 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact News article on 'The Poultry Site' discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet. The new peas will cut costs for farmers because fewer of the novel peas will give the same or higher nutritional benefit than standard peas. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.thepoultrysite.com/poultrynews/35627/new-pea-variety-could-help-livestock-poultry-protein...
 
Description New pea offers consumers source of greater protein, at same cost to producers - Article in Produce Business UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in Produce Business UK discussing a new strain of pea that doesn't contain the several so-called anti-nutrients or trypsin inhibitors found in peas and other legume seeds that stop proteins being absorbed fully from the diet of humans, poultry and livestock.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.producebusinessuk.com/academia/stories/2015/08/26/new-pea-offers-consumers-source-of-grea...
 
Description New pea variety could help livestock and poultry absorb more protein - Article in Farmers Weekly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in Farmers Weekly discussing the novel types of pea plants developed at JIC that make their protein content more accessible to livestock and poultry when consumed. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.fwi.co.uk/poultry/new-pea-variety-could-help-livestock-and-poultry-absorb-more-protein.ht...
 
Description Norfolk Mardlers Dinner 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Mardlers - the Norfolk farmers group of which JIC is an official member, meet once a month to listen to outside speakers and discuss various issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Norwich scientists make progress in pursuit of the perfect pea - Article in EDP newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in EDP newspaper discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.edp24.co.uk/news/tech/norwich_scientists_make_progress_in_pursuit_of_the_perfect_pea_1_41...
 
Description Opportunities in prospect from the Pulse Crop Genetic Improvement Network (PCGIN) - Article in The Pulse Magazine - The Official Journal of the PGRO 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in The Pulse Magazine - The Official Journal of the PGRO discussing 'Opportunities in prospect from the Pulse Crop Genetic Improvement Network (PCGIN)'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description PCGIN: The Pulse Crops Genetic Improvement Network - Interview on BBC Radio 4 Farming Today programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on BBC Radio 4 Farming Today programme discussing PCGIN: The Pulse Crops Genetic Improvement Network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description PGRO Pulse Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open day held at PGRO to promote pulses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Pea Yield Enhancement Network (PeaYEN) 2018 review meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Meeting with Pea Yield Enhancement Network (PeaYEN) representative
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pea display at Gardeners' Question Time 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public recording event of BBC Radio 4 Gardeners' Question Time held at JIC. Pea display for visitor to view.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to JIC Governing Council: 'Translating Genetic Research In Species Pisum: from MfN to Breeders and Beyond' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Presentation to JIC Governing Council: 'Translating Genetic Research In Species Pisum: from MfN to Breeders and Beyond'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to YIELD farmer group, Royal Norfolk Agricultural Association (RNAA) during visit to JIC: 'Benefits of the pea crop and its diverse uses' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation given by Claire Domoney to YIELD farmer group, Royal Norfolk Agricultural Association (RNAA) during visit to JIC, titled 'Benefits of the pea crop and its diverse uses'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Press article - The Pulse Magazine - The Official Journal of the PGRO 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Pulse Magazine - The Official Journal of the PGRO. The John Innes Centre celebrates 50 Years in Norwich in 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Progress toward the perfect pea - Article in Farming Futures 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in Farming Futures discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.farmingfutures.org.uk/blog/progress-toward-perfect-pea
 
Description Progress toward the perfect pea - Article in Phys.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in Farming Futures discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://phys.org/news/2015-08-pea.html
 
Description Progress toward the perfect pea - Article in Science Daily News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in Farming Futures discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150813074718.htm
 
Description Progress toward the perfect pea: peas developed that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet - Article in Medical News Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in Medical News Today discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/298141.php
 
Description Progress towards the perfect pea - Article in Crop Production Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in Crop Production Magazine discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cpm-magazine.co.uk/progress-towards-perfect-a-1848.html?osCsid=5qrirss360u348ru1hvh9u1tr7
 
Description Progress towards the perfect pea - Interview on Matthew Gudgin's BBC Radio Norfolk Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on Matthew Gudgin's BBC Radio Norfolk programme discussing peas developed at JIC that will help animals absorb more protein from their diet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Protein availability in feed increased with new pea variety - Article in All About Feed 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in All About Feed discussing a new pea variety developed by JIC which will help animals absorb more protein from the diet. Some breeders have already shown interested in the new peas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.allaboutfeed.net/New-Proteins/Articles/2015/8/Protein-availability-in-feed-increased-with...
 
Description Pulse Crop Genetic Improvement Network (PCGIN) Stakeholder Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Meeting with Pulse Crop Genetic Improvement Network (PCGIN) stakeholders, including representatives from UK government, industry, universities and research institutes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pulse Crop Genetic Improvement Network (PCGIN) steering/management meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Pulse Crop Genetic Improvement Network (PCGIN) steering/management meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Radio broadcast - BBC Radio Norfolk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio broadcast on BBC Radio Norfolk. JIC Open Day 2017: 'The application of genetic research in pea at JIC to the development of novel foods' - hosted by Thordis Fridriksson
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Royal Norfolk Show supporting Agri-Tech and SAW (Mendel) stands 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Royal Norfolk Show supporting Agri-Tech and SAW (Mendel) stands.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Scientists at the John Innes Centre are developing a GM-free feed alternative from a wild pea. BBC Radio 4 - Farming Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on BBC Radio 4 Farming Today programme discussing the development pf a GM-free feed alternative from a wild pea by Scientists at the John Innes Centre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Second Defra Research Advisory Group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Meeting with Defra and AHDB representatives, along with Research Advisory Group members and Genetic Improvement Network leads.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description TV Broadcast - BBC Look East 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact TV broadcast on BBC Look East - JIC Open Day 2017: 'The application of genetic research in pea at JIC to its many uses in food and agriculture'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Transatlantic Sessions on Conservation and Organic Agriculture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact PPP: Potential and Power of Pea presentation at Transatlantic Sessions on Conservation and Organic Agriculture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UN International Year of Pulses at The Cut Science Cafe as part of the Norwich Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Norwich Festival is held annually as a celebration of the ground breaking scientific research associated with the city. Talk was given by Claire Domoney, entitled 'UN International Year of Pulses', as part of the Norwich Festival's series of The Cut Science Cafe talks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit of 30 undergraduate students from Wageningen University, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Tour of JIC caged pea plot area - visit of 30 undergraduate students from Wageningen University, The Netherlands
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description What to do now to capitalise on boom in pulses industry - Article in Farmers Weekly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Press article in Farmers weekly discussing the potential for the UK pulse industry to double in size in the next 5 years.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.fwi.co.uk/business/what-to-do-now-to-capitalise-on+boom-in-pulses-industry.htm
 
Description Why treating winter beans more like wheat will boost yields - Article in Farmers Weekly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Press article in Farmers Weekly discussing increasing winter beans yields.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.fwi.co.uk/arable/why-treating-winter-beans-more-like-wheat-will-boost-yields.htm
 
Description YIELD visiting group to the John Innes Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact YIELD visiting group to the JIC, producing links and understanding of JIC research to a visiting group from agricultural industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016