Developing enhanced breeding methodologies for oats for human health and nutrition

Lead Research Organisation: Heriot-Watt University
Department Name: Sch of Energy, Geosci, Infrast & Society

Abstract

The central objective of this proposal is to apply state of the art high throughput breeding and phenotyping approaches to the genetic improvement of oats, focusing on yield, and grain and milling quality, key targets for the economic sustainability of the crop and for the milling industry. The project addresses some of the major challenges facing UK agriculture in terms of the sustainable production of safe and nutritous food.

The overall aim of this LINK project is to incorporate high throughput approaches to the IBERS oat breeding programme, to develop strategies to improve yield and other targets ranked as priorities by our industrial partners which are currently difficult or impossible to select for at early stages of breeding cycles. Marker assisted selection (MAS) represents one route to achieve this. It has been successful for introgression of major traits controlled by one or a few genes of large effect, but is difficult with more complex traits governed by many genes, each with a small effect. MAS is used in the IBERS oat breeding programme, largely based on predictions derived from a few markers linked to large effect quantitative trait loci (QTL). Association mapping (AM) will be used to identify further marker-trait associations enabling rapid selection or introgression within the breeding programme. In this project, genomic selection (GS) will be applied to a range of traits, and selections will be validated by comparison with breeder and conventional marker assisted (MAS) selections. Increasingly complex models will be developed in the course of the programme, and an accelerated breeding cycle driven by GS and MAS will be initiated. Traits which may predict yield will be identified by detailed phenomic and field trial analysis of a model winter oat population and an association genetics panel of advanced breeding lines. Metabolic profiling and micro-scale analytical methods will be used to develop further predictive screens. Chip-based high throughput genotyping will be used to predict breeding values; genotype and phenotype data will be incorporated into a pedigree database to further facilitate 'intelligent' breeding design. The existing Illumina 6K iSelect bead assay will be expanded to include SNPs identified from UK winter and European germplasm which have significantly different genetic bases from the bulk of varieties used to develop the initial assay set. Genotyping by Sequencing will become the main platform by the end of the project to take advantage of expected sequence throughput improvements.

This project proposal addresses sustainable agricultural production at the interface of two BBSRC strategic priority areas: crop science and healthy and safe food. It is of high strategic relevance, specifically in enhancing crop productivity and quality, enhanced nutritional composition, increasing sustainability of crop production and understanding and exploiting genomics and the genetic diversity in plants (crop science). It will also investigate the potential of novel nutrient supplies from plants (healthy and safe food).

This proposal is being submitted through the BBSRC stand-alone LINK scheme. The project will benefit from the involvement of the major oat variety development company in the UK (Senova) and the British Oat and Barley Millers Association (BOBMA) representing the major oat milling companies within the UK such as PepsiCo/Quaker, Morning Foods, European Oat Millers, Grampian Oats, Hogarths and SpeediCook. Involvement of industrial partners will allow for identification and review of key targets and delivery of the outcomes of this project alongside the academic partners.

Technical Summary

The demand for high quality food grade oats is increasing annually, driven by its proven health benefits and by product development by the milling and cereals industries. Despite an expanding market, the oat crop is facing increasing competition from other arable crops and that is impacting on the UK oat area grown. This project will apply the latest genetic tools and resources, including genomic selection, to improve key traits that will increase the production and utilisation of oats, and to enhance grain yield, quality and composition. These are increasingly important traits for the UK oat milling industry to fully exploit the nutritional characteristics of the oat grain and key economic drivers for product development. Optimal strategies for high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will be developed. We will establish an efficient high throughput genotyping platform for use across the breeding programme. The advantages of genomic selection over conventional breeding approaches for defined traits will be determined and practical limits established for the use of GS on a wider scale. It will use a range of unique genetic material to dissect the genetic and environmental factors contributing to yield variation and use that information in an innovative oat breeding programme. Breeding programme populations will be used to extend the range of available marker-trait assays to improve selection efficiency in early generations and ensure uniformity in late generations. Phenotyping of key traits concerned with yield, milling quality and with human health and nutrition will be conducted and the impact of changing grain quality characters (beta-glucan or starch content/type) determined. GS results will be validated and gain compared with conventional and MAS approaches on the same populations. This will dramatically increase the efficiency of breeding new varieties and identify regions of the genome associated with key traits through detailed stakeholder discussions.

Planned Impact

The major beneficiaries of this research will be:
Plant breeding community: Information on the application of genomic selection in an oat breeding programme will be of value to other breeders of oats and other cereal crops. Development of high throughput screens for key traits associated with milling quality, grain composition and yield that can be used at the early stages of the breeding programme necessitating lower seed quanities will enhance selection ofr yield and quality and wil be of direct benefit to genomic selection approaches but more generally would be beneficial to other breeding programmes.

Arable sector: The project will have a significant economic and environmental benefit on the arable sector. Oats are recognised as a low input cereal crop, that can be grown in arable rotations across the UK. It is an excellent break crop and therefore has a major role in sustainable arable rotations. Application of genomic selection and high throughput phenotyping to the breeding of improved oat varieties with greater yield and grain and milling quality that meets the needs of end-users and the oat value-chains will improve the economics of growing the crop and its value to the arable sector. This will ensure that oats remain a competitive crop for arable production and that the benefit of growing oats in arable rotations is realised.

Milling industry:Increasing awareness of the health benefits of eating oats, largely due to the beta-glucan content of the grain but also to other grain compositinal characteristics, is increasing the demand for oats and oat based products at a time when the oat crop is increasingly challenged by competition from other cereals. using GS approaches to increase the yield of new oat varieties will increase the financial return of growing oats and will help to ensure that the milling industry has a greater security of supply. The focus on grain quality and composition will also ensure that new varieties have the essential grain quality characteristics that ensure the economic efficiency of the mills and cost benefit. The milling industry will also benefit from the focus on grain composition which will enhance the potential of using oats for different end-uses.

Society: Direct benefit will be gained from ensuring the supply of a cereal with recognised health benefits. Enhanced yield and quality of oat varieties will improve the economics of growing oat crops and so ensure that oats, as alow input cereal remain a part of sustainable arable rotations, increasing cropping diversity.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Detailed metabolomic analysis of oats in a varying rate nitrogen trial identified that this route can not only be used to control gross compositional components such as protein but also more defined nutritional components such as thiamine (Vit B1) and Vitamin D3. The latter is normally only associated with oily fish intake so this could relevant to vegan diets. Also the nitrogen supplementation had a significant impact on the relative composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Besides, impacting on nutrition this also impacts upon the organoleptic experiences and raw and processed product shelf-life
Exploitation Route The findings will be of use to industry and food processors with regard to matching primary production to secondary processing and food use and consumption.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description Yes. The findings and more specifically the tools and technologies developed therein have been used to generate two publications identified below. Freitag S, Verrall SR, Pont SDA, McRae D, Sungurtas JA, Palau R, Hawes C, Alexander CJ, Allwood JW, Foito A, Stewart D, Shepherd LVT. (2017) Impact of Conventional and Integrated Management Systems on the Water-Soluble Vitamin Content in Potatoes, Field Beans, and Cereals. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Jan 31;66(4):831-841. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03509; Foito A, Hackett CA, Stewart D, Velmurugan J, Milbourne D, Byrne SL, Barth S. (2017) Quantitative trait loci associated with different polar metabolites in perennial ryegrass - providing scope for breeding towards increasing certain polar metabolites. BMC Genet. 18(1):84. doi: 10.1186/s12863-017-0552-0.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Title Development of LC-MS metabolomic methods for oat metabolic analysis 
Description LC-MS (Orbitrap) based systems have been optimized for the fully targeted analysis of a broad range of oat metabolites: metabolites implicated in the end product consumer sensory experience. A standard operating procedures has been developed. Details are: Scottish Metabolomics Network November 2018 Glasgow City College (organiser: University of Glasgow) and November 2019 Discovery Point Dundee (organiser JHI Dundee). Presented the following poster: Application of metabolomics to study the effect of nitrogen elevation on winter oat metabolite composition and quality traits: J. William Allwood, Yun Xu, Raphaelle Palau, Catherine Howarth, Athole Marshall, Roy Goodacre, Derek Stewart Abstract - Developing high quality oats is constrained by a lack of information on the impact of genetic and environmental/management factors. Current knowledge on optimal nitrogen levels is insufficient and both greater oat yields and higher quality oats could be achieved. In this study, four winter oat varieties were grown in two locations in replicated nitrogen response trials. The oats were analysed with a rapid 15 minuteC18 UHPLC gradient in conjunction with full MS and data dependent analysis (DDA) MSn. The data were chromatographically aligned and deconvolved within XCMS online and peaks putatively identified based upon accurate mass-derived molecular formula matching to multiple databases. Data visualisation/reduction approaches were applied with PCA and a novel method, t-distributed stochastic neighbourhood embedding (t- SNE). t-NE showed a greater capability in detecting sample class clusters compared to variance capture oriented methods such as PCA, however since tSNE is based on a distance matrix, the significance loadings are not directly available. Therefore, a significance test known as ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was applied with multiple factors, oat variety, location and nitrogen level, being investigated. The identifications of the most significant ions have been obtained from the accurate mass data, as well as MS2 and MS3 spectra obtained from DDA-MSn. Considerations of the agronomic significance of the metabolite profiling results a long with correlations to the oats physical traits is currently ongoing. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This has underpinned the submission of a paper based on the approach and there is interest from the major oat processing companies such as PepsiCo 
URL http://karl-burgess.squarespace.com/s/SMN17_delegate_pack_online_6.pdf
 
Description Biorefining Potential for Scotland - Mapping Bioresource arisings across Scotland 
Organisation Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre
Country Unknown 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As part of a collaborative effort between Zero Waste Scotland, Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre and Prof Stewart (funded via Innovoat and the Scottish Government) a large mapping exercise has been undertaken to too at the available bio-waste and conductor generated in Scotland with the view to realizing their potential as feedstocks for exloitation and value up-scaling into, for example, high value chemicals, ingredients etc. The finalized report "Biorefining Potential for Scotland - Mapping Bioresource arisings across Scotland" is in a draft format at the moment. In this are data for oat co-products also hence the link to Innovoat and the sister Innovate UK project Opti-Oat. As part of this collaboration Prof Stewart help set the parameters and feedstocks to be mined for and the interpretation of the final data in terms of realizing the value. Unique input from Pro Stewart related to the applications within which the wastes and coporducts could be used for product and value creation.
Collaborator Contribution ZWS and IBioIC funded the project and input similar effort to that identified by Prof Stewart above. ZWS supplied significant amounts of the raw waste data from their yearly data collection systems. IBioICwere, like Prof Stewart, more involved in the feedstock valuation aspects and exploitation to products plans
Impact 1. Biorefining Potential for Scotland - Mapping Bioresource arisings across Scotland Draft report 2. Biorefining Potential for Scotland - Mapping Bioresource arisings across Scotland. An excel based model that allows the user to mine the bioarisings data at local authority level across Scotland. Both the above can be classed as multidisciplinary as they involve statistics, biology, chemistry, economics and sociology
Start Year 2016
 
Description Biorefining Potential for Scotland - Mapping Bioresource arisings across Scotland 
Organisation Zero Waste Scotland
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution As part of a collaborative effort between Zero Waste Scotland, Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre and Prof Stewart (funded via Innovoat and the Scottish Government) a large mapping exercise has been undertaken to too at the available bio-waste and conductor generated in Scotland with the view to realizing their potential as feedstocks for exloitation and value up-scaling into, for example, high value chemicals, ingredients etc. The finalized report "Biorefining Potential for Scotland - Mapping Bioresource arisings across Scotland" is in a draft format at the moment. In this are data for oat co-products also hence the link to Innovoat and the sister Innovate UK project Opti-Oat. As part of this collaboration Prof Stewart help set the parameters and feedstocks to be mined for and the interpretation of the final data in terms of realizing the value. Unique input from Pro Stewart related to the applications within which the wastes and coporducts could be used for product and value creation.
Collaborator Contribution ZWS and IBioIC funded the project and input similar effort to that identified by Prof Stewart above. ZWS supplied significant amounts of the raw waste data from their yearly data collection systems. IBioICwere, like Prof Stewart, more involved in the feedstock valuation aspects and exploitation to products plans
Impact 1. Biorefining Potential for Scotland - Mapping Bioresource arisings across Scotland Draft report 2. Biorefining Potential for Scotland - Mapping Bioresource arisings across Scotland. An excel based model that allows the user to mine the bioarisings data at local authority level across Scotland. Both the above can be classed as multidisciplinary as they involve statistics, biology, chemistry, economics and sociology
Start Year 2016
 
Description Optimising oat yield and quality to deliver sustainable production and economic impact (Opti-Oat) 
Organisation National Institute Of Agricultural Botany
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Here my team will grow oat varieties to develop a crop model and use data from commercial p-lots also to validate this. UAV systems will be trialled as a route to developing a predictive groat model for opats
Collaborator Contribution This project will provide UK oat producers with world leading agronomic 'tools' to maximise grower returns and capitalise on the increasing demand for food grade oats. The objectives are 1) Develop and validate algorithms for translating visual / spectral sensor data from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into quantifiable crop parameters to enable growers to optimise management for yield and quality across fields; 2) develop an Oat Crop Model and associated decision support tools; 3) develop an Oat Growth Guide which will provide a reference to assess crops status against key development bench-marks. Focused dissemination of these innovative tools will increase average yields by at least 1t/ha, contribute to sustainable intensification, reduce supply risk for millers, reduce imports, catalyse product innovation & consumer access to healthy grains and stimulate milled product export.
Impact Talk at Oats2020: http://www.oats2020.org/ An invited platform talk was given entitled - Oat metabolism - genetic and environmental drivers and future enhancement targets. Talk given to Quaker Oats, Chicago on the publically available aspects of the project and Oats agriculture - what is trending and what should Quaker know.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Optimising oat yield and quality to deliver sustainable production and economic impact (Opti-Oat) 
Organisation PepsiCo
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Here my team will grow oat varieties to develop a crop model and use data from commercial p-lots also to validate this. UAV systems will be trialled as a route to developing a predictive groat model for opats
Collaborator Contribution This project will provide UK oat producers with world leading agronomic 'tools' to maximise grower returns and capitalise on the increasing demand for food grade oats. The objectives are 1) Develop and validate algorithms for translating visual / spectral sensor data from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into quantifiable crop parameters to enable growers to optimise management for yield and quality across fields; 2) develop an Oat Crop Model and associated decision support tools; 3) develop an Oat Growth Guide which will provide a reference to assess crops status against key development bench-marks. Focused dissemination of these innovative tools will increase average yields by at least 1t/ha, contribute to sustainable intensification, reduce supply risk for millers, reduce imports, catalyse product innovation & consumer access to healthy grains and stimulate milled product export.
Impact Talk at Oats2020: http://www.oats2020.org/ An invited platform talk was given entitled - Oat metabolism - genetic and environmental drivers and future enhancement targets. Talk given to Quaker Oats, Chicago on the publically available aspects of the project and Oats agriculture - what is trending and what should Quaker know.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Optimising oat yield and quality to deliver sustainable production and economic impact (Opti-Oat) 
Organisation University of Wales
Department Institute of Biological Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Here my team will grow oat varieties to develop a crop model and use data from commercial p-lots also to validate this. UAV systems will be trialled as a route to developing a predictive groat model for opats
Collaborator Contribution This project will provide UK oat producers with world leading agronomic 'tools' to maximise grower returns and capitalise on the increasing demand for food grade oats. The objectives are 1) Develop and validate algorithms for translating visual / spectral sensor data from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into quantifiable crop parameters to enable growers to optimise management for yield and quality across fields; 2) develop an Oat Crop Model and associated decision support tools; 3) develop an Oat Growth Guide which will provide a reference to assess crops status against key development bench-marks. Focused dissemination of these innovative tools will increase average yields by at least 1t/ha, contribute to sustainable intensification, reduce supply risk for millers, reduce imports, catalyse product innovation & consumer access to healthy grains and stimulate milled product export.
Impact Talk at Oats2020: http://www.oats2020.org/ An invited platform talk was given entitled - Oat metabolism - genetic and environmental drivers and future enhancement targets. Talk given to Quaker Oats, Chicago on the publically available aspects of the project and Oats agriculture - what is trending and what should Quaker know.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Optimising oat yield and quality to deliver sustainable production and economic impact (Opti-Oat) 
Organisation Ursula Agriculture Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Here my team will grow oat varieties to develop a crop model and use data from commercial p-lots also to validate this. UAV systems will be trialled as a route to developing a predictive groat model for opats
Collaborator Contribution This project will provide UK oat producers with world leading agronomic 'tools' to maximise grower returns and capitalise on the increasing demand for food grade oats. The objectives are 1) Develop and validate algorithms for translating visual / spectral sensor data from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into quantifiable crop parameters to enable growers to optimise management for yield and quality across fields; 2) develop an Oat Crop Model and associated decision support tools; 3) develop an Oat Growth Guide which will provide a reference to assess crops status against key development bench-marks. Focused dissemination of these innovative tools will increase average yields by at least 1t/ha, contribute to sustainable intensification, reduce supply risk for millers, reduce imports, catalyse product innovation & consumer access to healthy grains and stimulate milled product export.
Impact Talk at Oats2020: http://www.oats2020.org/ An invited platform talk was given entitled - Oat metabolism - genetic and environmental drivers and future enhancement targets. Talk given to Quaker Oats, Chicago on the publically available aspects of the project and Oats agriculture - what is trending and what should Quaker know.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Discissions with Highlands and Islands Enterprise on the health benefits of oats and the potential for oat milling waste as a source of health beneficial compounds for exploitation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Prof Stewart attended HIE head quarters in Inverness to discuss the potential of biomass airings (organic waste) in the food and drink industries. There were 5 HIE official present. As part of this the oat supply milling and processing chain was discussed and identified as a rich and geo-concentrated source of phytochemicals that could go back into the food and drink ingredients chain
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Food Matters Live 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Food Matters Live is the UK's only cross-sector event bringing together the food and drink industry, retailers, foodservice providers, government and those working in nutrition, to enable collaboration and innovation to support a sustainable food landscape for the future. At this years event Prof Stewart manned a stand outlining his research part of which was oats based and included Innovoat. Over the period of 3 days he discussed the project with a wide range of attendees including levy boards, funders, industry, the public NGO's charities etc. All in all the research to develop enhanced breeding methodologies for oats for human health and nutrition. In particular the processing industry was very interested with this as oats are seen as a truly problem free ingredient for foods but one that brings multiple health, taste and textural benefits. The discussions did identified that there was no real market for a GM oat but this is a route not currently being pursued.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.foodmatterslive.com/
 
Description Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre Scientific Advisory Board dinner. Talks by members about their science activities. The audience was predominantly IB businesses. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact As part of the Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre Scientific Advisory Board activities there is a planned set of activities to allow the board members to discuss their science and how it impact the centre. At this meeting (18/04/18) I talks about many projects including Innovate to a mix of ~40 academics and business representatives. the talk highlighted the place IB has in the Innovate discovery, translation and exploitation pipeline
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk at a Pan Portugal project meeting: SMARTAgriFor Norte 2020 | International Symposium, Fostering science, innovation and competitiveness on the agri-food value chains. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I was invited to talk about Discovery science to commercial exploitation at a project that is running in the north of Portugal. The conference was SMARTAgriFor Norte 2020 | International Symposium, Fostering science, innovation and competitiveness on the agri-food value chains (21 &22/05/18). At the conference my talk included aspects of the Innovate project and how it works within a journey of discovery science to commercial exploitation. As part of the meeting there was a roundtable discussion with keynote speakers and the audience where the issues lie in identifying commercial opportunities and how these can be quickly realized and exploited. This spilled into the are of embedding entrepreneurship and how this should be taught/fostered at the academic training levels
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://web.spi.pt/smartagrifor-norte/content/international-symposium
 
Description Regional Pitch ro The BioBased Industry Consortium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Prof Stewart was invited to the Bio-based Industries (BBI; http://biconsortium.eu/) Consortium General Assemble (15/02/17) to give a pitch on how Scotland as a region can contribute to the EU bioeconomy and particularly the foci of the BBI. As part of the this the Scottish Universities and Research institutes capacities were identified in terms of realizing the potential of bio-research. Prof Stewart gave a short presentation to the 100+ audience of industry, EU/national policy, science and EU national development stakeholders within which the bioresource of coproducts , including oats (via Innovoat), was identified as a target for valorization, business development and environmental gains via a circular economy approach can be made. The talk was very well received and discussions are underway to capture this initiative at EU and national levels via collaborative projects and grants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://biconsortium.eu/news/bic-general-assembly-growing-membership-deepens-bioeconomy-cooperation
 
Description Stakeholder workshop on Food in Regions - one health, from regionality to functionality. Plovdiv Bulgaria 13/06/19 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A workshop entitled Food in Regions - one health, from regionality to functionality was organised as a side event for the FOOD 2030 - Research and innovation for food and nutrition security, Plovdiv, Bulgaria (147 15/06/18: http://food2030plovdiv.eu/)

This FOOD 2030 side event will showcased the regions of Trento (IT), Flanders (B), Lower Silesia (P), and Scotland (UK) all of which are delivering innovation and associate produce that represent an important contribution to regional economies. The now well recognized One Health concept will highlight how the regions are active in growing a sustainable food bioeconomy, the products from which underpin health and well-being. These successes will describe how regional foods can be employed to improve food system sustainability, help reduce the socioeconomic impact of degenerative disease, and improve regional economic viability and ecological resilience in the face of climate change.

At this Innovate oat progress was identified in with other projects to present Scottish and UK primary production as an implicit and vital part of the food and drink supply and value chains. The audience of ~60 policy people, industry and academia engaged in a lively debate about the talks specifics and the common activities toward better food and drink development. Oat was viewed as a good example of how a poorly supported crop has flourished a feedstock for many new health food and drink products
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://food2030plovdiv.eu/?page_id=658
 
Description meeting with industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Following activity in the press and local development meetings I was contacted by a major oat user, Nairns Ltd., Edinburgh to discuss options from the project that could impact on their business. Several discussions (staring on 20/10/19) have been had with the company into the Innovate progress and how this can be utilized to aid Nairns in their development o products free from Acrylamide: a consequence of high temperature baking on protein carbohydrate rich foods. The is is being developed hopefully into future collaborative projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018