Maternal over-nutrition and offspring health: role of translational programming of insulin action

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Institute of Metabolic Science

Abstract

It is well known that lifestyle factors, particularly diet and exercise, have a big effect on long-term health and lifespan. In particular, many scientific studies have established that obesity increases risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. It is less well known that maternal obesity during pregnancy can permanently influence the health of her offspring including their risk of being obese and developing insulin resistance. This phenomenon, known as developmental programming, has been studied in humans largely by observational and association studies, from which it is difficult to deduce underlying mechanisms. However, laboratory animals show developmental programming as a consequence of maternal obesity that is strikingly similar to that seen in humans, and therefore provide valuable systems in which to investigate mechanisms that will also be applicable in humans. We have been studying the offspring of female mice that have been fed a high-fat/high-sugar diet during pregnancy. We have found evidence that these offspring have impaired metabolic responses to the hormone insulin that persist into adulthood and that are known to increase the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Associated with these effects on insulin sensitivity of the whole animal, in fat tissue (which has a central role in orchestrating metabolism of other tissues) we detected changes in the levels of specific proteins that mediate responses to insulin. One of these proteins, IRS-1, was already known to be a key control point for insulin action on fat and muscle cells. By comparing fat cells taken from the offspring of mothers fed high-fat/high-sugar or normal diets, we found evidence that levels of IRS-1 protein are lower in the offspring of obese mothers because the synthesis of the protein is decreased. We believe this reflects the action of a class of small RNA molecules, microRNAs or miRs for short, that inhibit the translation of messenger RNA molecules containing the information required for synthesis of IRS-1 protein. In fact in cells from offspring of mothers fed the high-fat/high-sugar diet we have shown changes in the level of one of the microRNAs (miR-126) that is known to target IRS-1. This is an exciting breakthrough that points the way for further studies that will shed new light on what is happening at a molecular level to cause adverse developmental programming, and what might be done to prevent it.
There are four things we would now like to do. First, we want to identify other microRNAs whose levels are programmed in fat cells by maternal over-nutrition. Advances in genome wide RNA sequencing and array technology make this a relatively straightforward exercise. The results will inform us about the scope of such changes and, using information on potential targets that is available in databases, what the overall effects might be. Second we will carry out experiments to identify targets of programmed microRNAs including miR-126. We have done similar experiments before in other contexts so we are confident of getting clear-cut data. Third, we will investigate the role of miRNAs including miR-126 in programming IRS-1 levels, insulin sensitivity and metabolic function in fat cells. We can by manipulating (up or down) the levels of individual microRNAs. Finally we will investigate whether simple lifestyle interventions, such as increased amounts of exercise during pregnancy, can alleviate developmental programming at the level of microRNAs and proteins in fat cells, and whether this correlates with improved metabolic responses at the whole organism level. We believe these studies will significantly advance understanding of the causes and consequences of developmental programming arising from maternal over-nutrition during pregnancy, and how such programming might be ameliorated. Importantly our experiments in animal models will inform the debate on how to manage the corresponding human condition.

Technical Summary

The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis links the intrauterine environment to long term health of offspring. There is evidence from human and animal studies that metabolic health of offspring is adversely affected by maternal obesity and diabetes during pregnancy. Using a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity we found that exposure to an obesogenic environment in utero led to the development of insulin resistance in young adult life. This was associated with altered expression of insulin signalling proteins in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Notably, there was a marked decrease in IRS-1 protein in adipose tissue without any change in IRS-1 mRNA. Using primary cultured pre-adipocytes we showed that this reflects decreased synthesis of IRS-1 protein and that it is paralleled by an increased level of miRNA-126 that targets IRS-1 mRNA. We therefore hypothesise that maternal diet-induced obesity programmes adipose tissue insulin action in offspring through cell autonomous, post-transcriptional mechanisms that influence levels of IRS-1 and other proteins. The overall aim of this project is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this programming. We will take a global approach to identify miRNAs in adipose tissue that are programmed by maternal over-nutrition and identify targets of these miRNAs using a combination of bioinformatics, RNA-Seq and Ago2 immunoprecipitation. We will then define the role of selected miRNAs, including miR-126, in programming adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and function, by using miR mimics and antagonists. Finally, we will establish whether normalisation of maternal insulin in obese dams can prevent programming of adipocytes.
These studies will advance understanding of developmental programming arising from maternal over-nutrition and how such programming might be ameliorated. Most importantly, our experiments in animal models will inform debate on how to manage the corresponding human condition.

Planned Impact

This proposal falls within the BBSRC strategic priority Ageing Research Lifelong Health and Wellbeing and specifically is within the scope of Fundamental research on the biology of ageing and its modulation by diet, physical activity and developmental factors. The proposal addresses two of the key issues identified and seeks to make an impact on both of these:
i) Diet, physical activity and health during ageing, and the need to understand the mechanisms by which diet and physical activity influence health across the lifecourse.
ii) Developmental factors and health during ageing, and the need to encourage research that investigates how early developmental factors may influence health during ageing, including the specific challenges to understand how nutritional exposures are recorded and transmitted through subsequent generations of cells and how this memory is translated into altered function in later life.

Academic impact: Developmental origins of health and disease is an expanding field in which UK research has so far been at the forefront. It cuts across many disciplines, most obviously physiology, nutrition and public health, with an urgent need for greater understanding at the biochemical level. The proposal therefore has potential to make a major academic impact by increasing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms linking maternal diet to metabolic phenotype of offspring. In addition to advancing knowledge, the research will involve development of new databases of miRNAs and their targets that will be broadly applicable in academia. On-going collaborations with other institutions in the UK and Europe will provide potential for extension of findings into other human cohort studies and animal models and in systems biology approaches. The research will provide cross-disciplinary training for the PDRAs, and opportunities for enhancing teaching and learning of undergraduate and postgraduate students through seminars and projects.

Economic and societal impact: The research aims to define the network of miRNAs and their targets in adipose tissue that are programmed in offspring as a consequence of maternal obesity, predisposing to insulin resistance and metabolic disease in later life. These miRNAs may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention and patentable discoveries may emerge. Although this application focuses on adipose tissue, we intend in the longer term to establish if miRNAs are also programmed in readily accessible tissues such as white blood cells with potential utility as biomarkers of disease risk that would indicate the need for lifestyle change or other intervention.

The lead researchers are actively engaged with the commercial pharmaceutical sector (including Unilever, Astra Zeneca and Abbott Laboratories) through joint research projects and studentships. The proposed research will inform and benefit this sector through access to new knowledge, technology development and databases. Thus in the longer term we foresee opportunities for commercialization of both diagnostics (identifying individuals at risk of metabolic disease as a consequence of early life nutrition) and therapeutics (targeting specific miRNAs whose programmed expression contributes to adverse metabolic phenotype). Thus the proposed research has potential to enhance the knowledge economy and economic competitiveness of the UK.
The research also has high relevance to the public sector, with potential to inform policy making with regard to advice on nutrition and healthy ageing, by strengthening the evidence base concerning relationships between nutrition during pregnancy and long-term health of offspring. The research is also readily accessible to the general public, because of its immediate relevance to improving health and well being and enhancing quality of life. The research therefore provides an excellent vehicle for increasing public engagement and understanding.
 
Description We have identified small RNAs (miRNAs) in adipose (fat) tissue that are differentially expressed as a consequence of maternal obesity. MiRNAs are small molecules that changes the amounts of different proteins in a cell and therefore how well it works. The changes in miRNAs that we observed means the fat cells contain less of the proteins that they need to recognise and respond to insulin. If our fats cells do not recognise insulin they do not remove glucose from the blood. This helps us understand why obesity during pregnancy leads to increased risk of diabetes in the offspring. We have also shown that mild exercise during pregnancy (which does not change the body weight of the mother) prevents changes in at least some of the miRNAs. This means that individuals born to obese mothers are no longer at increased risk of developing diabetes. These results are important as it means that mild exercise during pregnancy is good for the health of the baby (and the mum) and that benefits are observed even if the mother does not lose weight.
Exploitation Route These programmed miRNAs may be biomarkers of disease risk.
Sectors Healthcare

 
Description Dr Martin Bushell 
Organisation University of Leicester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Establishment of animal model, physiological and cellular analysis
Collaborator Contribution State of the art molecular translation analysis
Impact Papers published
Start Year 2006
 
Description 13th Insulin receptor and insulin action meeting. Programming by maternal over-nutrition: a developing obesity crisis. Nice France 20-22nd April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. 13th Insulin receptor and insulin action meeting. Programming by maternal over-nutrition: a developing obesity crisis. Nice France 20-22nd April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 2016 No Name Society Meeting, Colorado, USA. 20th - 23rd October 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, 2016 No Name Society Meeting, Stanley Hotel, Estes Park, Colorado. 20th - 23rd October 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2019 Sino-UK Cardiovascular Diseases Symposium Nanjing, China 24th May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming of cardiometabolic disease by maternal diet-induced obesity: a developing problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 2nd Brazilian Congress and 5th International Symposium on Pediatric Nutrition, Belem, Brazil 28th September - 1st October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, 2nd Brazilian Congress and 5th International Symposium on Pediatric Nutrition. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying the developmental programming of metabolic disease. Belem, Brazil 28th September - 1st October 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2nd Brazilian Congress and 5th International Symposium on Pediatric Nutrition, Belem, Brazil 28th September - 1st October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, 2nd Brazilian Congress and 5th International Symposium on Pediatric Nutrition. Nutritional programming by maternal diet-induced obesity: are we ready to intervene? Belem, Brazil 28th September - 1st October 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2nd Cambridge-Sao Paulo Metabolic Programming Workshop, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 27th September 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2nd Cambridge-Sao Paulo Metabolic Programming Workshop. Nutritional programming by maternal diet-induced obesity: are we ready to intervene? Sao Paulo, Brazil. 27th September 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2nd Workshop of the International Network on Telomere Biology, 2-4 November 2015, Drymen, Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Impact of early nutrition on telomere length.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 44th Annual Southern Ontario Reproductive Biology Meeting. Kingston, Ontario, Canada 13th May 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk. 44th Annual Southern Ontario Reproductive Biology Meeting. Programming by over-nutrition during pregnancy: a developing obesity crisis. Kingston, Ontario, Canada 13th May 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 4th DHU Autumn School, Nantes, 26-27 October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
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Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, talk entitled: Early programming of appetite, type 2 diabetes and ageing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 54th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, 1-3 October 2015, Barcelona, Spain 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
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Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Transgenerational programming of endocrine disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 5th International Conference on Nutrition and Growth, Paris, 1-3 March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, talk entitled Impact of Preconception and Pregnancy Diets
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 68th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting 18-21 November 2015, Orlando, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Nutritional programming: how life in the womb determines our health span and lifespan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 6th International Achieving Improved Outcomes in Neonatology and Academic Association Joint Conference. Cardiff Wales 13-15th March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Short and long-term impact of maternal obesity on offspring.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 76th Annual Professional Sessions of the American Diabetes Association, New Orleans USA 10th -14th June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk. 76th Annual Professional Sessions of the American Diabetes Association. Developmental programming of type 2 diabetes. New Orleans USA 10th -14th June 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 7th Mediterranean Neuroscience Conference Marrakech, Morocco 23rd-27th June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Nutritional programming of cardio-metabolic disease by maternal obesity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 9th International Congress o fComparative Physiology and Biochemistry (ICCPB), 23-28 August 2015, Krakow, Poland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Nutrition during pregnancy: consequences for the next generation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2019 Transforming the Cardiovascular Health of Youth for Generations to come. Philadelphia USA 16th -19th November 2019 
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Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Cardiovascular health and Risk - Molecular Mechanisms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Angers annual summer school 2019, Angers France 27th June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture. Title: What is fetal programming?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Angers annual summer school. Angers, France 30th June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited to deliver session at Angers annual summer school. What is fetal programming? Angers, France 30th June 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Annual Dutch Diabetes Research Meeting 2019, Oosterbeek 28th-29th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming of cardio-metabolic health by maternal obesity: a developing problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BHF CRE Annual Symposium 2019 Cambridge UK 9th May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming of cardio-metabolic disease by maternal diet-induced obesity: a developing problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Biocenter Oulu Day 'Fifty Shades of Fat' conference, Oulu, Finland 23rd March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, Biocenter Oulu Day 'Fifty Shades of Fat' conference, 23rd March 2017, Oulu, Finland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description British Cardiovascular Society Annual Conference. Manchester UK, 6th-8th June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk. British Cardiovascular Society Annual Conference. Understanding how adult cardiovascular dysfunction is programmed by maternal obesity. Manchester UK, 6th-8th June 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description British Science Association 'Light up your cell' event, Grafton Centre, Cambridge, 14th Mar 2015. 
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Part Of Official Scheme? No
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Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Part of the British Science Week and 'Science Festival' held at the Grafton Centre, Cambridge, 14th Mar 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description British Society for Research into Ageing Annual Meeting. Durham, UK 4th-6th July 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. British Society for Research into Ageing Annual Meeting. Early nutrition and Ageing-can we intervene? Durham, UK 4th-6th July 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description CUDOS conference on understanding molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and stroke, Doha, Qatar 10-12 April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. CUDOS conference on understanding molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and stroke. Nutritional programming of health and disease: are we ready to intervene? Doha, Qatar 10-12 April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Café Scientifique, Wallingford, Oxon, UK 15th July 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Café Scientifique Wallingford, 15th July 2015. You are what your mother ate: how life before birth shapes your future. Presentation by Prof S Ozanne.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cambridge Science Festival 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Be a scientist. Visitors put on lab coat, gloves & goggles. They were then instructed to pipette small volumes of coloured water. Pipetting accuracy was determined by the volunteers and commented on individual success. The purpose was to teach children the importance of reproducibility in science and to discuss aspirations to seek a career in science.

Dr Laura Kusinski
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sciencefestival.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description Cardiovascular & Metabolic Event for Early Career Researchers, Cambridge, 2 November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, talk entitled: Programming by maternal overnutrition: A developing obesity crisis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description DOHAD@MAC Day. International DOHaD research. Hamilton, Canada 10th May 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact DOHAD@MAC Day. International DOHaD research. Hamilton, Canada 10th May 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description DOHaD (Developmental Originals of Health and Disease) 10th World Congress, Rotterdam, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker Council Member. Talk entitled: Epigenetics and DOHaD
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description DOHaD ANZ 2016 Shaping our future, Adelaide, Australia 23rd -24th June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk. DOHaD ANZ 2016 Shaping our future. Programming metabolism for disease prevention- how far have we come and what we need next, Adelaide, Australia 23rd -24th June 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description DOHaD ANZ, Epigenetics workshop. Adelaide, Australia 22nd June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk. DOHaD ANZ Epigenetics workshop: epigenetics and DOHaD: from basics to birth and beyond. The importance of Animal Models. Adelaide, Australia 22nd June 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 11th World Congress. Picking apart obesity and diabetes in pregnancy, Melbourne Australia 20th-23rd October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker and Council Member. Talk title: Is it maternal hyperglycaemia or is it obesity that affects offspring health?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Distinguished Lecture in Reproductive Health, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada 12th May 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk. Distinguished Lecture in Reproductive Health. Mechanisms underlying the developmental origins of health and disease: insight into intervention strategies. Queen's University, Kingston, Canada 12th May 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Diversity in Telomere Dynamics, Edinburgh UK 31st October - 2nd November 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Diversity in Telomere Dynamics. Nutritional programming of healthspan and lifespan: do telomeres play a role? Edinburgh UK 31st October - 2nd November 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Early Life Developmental Effects: Unifying Evolutionary and Biomedical Perspectives Workshop, 9-12 September 2015, Falmouth, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Early Life programming - current knowledge and future potential.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description EpiScope Colloquium, 12 October 2015, Sydney, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Mechanisms underlying the developmental origins of metabolic disease: are we ready to intervene?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description European Teratology Society 43rd Conference, 30 August - 2 September 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Nutrition during pregnancy and long-term risk of type 2 diabetes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Experimental Biology conference 2017, Chicago, USA 22nd - 26th April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Experimental Biology 2017 Epigenetics and the developmental origins of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: knowns, unknowns and possibilities. Chicago USA 22nd-26th April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Society Annual Meeting, Cambridge 17th-20th September 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, Fetal and Neonatal Physiological Society Annual Meeting. Eating for two during pregnancy: programming by maternal diet-induced obesity. Cambridge 17th-20th September 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Global Pregnancy Collaboration (CoLab) Nutrition and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes workshop, London, 2-3 October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, talk entitled: Programming by obesity during pregnancy: the role of maternal insulin resistance
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Graduate Course on Metabolic Programming, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 26th September 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited to deliver session at Graduate Course on Metabolic Programming. Epigenetic programming underlying the developmental programming of metabolic health. University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 26th September 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hosting school children for work experience - July 2015 (Ozanne lab, University of Cambridge) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Hosting school children for work experience - July 2015 (Ozanne lab)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Hosting school children for work experience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Hosting school children for work experience in February 2015 (at the Ozanne Lab)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description ICO 2016 - world obesity congress, Vancouver, Canada 1st-4th May 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ICO 2016- world obesity congress. Epigenetic programming by maternal obesity. Vancouver, Canada 1st-4th May 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description In-Utero MRI 2020 Queen Anne's College Oxford, UK 8th - 10th January 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Early Programming
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Infant Nutrition Workshop, 10th February 2016, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Expert panel discussion on infant nutrition and the role that complementary feeding plays on the short- and long-term effects on metabolic health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Joint Annual Conference of the International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes and the Australiasian Paediatric Endocrine group, 7-10 October 2015, Brisbane, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Mechanisms underlying the developmental origins of metabolic health - insight into intervention strategies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Karolinska institute, Molecular and Physiological Aspects of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity conference, Stockholm, 17 November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Eating for two during pregnancy: a developing obesity problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Kongress für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin 2017, Cologne, 20-23 September 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, talk entitled: Perinatal influences on health: are we ready to intervene?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MRC Symposium, MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Edinburgh 24th February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Mechanisms underlying the programming of cardio-metabolic health by maternal obesity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Mechanisms and evolution of intergenerational change 2019, Wellcome Genome Campus. Hinxton UK 24th -26th September 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming by maternal over-nutrition - a plentiful problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description National Diabetes in Pregnancy (NDIP), Leeds, 14 November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, talk entitled: Programming by obesity during pregnancy: can we intervene?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Neurobiology of Obesity conference, Aberdeen, 16-18 August 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker at the above conference, with talk entitled Programming by maternal over-nutrition: a developing obesity crisis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Nutricia Research Scientific Symposium Mechanisms of metabolic programming: what can we learn from translational research? Groningen, The Netherlands. 31st January 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description OCDEM Seminar, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Oxford UK 20th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming of cardio-metabolic disease by maternal over-nutrition: a developing crisis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Obesity Week 2019 Las Vegas, USA 3rd-7th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title? Is sugar an epigenetic trigger for obesity?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Oxidative Stress and Disease Gordon Conference, Ventura USA 17th - 21st March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Redox metabolomics and transcriptomics in metabolic disease phenotyping.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Portuguese Society of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SPOMMF annual meeting), Porto, 24-25 November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk entitled: Fetal programming of Obesity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Quebec Obesity Symposium, 13 November 2015, Quebec, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Programming by maternal over-nutrition: a developing obesity crisis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Rank Prize Funds Mini Symposium on Obesity: from prevention to molecular mechanisms. Grasmere UK 15th-18th July 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming by maternal over-nutrition: a developing obesity crisis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description SickKids - Physiology and Experimental Research Seminar, 20 January 2016, Toronto, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on Mechanisms underlying the developmental origins of health and disease
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Society for Maternal and Fetal Medicine 40th Annual Pregnancy Meeting Texas, USA 3rd - 8th February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Comparative impact of pharmacological treatments for gestational diabetes on neonatal anthropometry: systematic review and meta-analysis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Society for Reproductive Investigations Annual meeting, Montreal, Canada 16th -19th March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Society for Reproductive Investigations Annual meeting. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying developmental programming: can we fix it? Montreal, Canada 16th -19th March 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Summer Course Universidad Rey Juan Carlos on Type 2 Diabetes, Madrid, Spain 7th-9th July 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited to delivery session as part of Summer Course, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Type 2 Diabetes: etiology, complications and new perspectives. Nutritional programming of type 2 diabetes. Madrid, Spain 7th-9th July 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Summer School, University of Angers. What is fetal programming? Angers, France 29th June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact University of Angers summer school. What is fetal programming? Angers, France 26th June - 7th July 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Tenovus meeting on epigenetics, Glasgow UK 30th November 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Tenovus meeting on epigenetics. Epigenetic programming of metabolic health by maternal diet. Glasgow UK 30th November 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description UKEV, Sheffield (UK Society for Extracellular Vesicles), 11th December 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was a conference annual event run by the UK Society for extracelluar vesicles. This was to gain an insight into this new field and to make new collaborations with researchers in this field.

Laura Kusinski
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://drive.google.com/file/d/1O9I8nO7HgVkOi0jUnHmTakjAgrkClOA7/view
 
Description Wallingford School Science Exchange, 16th July 2015. Type 2 diabetes - whats and whys. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Wallingford School Science Exchange, 16th July 2015. Type 2 diabetes - whats and whys.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Yrjo Jahnsson Symposium in Medicine, Helsinki, 24-25 August 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, talk entitled: Developmental and nutrigenomic programming of metabolic diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017