US-UK EEID Collab: Risks of Animal and Plant Infectious Diseases Through Trade (RAPID trade)

Lead Research Organisation: University of York
Department Name: Environment

Abstract

The dispersal of animal and plant diseases is among the most important side effects of a closely-integrated global economy. Disease impacts on crop yields and livestock puts global food supplies at risk, and the movement of zoonotic pathogens puts human health at risk. Yet trade is also a principal driver of income growth. Striking the right balance in trade decisions between disease risk and opportunities for economic growth is critical to the wellbeing of people in both developed and developing countries. There is therefore an urgent need for developing risk assessment tools for managing animal and plant disease risk at both national and international scales that capture the risks and opportunities in evolving trade patterns, and hence help to identify opportunities for economic growth.

The broad aim of the project is to combine state-of-the-art ecological network modelling with multi-scale economic modelling to assess the infectious disease risks posed to animals and plants by world trade networks. We will first examine how factors that inform trade decisions, such as relative prices, taxes and import duties affect risks. We will then investigate the effect of interventions in the market by (a) animal/plant health managers at the local scale, (b) border control agents at the national scale, and (c) multilateral agreements and intergovernmental organizations at the international scale. At the local scale we will examine the effect of controls implemented during outbreaks, and the impact these have on disease risks, e.g. the effect of compensation measures introduced during the 2001 UK Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak. At the national scale we will consider the design of trade-based risk assessment, taking into account potential post-importation risks within the importing country, and investigate how imports should be categorized into groups based on potential future risks. At the international scale, we will examine the potential for reducing disease risks through cooperation between national border control agencies.

Through partnerships with US APHIS and UK FERA we will access data on selected animal and plant diseases to extend scientific understanding of the nature of anthropogenic animal and plant disease risk. The trade-based risk assessment methods will provide animal and plant health authorities at both the national and international level with the capacity to make improved assessment of the animal and plant health risks associated with imports, and of the effects of trade responses. This may enhance national security by improving disease risk management. It may also enhance national wellbeing by reducing the losses caused by trade interventions. Internationally, we expect to partner with the Food and Agricultural Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. We will develop novel methods for communicating risk to public and private sector organisations and policy-makers, engaging them in the development of a web-based interface that will illustrate how opportunities and risks vary in response to trade interventions.

The project will build research infrastructure by strengthening an existing network of US universities concerned with the management of disease risks, and by extending that network to include universities in the UK. We will complement the scientific work within the project with an extensive training programme for PhD students and early career researchers, and over the four years of the project, we expect to train 5 PhD students (supported by research assistantships) and 4 postdoctoral fellows (supported by postdoctoral fellowships) in modeling anthropogenic factors in the spread of infectious diseases, in assessing trade related disease risks, and in risk communication.

Technical Summary

Disease impacts on crop yields and livestock put global food supplies at risk, while emergent zoonoses put human health at risk. This project will develop risk assessment models for managing animal and plant disease risk at both national and international scales that will incorporate the most recent advances in ecological network analysis to better capture the impact of evolving trade patterns on animal and plant health.

The project has four specific objectives: 1) to improve understanding of the influence of disease risk in private trade (importers') decisions; 2) to use this information to develop trade-risk assessment methods that can enhance local and national disease risk management; 3) to improve capacity to predict the implications of trade interventions on risk, and to explore options for managing this at the international scale; and 4) to develop a virtual laboratory to allow industry and policy-makers to evaluate alternative disease risk management strategies at local, national and international scale in response to various trade or regulatory interventions.

This project is expected to extend scientific understanding of the nature of anthropogenic animal and plant disease risk. Trade-based risk assessment methods will provide animal and plant health authorities at both the national and international level with the capacity to make improved assessment of the animal and plant health risks associated with imports, and of the effects of trade responses, and we will show how national security may be most effectively protected through international cooperation.

We will partner with two of the national organizations responsible for animal and plant disease risk assessment and management, US APHIS and UK FERA. Internationally, we expect to partner with the FAO, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement.

Planned Impact

1. Benefits to individual nations
The project will offer benefits to the US and UK both by enhancing the national capacity to manage disease risk, and by protecting the benefits offered by international trade. Enhanced trade-based risk assessment methods will provide animal and plant health authorities at both the national and international level with the capacity to make improved assessment of the animal and plant health risks associated with imports, and of the effects of trade responses. These new risk assessment methods should also help to promote national security by improving capacity to manage risks at different scales, and should enhance national wellbeing by minimizing trade losses incurred when we fail to distinguish between safe and unsafe commodities.

2. International cooperation
We will strengthen understanding of the conditions in which national biosecurity is best protected through international cooperation. By exploring the way that the international disease risk landscape changes with changes in the pattern of international trade, we will show how disease risks are interdependent. This will make it possible to explore the potential gains from greater international coordination and cooperation in disease risk management.

3. Research infrastructure
We will enhance research infrastructure in three ways: a) by developing partnerships with researchers in government laboratories charged with protecting the country against the disease risks posed by imported animal and plant products, US APHIS and UK FERA, b) by building research collaborations between academic institutions in the USA and the UK, and c) by strengthening a network of US universities and research NGOs concerned with the science and management of disease.

4. Policy and stakeholder engagement
We will seek to partner with other organizations as the research proceeds. Internationally, we expect to partner with the Food and Agricultural Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. The models to be developed in the proposal will provide test-beds for the evaluation of an alternative set of incentive-based disease management tools, and we will hope to evaluate these tools jointly with disease management agencies at various levels.

5. Knowledge exchange
We will broaden dissemination to enhance scientific and technological understanding through the co-development of a virtual disease risk laboratory. The co-development process will help to ensure stakeholder confidence in the set of models used as a virtual risk assessment laboratory, both by allowing their participation in model development, and by demonstrating the validity of the approach in terms that are understandable and transparent. We will also partner with the ecoHEALTH network of DIVERSITAS and its successors under Future Earth to disseminate the results to the international animal and plant health policy community.

6. Training
We will combine discovery with teaching, training, and learning. Over the four years of the project, we expect to train five PhD students (supported by research assistantships) and four postdoctoral fellows (supported by postdoctoral fellowships) in modeling anthropogenic factors in the spread of infectious diseases, in assessing trade related disease risks, and in risk communication.

7. Diversity and inclusion
We will broaden participation of under-represented groups through our selection of graduate research assistants and postdoctoral fellows. We will exploit our existing links to the Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI) (members of the team teach in the program), which mentors students of mathematics each summer, to bring the opportunities offered by the grant to the attention of potential candidates among underrepresented minorities.

Publications

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Berry K (2016) Choosing between adaptation and prevention with an increasing probability of a pandemic in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization

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Castillo-Chavez C (2015) Beyond Ebola: lessons to mitigate future pandemics. in The Lancet. Global health

 
Description For farmers potentially affected by invasive pathogens that can cause significant crop damage and economic loss, there are economically beneficial opportunities for farmers to reduce the likely impacts of these pathogens by changing the spatial arrangements of different crops, so that fields with similar crops are more widely distributed. For the management of plant pathogens in a nursery setting, the optimum approach to control depends on the transmission dynamics of the disease. If a disease tends to spread faster than it can be controlled, removal of infected plants and restriction of imports are complementary management strategies. However, for disease that can be controlled, removal and restriction become substitutes. For the management of animal diseases, unilateral disease management strategies carried out by single farms can be effective in filtering out externalities created by trade. Moreover, the resulting social benefits from unilateral actions may exceed the private benefits experienced by those bearing the management costs.The maintenance of livestock health depends on the combined actions of many different actors, both within and across different regulatory frameworks. Analysis of bovine diarrhoea virus as a case study shows that for a two-farm trading situation, all actions carried out by the selling farm provide substantial benefits to the purchasing farm in terms of disease avoided, with the greatest benefit resulting from test-culling with vaccination on the selling farm. Likewise, unilateral disease strategies by purchasers can be effective in reducing disease risks created through trade. Regulation of animal diseases needs to balance the trade-off between private gains from those bearing the disease management costs and the positive spillover effects on others.
Exploitation Route We have been collaborating throughout the project with Defra, and our findings are contributing to the development of policy on biosecurity for plant and animal diseases.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

 
Description AgriFood at York (N8: AgriFood)
Amount £13,944 (GBP)
Organisation University of York 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 05/2018
 
Description Bilateral BBSRC-SFI: Tackling a multi-host pathogen problem - phylodynamic analyses of the epidemiology of M. bovis in Britain and Ireland
Amount £448,073 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P010598/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Defra commissioned project
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Developing a plant health outbreak decision support framework
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Funding ID FC/0365 
Organisation Forestry Commission 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description Heterogeneity and complexity in collaborative biosecurity schemes
Amount £49,867 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/T003936/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 04/2020
 
Description APHA and Fera collaboration on animal and plant disease 
Organisation Fera Science Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We are providing expertise in relation to ecological and economic analysis and modelling.
Collaborator Contribution Fera staff are contributing to the project through providing access to Defra databases and serving as a gateway to key industry contacts and data.
Impact Two publications to date.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Centre of Expertise in Plant Health (Scotland) 
Organisation Forest Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Kleczkowski contributed to the Expert Group preparing the business case for the Scottish Government and was part of the consortium that was successful in the bid. He is now
Collaborator Contribution Working with the recently appointed Chief Plant Health Officer for Scotland, the Centre will bring together key plant sectors to co-ordinate plant health needs and activities across Scotland. It will be headed up by the James Hutton Institute, along with sector leads from Scotland's Rural College (agriculture), Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (horticulture and environment) and Forest Research (forestry), together with partners from the universities of Edinburgh, Stirling and Strathclyde, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS), each bringing with them a range of skills from understanding public perceptions to long-term disease forecasting.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2018
 
Description Centre of Expertise in Plant Health (Scotland) 
Organisation Government of Scotland
Department Scottish Government Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Kleczkowski contributed to the Expert Group preparing the business case for the Scottish Government and was part of the consortium that was successful in the bid. He is now
Collaborator Contribution Working with the recently appointed Chief Plant Health Officer for Scotland, the Centre will bring together key plant sectors to co-ordinate plant health needs and activities across Scotland. It will be headed up by the James Hutton Institute, along with sector leads from Scotland's Rural College (agriculture), Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (horticulture and environment) and Forest Research (forestry), together with partners from the universities of Edinburgh, Stirling and Strathclyde, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS), each bringing with them a range of skills from understanding public perceptions to long-term disease forecasting.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2018
 
Description Centre of Expertise in Plant Health (Scotland) 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Kleczkowski contributed to the Expert Group preparing the business case for the Scottish Government and was part of the consortium that was successful in the bid. He is now
Collaborator Contribution Working with the recently appointed Chief Plant Health Officer for Scotland, the Centre will bring together key plant sectors to co-ordinate plant health needs and activities across Scotland. It will be headed up by the James Hutton Institute, along with sector leads from Scotland's Rural College (agriculture), Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (horticulture and environment) and Forest Research (forestry), together with partners from the universities of Edinburgh, Stirling and Strathclyde, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS), each bringing with them a range of skills from understanding public perceptions to long-term disease forecasting.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2018
 
Description Centre of Expertise in Plant Health (Scotland) 
Organisation Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Kleczkowski contributed to the Expert Group preparing the business case for the Scottish Government and was part of the consortium that was successful in the bid. He is now
Collaborator Contribution Working with the recently appointed Chief Plant Health Officer for Scotland, the Centre will bring together key plant sectors to co-ordinate plant health needs and activities across Scotland. It will be headed up by the James Hutton Institute, along with sector leads from Scotland's Rural College (agriculture), Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (horticulture and environment) and Forest Research (forestry), together with partners from the universities of Edinburgh, Stirling and Strathclyde, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS), each bringing with them a range of skills from understanding public perceptions to long-term disease forecasting.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2018
 
Description Centre of Expertise in Plant Health (Scotland) 
Organisation Scotland's Rural College
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kleczkowski contributed to the Expert Group preparing the business case for the Scottish Government and was part of the consortium that was successful in the bid. He is now
Collaborator Contribution Working with the recently appointed Chief Plant Health Officer for Scotland, the Centre will bring together key plant sectors to co-ordinate plant health needs and activities across Scotland. It will be headed up by the James Hutton Institute, along with sector leads from Scotland's Rural College (agriculture), Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (horticulture and environment) and Forest Research (forestry), together with partners from the universities of Edinburgh, Stirling and Strathclyde, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS), each bringing with them a range of skills from understanding public perceptions to long-term disease forecasting.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2018
 
Description Centre of Expertise in Plant Health (Scotland) 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Kleczkowski contributed to the Expert Group preparing the business case for the Scottish Government and was part of the consortium that was successful in the bid. He is now
Collaborator Contribution Working with the recently appointed Chief Plant Health Officer for Scotland, the Centre will bring together key plant sectors to co-ordinate plant health needs and activities across Scotland. It will be headed up by the James Hutton Institute, along with sector leads from Scotland's Rural College (agriculture), Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (horticulture and environment) and Forest Research (forestry), together with partners from the universities of Edinburgh, Stirling and Strathclyde, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS), each bringing with them a range of skills from understanding public perceptions to long-term disease forecasting.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2018
 
Description FERA FPHH 
Organisation Fera Science Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution As part of Future Proofing for Plant Health project, we have modified the Forest Pest decision support tool and carried out an analysis of selected case studies.
Collaborator Contribution FERA provided expertise in data analysis and jointly prepared the final report.
Impact Internal report; two publications planned.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Plant Health Centre Climate Change 
Organisation Fera Science Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Under the PHC2018/14 contract: Impact of climate change on the spread of pests and diseases in Scotland, we will be using the modelling framework to assess risks and economic impacts for key plant pests and pathogens in Scotland.
Collaborator Contribution FERA will contribute to the organisation of workshop and to parameterisation of the model. University of Cambridge will contribute to the report.
Impact No output yet.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Plant Health Centre Climate Change 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Under the PHC2018/14 contract: Impact of climate change on the spread of pests and diseases in Scotland, we will be using the modelling framework to assess risks and economic impacts for key plant pests and pathogens in Scotland.
Collaborator Contribution FERA will contribute to the organisation of workshop and to parameterisation of the model. University of Cambridge will contribute to the report.
Impact No output yet.
Start Year 2019
 
Description SRUC and BioSS collaboration on disease epidemiology and trade 
Organisation Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland (BioSS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Collaboration on wildlife disease epidemiology and modelling.
Collaborator Contribution Specialist expertise for the development of new modelling and statistical approaches
Impact Rydevik G, Innocent GT, Marion G,Davidson RS, White PCL, Billinis C, Barrow, P., Mertens, P.P.C., Gavier-Widen, D. & Hutchings, M.R. (2016) Using combined diagnostic test results to hindcast trends of infection from cross-Sectional Data. PLoS Computational Biology 12(7): e1004901. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004901. Cowie, C.E., Hutchings, M.R., Barasona, J.A., Gortázar, C., Vicente, J. & White, P.C.L. (2015) Interactions between four species in a complex wildlife:livestock disease community: implications for Mycobacterium bovis maintenance and transmission. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 62, 51-64. Cowie, C.E., Gortazar, C., White, P.C.L. & Hutchings, M.R. (2015) Stakeholder opinions on the practicality of management interventions to control bovine tuberculosis. The Veterinary Journal, online: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.02.022 Fox, N.J., Marion, G., Davidson, R.S., White, P.C.L. & Hutchings, M.R. (2015) Climate-driven tipping-points could lead to sudden, high-intensity parasite outbreaks. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 140296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.140296. Prentice, J., Davidson, R., Marion, G. White, P.C.L. & Hutchings, M.R. (2014) Demographic processes drive increases in wildlife disease following population reduction. PLoS One, 9(5): e86563. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086563. Hardstaff, J.L., Marion G., Hutchings, M.R. & White, P.C.L. (2014) Evaluating the tuberculosis hazard posed to cattle from wildlife across Europe. Research in Veterinary Science, 97, S86-S93.
Start Year 2014
 
Description SRUC and BioSS collaboration on disease epidemiology and trade 
Organisation Scotland's Rural College
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration on wildlife disease epidemiology and modelling.
Collaborator Contribution Specialist expertise for the development of new modelling and statistical approaches
Impact Rydevik G, Innocent GT, Marion G,Davidson RS, White PCL, Billinis C, Barrow, P., Mertens, P.P.C., Gavier-Widen, D. & Hutchings, M.R. (2016) Using combined diagnostic test results to hindcast trends of infection from cross-Sectional Data. PLoS Computational Biology 12(7): e1004901. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004901. Cowie, C.E., Hutchings, M.R., Barasona, J.A., Gortázar, C., Vicente, J. & White, P.C.L. (2015) Interactions between four species in a complex wildlife:livestock disease community: implications for Mycobacterium bovis maintenance and transmission. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 62, 51-64. Cowie, C.E., Gortazar, C., White, P.C.L. & Hutchings, M.R. (2015) Stakeholder opinions on the practicality of management interventions to control bovine tuberculosis. The Veterinary Journal, online: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.02.022 Fox, N.J., Marion, G., Davidson, R.S., White, P.C.L. & Hutchings, M.R. (2015) Climate-driven tipping-points could lead to sudden, high-intensity parasite outbreaks. Royal Society Open Science, 2, 140296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.140296. Prentice, J., Davidson, R., Marion, G. White, P.C.L. & Hutchings, M.R. (2014) Demographic processes drive increases in wildlife disease following population reduction. PLoS One, 9(5): e86563. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086563. Hardstaff, J.L., Marion G., Hutchings, M.R. & White, P.C.L. (2014) Evaluating the tuberculosis hazard posed to cattle from wildlife across Europe. Research in Veterinary Science, 97, S86-S93.
Start Year 2014
 
Title A PLANT HEALTH OUTBREAK DECISION SUPPORT FRAMEWORK 
Description Decision makers require rapid, transparent and consistent input concerning the costs and benefits of possible policy responses to current and future pest and disease threats to UK trees and woodlands. This project aimed to develop a generic framework that quantifies economic, social, environmental, political, technical and legal considerations. The framework is realised in a flexible and transparent tool that is designed to be used jointly by analysts, scientists, and policy experts involved in responding to actual or potential pest/disease incursions. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Not at present. 
 
Title Virtual lab for understanding plant and animal health risks through trade 
Description This interactive tool will enable users to understand how decisions made at policy or business level, concerning biosecurity or ongoing disease management, can affect the risk of disease outbreaks in the context of plant and animal diseases, using a number of case studies. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact A functioning web tool. The tool is still in development at present. 
 
Description 30th Marian Smoluchowski Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented a talk at the 30th Marian Smoluchowski Symposium 2017: On the Uniformity of Laws of Nature in Krakow, Poland. This event was attended by researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description A talk at Bioecon conference, 2-3 September 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented a paper at an environmental economics conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description APHA Modelling Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited speaker at the APHA Modelling Workshop; attended by Defra and industry representatives. Held numerous discussions presenting the project outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Innovation in Plant Biosecurity 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in Innovation in Plant Biosecurity 2017 workshop organised by FERA. Co-author of one presentation and one poster.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Policy workshop for RAPID Trade project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We held a 1-day workshop for policy-makers and practitioners focusing on the following: (1) Assessment and management of plant and animal infectious disease risks of trade; (2) Within country monitoring and biosecurity; and (3) The future risk landscape. The workshop identified a list of key policy priorities for the management of invasive pathogens affecting plant and animal production, and opportunities for tackling these using a range of economic modelling tools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Policy workshop for RAPID Trade project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presented at a 1-day workshop for policy-makers and practitioners focusing on the following: (1) Assessment and management of plant and animal infectious disease risks of trade; (2) Within country monitoring and biosecurity; and (3) The future risk landscape. The workshop identified a list of key policy priorities for the management of invasive pathogens affecting plant and animal production, and opportunities for tackling these using a range of economic modelling tools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description RAPID Trade Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented at a workshop organised as part of the RAPID Trade project (Arizona State University). The workshop was attended by policymakers from Defra and USDA as well as researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017