Elucidating cell structure in 3-D by automated electron microscopy

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Institute of Cellular Medicine

Abstract

The fine structural detail within cells has traditionally been examined using either scanning EM (SEM) or transmission EM (TEM). TEM is performed through a single thin section of the structure of interest and therefore often just gives a 'snapshot' 2D image. SEM gives a 3D-like image but only images the surface of the structure and not the detail therein. With TEM images, researchers often question what is happening above and below the single section and, to answer this, serial-sectioning is required. This is very time-consuming and technically difficult - the orientation of each section cannot be controlled and, therefore, 3-D-reconstruction of the digital images from these multiple serial sections requires frequent re-alignment that takes many hours. Even the most skilled technician will lose some sections resulting in incomplete series. Remarkably, these problems can be overcome by the 3View system, an automated sectioning and image capture system incorporated into a high resolution SEM. Computer-controlled, multiple sections and images can be made with one sample and 3-D-reconstructions performed without the need for realignment. This results in the best features of TEM and SEM being combined to show how cells are organized - both internally and in relation to their neighbouring cells and environment - at unprecedented levels of spatial information. Our immediate research projects using this equipment will cover a wide range of subjects - how do cells of the heart develop structures to beat every second? how do mitochondria - the 'batteries of the cell' - re-model themselves under different conditions? how can stem cells transform themselves into different cell types? how does the brain makes split-second judgments and more. Completely new understanding of these subjects will arise from being able to produce high resolution 3-D images of the structures of interest with this technology.

Technical Summary

We request the purchase of an advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) incorporating the Gatan 3View2.XP system to enable high-resolution 3-D-reconstruction of cell and tissue components. A high-precision ultramicrotome is operated within the SEM and allows the automated acquisition of 3-D ultrastructure by sequentially imaging the serially sectioned resin block face. Serial block face imaging and 3-D volume EM is particularly suited to studying the spatial arrangement of cells and their organelles and will enable a step-change in our ability to reconstruct intracellular and intercellular structural arrangements that underpin fundamental biological processes.
The theme common to all the projects is the need for 3-D imaging at an x-y resolution, and a z-axis depth, far higher than can be achieved with confocal microscopy. Only with EM resolution, and 3-D volume analysis, will the ultrastructure of cellular compartments and their interactions with the surrounding environment be fully explored. 11 Newcastle University research groups investigating mammalian and non-mammalian cell biology, supported by Research Council (BBSRC, MRC) and Charity (Wellcome Trust, BHF) funding, will be the first to benefit from in-house access to this equipment for topics including: developmental and age-dependent remodelling of striated muscle, mitochondrial reorganization during cell division and ageing, CNS neuronal cell polarity and plasticity, synaptic formation in the visual cortex, primary ciliary formation in developing and diseased kidney, and mechanisms of stem cell commitment.

Planned Impact

The 3View system is step-changing technology and is already revolutionising how we look at cellular ultrastructure in terms of learning about biological function. The immediate impact of this technology will be on the researchers whose projects are outlined in this proposal. During the following months this impact will extend to other internal and external researchers as seminars, workshops and demonstrations are held to highlight the potential of the equipment. Access to this technology will open up new applications to these researchers and allow then to study their structures of interest in a way that has previously been either difficult or impossible. Significantly, the automated nature of the data acquisition, its scale and the time efficiency all means that these opportunities for discovery are available to everyone with the sample and question - not just the dedicated EM researcher who is prepared to spend months painstakingly doing a single manual 3D reconstruction. However, the acquisition of the 3View system and the ability to explore cellular ultrastructure in three dimensions will have an impact beyond the academic environment. There will also be a commercial impact - one of the co-applicants (C Rind) is working with industry to design collision sensors based on the locust visual system for use on cars. In the long-term we envisage further commercial involvement particularly in the area of bioengineering.

More immediate impact will come with the opportunities for public engagement. The EM facility regularly hosts groups of school children who learn about EM as part of the A-level curriculum. Illustrating to them 3D-reconstructions, often in step-by-step movie format, rather than 2D 'snapshots', will truly open up their learning experience about the spatial features of intracellular structures and cell-to-cell arrangements in ways not previously feasible.
 
Title 3D printing 
Description The digital models produced by the SBFSEM system can be printed on a 3D printer. This allows us to produce 3D models of cells and organelles to show school children and members of the public and help them understand more about the structure of cells. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact People find it much easier to visualise what cells look like from 3D printed models than from a digital model on a computer screen. 
 
Title Journal cover illustration 
Description A 3-D digital reconstruction of cell structure and intracellular organelles wasa chosen as a cover illustration for an issue of Nature (Rozenblatt-Rosen O, Stubbington MJT, Regev A, Teichmann SA. The Human Cell Atlas: from vision to reality. Nature. 2017 Oct 18; 550(7677):451-453) 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Increased awareness of research activity. 
 
Description We have discovered several new features about how cells and tissues are made up. For example, we have found that mitochondria - little packages within every cell that act like batteries - can appear in many different shapes and sizes depending on what type of cell is being examined. This is likely to be very important for determining the specific functions of that cell e.g. a muscle cell versus a kidney cell etc. In addition, we have found that these mitochondria may be changed in disease conditions.

More generally, we have been able to look at the structure of many cells and organs in ways that hadn't previously been possible. This has provided new information on how cells and tissues may behave in response to different challenges.We have also developed the application mehtods of tools for image analysis and disseminated these (i) in several training workshops and (ii) in a publication containing on-line video tutorials.
Exploitation Route We, collaborators and interacting partners will use this information in support of publications, preliminary data for future funding applications and in the dissemination of scientific information to the public during engagement activities. As our publication output increases we endeavour to make as much of our raw data, and analysed data, openly accessible as possible. This, allied to our other routes of public dissemination, means that we are actively encouraging of others to enter the field and make best use of the SBF-SEM technology awarded by the grant.
Sectors Education,Healthcare,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

 
Description Engagement activities with schools, the general public and regional/national/international academic visitors - as well as our continued attendeance at national and international conferences, seminar presentations to other academic institutions etc) has increased understanding of (i) the interface between biology and technology (ii) the advances in understanding biology and disease (in non-academic terms) that can be achieved with use of the SBF-SEM technology.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Education
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Professor Taggart is a member of the Royal Society of Biology Primary Curriculum Group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.rsb.org.uk/about-us/committees/primary-working-group
 
Description Scrutiny of Department of Education Key Stage 2 exam scripts (Professor Taggart)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Ensuring that KS2 exam scripts for biology designed by the Standards and Testing Agency were fit for purpose.
 
Description Alert17
Amount £294,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R013942/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Project Grant
Amount £236,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BH163061 
Organisation British Heart Foundation (BHF) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2019
 
Description Wellcome Centre for Mitochondrial Research
Amount £6,400,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 203105 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Department Wellcome Trust Bloomsbury Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2022
 
Title Published methodological protocol for image analysis tools aligned to on-line video tutorials. 
Description The publication 'A guide to analysis and reconstruction of serial block face scanning electron microscopy data (Cocks E, Taggart M, Rind FC, White K. J Microsc. 2018) detailed several methodological protocols for imagae analysis procedures of SBF-SEM data. In parallel, we provided on-line tutorials taking the reader/viewer through these processes step-by-step. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Increased awareness of research activity and ways in which to participate in such experimental analysis. 
 
Title SBF-SEM raw data associated with publication Cocks et al., (2018) 
Description Several series of raw datasets from SBF-SEM experiments were deposited for viewing/access at EMPIAR: These datasets accompanied the publication 'A guide to analysis and reconstruction of serial block face scanning electron microscopy data' by Cocks E, Taggart M, Rind FC, White K. J Microsc. 2018. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Raw datasets available for experimental analysis. 
URL http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/emdb/empiar
 
Description Columbia University (Brain) 
Organisation Columbia University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The EM Services unit have imaged brain samples by SBF-SEM for image segmentation and 3d reconstruction.
Collaborator Contribution Colleagues from Columbia University have provided brain specimens from old and young mice for examination by SBF-SEM.
Impact Work is on-going
Start Year 2017
 
Description External users of SBF-SEM equipment 
Organisation Novo Nordisk
Country Denmark 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The EM Services unit (managed by co-applicant Dr White) has examined specimens from these external collaborators using the SBF-SEM equipment.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided specimens for examination by SBF-SEM.
Impact Glasgow collaboration has contributed pilot data that will inform subsequent grant applications. Edinburgh collaboration has resulted in data provided to partners who are analysing it and assessing suitability for publication. Novo Nordisk are satisfied with the results provided to them for internal use.
Start Year 2015
 
Description External users of SBF-SEM equipment 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The EM Services unit (managed by co-applicant Dr White) has examined specimens from these external collaborators using the SBF-SEM equipment.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided specimens for examination by SBF-SEM.
Impact Glasgow collaboration has contributed pilot data that will inform subsequent grant applications. Edinburgh collaboration has resulted in data provided to partners who are analysing it and assessing suitability for publication. Novo Nordisk are satisfied with the results provided to them for internal use.
Start Year 2015
 
Description External users of SBF-SEM equipment 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The EM Services unit (managed by co-applicant Dr White) has examined specimens from these external collaborators using the SBF-SEM equipment.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided specimens for examination by SBF-SEM.
Impact Glasgow collaboration has contributed pilot data that will inform subsequent grant applications. Edinburgh collaboration has resulted in data provided to partners who are analysing it and assessing suitability for publication. Novo Nordisk are satisfied with the results provided to them for internal use.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Imperial College (hearts) 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Imperial College Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution the EM Services unit have examined heart specimens by SBF-SEM.
Collaborator Contribution Colleagues from Imperial College London have provided heart specimens from normal and diseased animal models for examination by SBF-SEM.
Impact Work is on-going.
Start Year 2016
 
Description King's College 
Organisation King's College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution EM Research Services examined kidney samples using SBF-SEM
Collaborator Contribution KCL provided kidney samples
Impact Information has been used as pilot data in grant applications.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Leicester University 
Organisation University of Leicester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution EM Research Services analysed by SBF-SEM experimental brain specimens
Collaborator Contribution Colleagues at University of Leicester provided specimens
Impact Colleagues from Leicester used the information as pilot data for future work.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Newcastle University multi-user use of SBF-SEM 
Organisation Newcastle University
Department Institute of Cellular Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The EM Services unit (managed by co-applicant Dr White) has instigated research projects with 5 PIs across three Institutes in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Newcastle University utilising the SBF-SEM equipment.
Collaborator Contribution The 5 PIs bring specimens to be examined by SBF-SEM in support of the research projects.
Impact not yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Newcastle University multi-user use of SBF-SEM 
Organisation Newcastle University
Department Institute of Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The EM Services unit (managed by co-applicant Dr White) has instigated research projects with 5 PIs across three Institutes in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Newcastle University utilising the SBF-SEM equipment.
Collaborator Contribution The 5 PIs bring specimens to be examined by SBF-SEM in support of the research projects.
Impact not yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Newcastle University multi-user use of SBF-SEM 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The EM Services unit (managed by co-applicant Dr White) has instigated research projects with 5 PIs across three Institutes in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Newcastle University utilising the SBF-SEM equipment.
Collaborator Contribution The 5 PIs bring specimens to be examined by SBF-SEM in support of the research projects.
Impact not yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Newcastle University users 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The EM Services unit (managed by co-applicant Dr White) has instigated research projects with 21 users across five Institutes in two faculties utilising the SBF-SEM equipment.
Collaborator Contribution Colleagues provide experimental specimens for analysis by SBF-SEM by the ~EM Services unit.
Impact See publications and engagement activities.
Start Year 2016
 
Description A talk or presentation - Practicalities of Cellular Analysis Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-applicant Dr Rind presented an overview of SBF-SEM experimental approaches.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description EM Services Twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A Twitter account (@EMRSncl) for the EM Services unit was set-up to allow dissemination of information related to research work in the unit including that involving the SBF-SEM equipment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description EMBL workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Kath White (applicant and Head of EM Services), Tracey Davey (EM Service Research Technician associated with the grant) and two PhD students (supervised by PI Professor Taggart) will attend the EMBL Workshop From 3D Light to 3D Electron Microscopy followed by a 3view users forum, at EMBL Heidelberg.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.embl.de/training/events/2016/ZEI16-01/
 
Description Facilities showcase day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The Faculty of Medical Sciences organised a Facilities Showcase Day during which the purpose of the EM Services unit, including that of the SBF-SEM equipment, was presented to the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2017
 
Description Hosting school visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact ~50 6th form pupils from 5 schools attended the EM Services facility for an educational visit. They were shown how diverse biological samples can be prepared for examination of 2-d and 3-D structure and ultrastructure by electron microscopy including the use of the SBF-SEM equipment. The students were engaged and had many interesting questions. The lead teachers all commented that the visits were useful and instructive for the students science syllabus. It is likely that the visits will occur next year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description INTO student visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact INTO international students attended the EM Services unit for a visit. The students learned about preparing a diverse range of biological samples for examination of 2-d and 3-d structure or ultrastructure including the use of the SBF-SEM equipment. The students were engaged and had many questions especially how they might be able to use these approaches in their own research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description Introductory workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact ~30 PhD students and post-doctoral researchers were given an introduction to, and tour of, the EM Services unit wherein the purpose and applications of the SBF-SEM equipment was described.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description NUMED student visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Newcastle University has degree partnership programmes with its sister organisation Newcastle University Medical School in Malaysia. Undergraduate students spend 1 year of their study in Newcastle University, UK. These NUMED students attended the EM Services unit for a visit. The students learned about preparing a diverse range of biological samples for examination of 2-D and 3-D structure or ultrastructure including the use of the SBF-SEM equipment. The students were engaged and had many questions especially how they might be able to use these approaches in their own research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Oral presentation at scientific meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Keystone Symposia on Mitochondria in cardiac and skeletal muscle, Colorado 2019. Martin Picard: "Quantitative 3D mapping of the skeletal muscle mitochondrial network in health and mtDNA disease"
United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation, Nashville, TN 2018. Martin Picard: Mitochondrial 3D Network Organization and Nanotunnels in Mitochondrial Disease.
Society for Biological Psychiatry New York, NY 2018. Martin Picard: Developing Sensitive Measures of Mitochondrial Responses to Acute and Chronic Stress.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation in BHF visitors day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Ran laboratory-based demonstrations and explanations of our research work as part of a BHF Supporters day of engagement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation in Physiology Friday 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the one day national event Physiology Friday, Prof Taggart participated in manning a display stall at the Hancock Museum. Members of the public had the opportunity to engae with scientists and ask questions about their work, clinical significance etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Pint of Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Annual science festival taking place in pubs & cafes where PhD students present their research in a fun and informative way to a non-specialised audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://twitter.com/pintofscience
 
Description Poster presentations at scientific meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Multifaceted mitochondria, San Diego 2018. Amy Vincent: "Quantitative 3D mapping of the skeletal muscle mitochondrial network in health and mtDNA disease"
Keystone Symposia on Mitochondria in Ageing and Age-related disease, Colorado 2019. Amy Vincent: "Clonal expansion of mtDNA deletions originates as a perinuclear niche in ageing and disease"
Keystone Symposia on Mitochondria in cardiac and skeletal muscle, Colorado 2019. Martin Picard: "Mitochondrial Nanotunnels"
CSHL Evolving Concept of Mitochondria Conference, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY 2018 Martin Picard: Sub-cellular origin of mtDNA deletions in human skeletal muscle.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Practicalities of Cellular Analysis symposium. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Kath White was a co-organiser of the annual Newcastle University Practicalities of Cellular Analysis symposium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentations at national and international meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Taggart delivered a research seminar to the Centre for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University Belfast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentations at national and international meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Northern Cardiovascular Research Group, April 2018, Newcastle University:
Buchan A, Safira F, Chew M, Innes B, Robson SC, Bulmer J & Taggart MJ. Trophoblast invasion and remodelling of human spiral arteries examined by 3D electron microscopy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.cairn-research.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/26th-NCRG-programme-3.pdf
 
Description Presentations at national and international meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact RCOG World Congress, Singapore, March 2018. Chew M, Buchan A, Safira F, Innes B, Robson SC, Bulmer J & Taggart MJ. Human uterine spiral artery remodelling in early
pregnancy revisited. Brit J Onstet Gynaecol. Brit 125 S1:BEP5880
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1471-0528.1_15132
 
Description Presented data at research conferences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research colleagues presented data obtained with use of the SBF-SEM at several national/international conferences including Physiology2016 (Dublin), Neuromuscular Translational Research (Oxford) and Mitochondrial Medicine (Cambridge)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Science Uncovered 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the Great North Museum's Science Uncovered event, members of the public visited the EM laboratory to see how EM, including SBF-SEM is used in scientific research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar to scientific audience 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Picard M. Henry Stewart Talks. https://hstalks.com/bs/3836/ (Series on Mitochondrial Biogenesis). 11/2018
Picard M. National Institutes of Health Research - NIH, National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood (NHLBI). Bethesda, MD. 07/2018
Picard M. Université du Luxembourg, Center for Biomedicine. Luxembourg, Luxembourg. 06/2018
Picard M. Thomas Jefferson University, MitoCare Center. Philadelphia, PA. 02/2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UK 3View Users annual meeting. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Kath White hosted the annual UK 3View users meeting at Newcastle University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Visit of international delegation from Guizhou Medical University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A delegation of senior researchers from Guizhou Medical University visited Newcastle University to learn about state-of-the-art cell preparations and explore collaboartive opportunities. Prof Taggart delivered a research methods lecture to the audience and then, together with Dr Kath White, demonstrated various electron microscopy applications (TEM, SEM, SBF-SEM) on a tour of the EM services unit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Website update 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The EM Services facility website was updated to include descriptions of the purpose and availability of the SBF-SEM equipment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.ncl.ac.uk/emrs/