Developing platforms for the production of diterpenoids

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Plant Sciences

Abstract

Plants produce a wide range of diterpenoids, many of which are used commercially such as a paclitaxel, employed in the treatment of cancers, and steviol glyclosides which are used as zero-calorie natural sweeteners. Many other useful diterpenoids cannot yet be commercially exploited due to their limited availability and/or high production costs. Using synthetic biology it is now possible to engineer organisms such as yeast so that they are able to convert simple sugars to high-value chemicals. This project will develop yeast, algae and higher plant species as "chassis organisms" which can be used for the scalable production of diterpenoids. Our project will focus in particular on compounds which could be used in the treatment of cancers, or used in skin products such as sunscreens to protect skin against harmful UV light. These biological production systems will also be useful in producing many other diterpenoids that are found in nature.

Technical Summary

The project will address issues of supply and high production costs of selected high value chemicals of particular interest to its industrial partners (GSK, Unilever and Croda) and will provide advances in technology for wider applications across UK research and industry.

Currently a number of plant diterpenoids are used in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, food additive and fragrance industries. These are sourced from a limited number of species, restricting their supply and greatly increasing their cost. Using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, the project will develop new production systems for high value diterpenoids by exploiting recent gene-based discoveries and novel platforms developed by the academic partner laboratories.

The aim of this project is to develop scalable heterologous production systems for diterpenoids. First, "chassis organisms" will be constructed that can supply elevated levels of the common diterpenoid precursor geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Genes for secondary metabolism will then be introduced into these chassis to create strains producing specific target compounds. We will then scale up laboratory production processes to pilot scale (eg 100 litre fermenter) and develop processes for the purification of the target compounds. Although we will focus primarily on specific diterpenoids of interest to the industrial partners within our consortium, the GGPP producing chassis will be universal in that they could also be adapted to produce a wider range of diterpenoids of interest to the pharmaceutical, personal care, food, fragrance and agricultural industries.

The overall team has a very good balance of 'push and pull' and is well placed academically, technically and commercially to deliver a high impact project for the IB Catalyst.

Planned Impact

As described in proposal submitted to TSB

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Industrial biotechnology uses biological systems to generate a range of products, from pharmaceuticals, food additives and colourants, vitamins, and other chemicals. It is an increasingly important sector because it offers the way to make these materials more efficiently and with less reliance on fossil fuels. In this project, which is joint between Universities of York, Cambridge and Reading, and three multinational companies, we are trying to establish a platform that will allow production of molecules called diterpenoids, which have potential as drugs. In Cambridge we are focussing on trying to get microalgae, simple aquatic plants, to make these compounds. Although the project is still running, we have already made a number of advances. We have established a tool-kit for manipulation of the microalgae that gives effective and reproducible expression of plant genes, and we have generated several strains that make the first diterpenoid compound we are interested in. We have also established a system to regulate expression of the genes in the microalga by adding the vitamin B1 (thiamine), which will be important if the compounds turn out to impede growth of the cells. This has allowed us to have the gene for the enzyme switched off initially, and then only expressed once we have produced enough algal cells. We have demonstrated that this works at the laboratory scale, and investigated the timing of the regulation and the concentration of thiamine needed to regulate the system. We have tested the production strain in outdoor conditions at larger scales and were able to show that the diterpenoid was still produced. We are now investigating effect of changing a range of parameters (size and shape of photobioreactor, means of harvesting, media composition amongst others).
Exploitation Route We have published our work on the standard DNA 'parts' toolkit needed to manipulate the microalga Chlamydomonas, and have made the kit available to the community for research purposes. Another paper on the regulation of transgenes via thiamine is under review.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description We have secured several additional grants to support work with companies or to develop open source tools
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description BBSRC IBBE Strategy Panel
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact The Strategic panel provided advice and guidance for the setting up of the Networks in Industrial Biotechnology & Bioenergy (NIBBs), which aim to foster increased awareness and interaction between academics and industrialists in the bioeconomy. It was also important for the thinking behind the IB Catalysts, joint with Innovate UK & EPSRC. Many of the grants and proof-of-concept awards are aimed at increased sustainability through the use of IB solutions
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/funding/filter/networks-in-industrial-biotechnology/
 
Description Agri-Inno: Stimulating Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Egypt's Agricultural Sector
Amount £28,520 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2017
 
Description Growth optimisation in next generation algal bioreactors for bioactive compounds
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description Implementing Algebra guidelines to risk assessments of scale-up of non-native species
Amount £9,500 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 10/2017
 
Description NIBB-BIV Expanding the range of algal species suitable for membrane harvesting
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Phyconet BIV-22 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description Phyconet-DEFRA Importing non-native algae - clarifying UK legal requirements for the biotechnology industr
Amount £23,610 (GBP)
Funding ID Phyconet DEFRA 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 07/2018
 
Title MoClo Toolkit for Chlamydomonas 
Description A kit of 119 standard DNA parts that can be used for Golden Gate (Modular Cloning, MoClo) cloning to prepare constructs for genetic modification of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The kit is freely available to the community (for a small distribution fee) and should enable much more rapid preparation of clones and then easy comparison between results from different groups 
 
Description Promoting algae for industrial biotechnology 
Organisation Rothamsted Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been very active in promoting the idea of using algae as industrial biotechnology (IB) hosts. This has led to a successful BBSRC sLoLa award, and also contributed to the debate about how to cement the rather fragmented algal expertise in the UK. Ultimately the introduction of the BBSRC networks in IB (NIBBs) were borne out of this debate, and these include Phyconet, which is specifically algal biotechnology. In addition several other NIBBs consider using algae as source of novel products, pathways, genes (NPRONet, HVCfP), or as platforms for community based metabolism (ADNET)
Collaborator Contribution Research and development collaborations with colleagues in the algal biotechnology field, but also in metabolic engineering and SMEs in algal biotechnology
Impact sLoLa Several BBSRC NIBBs, with Phyconet as specific one on algal biotechnology IB Catalyst award
Start Year 2009
 
Description Promoting algae for industrial biotechnology 
Organisation University College London
Department Division of Biosciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been very active in promoting the idea of using algae as industrial biotechnology (IB) hosts. This has led to a successful BBSRC sLoLa award, and also contributed to the debate about how to cement the rather fragmented algal expertise in the UK. Ultimately the introduction of the BBSRC networks in IB (NIBBs) were borne out of this debate, and these include Phyconet, which is specifically algal biotechnology. In addition several other NIBBs consider using algae as source of novel products, pathways, genes (NPRONet, HVCfP), or as platforms for community based metabolism (ADNET)
Collaborator Contribution Research and development collaborations with colleagues in the algal biotechnology field, but also in metabolic engineering and SMEs in algal biotechnology
Impact sLoLa Several BBSRC NIBBs, with Phyconet as specific one on algal biotechnology IB Catalyst award
Start Year 2009
 
Description Promoting algae for industrial biotechnology 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been very active in promoting the idea of using algae as industrial biotechnology (IB) hosts. This has led to a successful BBSRC sLoLa award, and also contributed to the debate about how to cement the rather fragmented algal expertise in the UK. Ultimately the introduction of the BBSRC networks in IB (NIBBs) were borne out of this debate, and these include Phyconet, which is specifically algal biotechnology. In addition several other NIBBs consider using algae as source of novel products, pathways, genes (NPRONet, HVCfP), or as platforms for community based metabolism (ADNET)
Collaborator Contribution Research and development collaborations with colleagues in the algal biotechnology field, but also in metabolic engineering and SMEs in algal biotechnology
Impact sLoLa Several BBSRC NIBBs, with Phyconet as specific one on algal biotechnology IB Catalyst award
Start Year 2009
 
Description Agritech East - outreach evening to algal innovation centre by those interested in and working in farming sector 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This is the text from the Agritech East Report after the event:
Sainsbury Lab and Algal Innovation Centre - Cambridge University

At the end of January we hosted a Young Innovators' Forum (YIF) visit to the Sainsbury Lab and Algal Innovation Centre, Cambridge University. This was visit as part of YIF programme which aims to bring together early career entrants from across farming, science and technology at innovative agri-business and research facilities.

On the night we were joined by farmers, scientists, researchers and engineers who were all interested to find out about the work happening in the lab. The Sainsbury Lab is a world class research facility which opened in 2011. The group found out that the research which is carried out is exploring the regulatory systems which control growth and development in plants. We were able to get an insight into the labs as we walked through the building due to the open plan nature of the space. Unlike some research facilities, the Sainsbury Lab is unusual in having individuals from different research groups sat on the same benches, which encourages more conversation and collaboration across different research strands. We heard about the findings of some of the research and particularly enjoyed finding out about the most unusual discovery which was made totally by accident when a plant was found to produce minerals that were previously only believed to be found in asteroids!

We then moved onto the Algal Innovation Centre which sits within the Botanic Gardens. A purpose built facility, the AIC provides a secure environment to carry out research into the uses and behaviour of algae. Matt Davey, Senior Research Associate, talked us through some of the different work which has been carried out within the lab. This includes working with a local water company on growing algae on waste nitrate which can then be used to produce energy by putting it into an anaerobic digester. We learnt about other research linked to the health food sector due to the fact that Omega oils, which in the past have been extracted from fish, an actually be captured from the algae which produces it. Some of the work that Matt and his team have been carrying out is how to optimise growing conditions and nutrient supply, especially understanding how different algal strains survive in different climates. It was a surprise to learn that algal pigments can be found in everyday products such as Smarties and wine gums!

Finally, we were shown around the Plant Growth Facility. In this building there are lots of separate chambers in which all factors needed for plant growth can be controlled, such as humidity and light. This enables researchers to be able to drill down into the specific variables that might influence or affect a particular result. As we walked around the facility, we saw a range of plant species being tested on including wheat, potatoes and rice. These secure, air tight chambers also allow tests into plant pathogens to happen as they can be contained and assessed within a rigorous framework.

We were really lucky to be able to explore the Sainsbury Lab and Algal Innovation Centre. It was so interesting to hear about all the research that is going on which could impact the agricultural industry in the future.

As with all of our YIF events, attendees then had the opportunity to discuss the tours as well as talk about their experience and knowledge in the area. We chatted to some of the attendees to see what they got from attending the event, here is what they had to say:

Matt White, Engineer, Cambridge Consultants

The YIF visit was an excellent opportunity for industry members like ourselves to learn about the cutting-edge research being carried out in agricultural sectors. Having the opportunity to speak with leading researchers in algae growth and cultivation was fascinating and highly valuable for expanding our knowledge in this area! These events are great at increasing links between academia and industry to help us develop agricultural technology together more effectively.

Pamela Ribone, Researcher, Sainsbury Lab

The reason for attending the YIF visit was that I really wanted to try and apply what I have done so far with my research to a more applied science, and this was an incredible opportunity to know more about what is in between really basic science and the final application to a product. The Algal Innovation Centre looks like the kind of things I would like to go for the next step. From the visit I understood that they do laboratory research, but focusing on solving problems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.agri-tech-e.co.uk/wp-content/plugins/civicrm/civicrm/extern/url.php?u=23903&qid=1491603
 
Description AlgaeEurope 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of research into algal synthetic biology to the principle conference in Europe aimed at supporting and developing the algal biotechnology sector. About half the participants were from industry (including large multisector, SMEs and startups)and 10% or so policy makers and officials eg from EU. The aim was to inform this group about the potential of synthetic biology in developing algal industrial biotechnology, providing the impetus to consider algae as production platforms for high value products as well as simply for biomass production. As a result, a consortium has been formed of academic colleagues who will share best practice and resources in SynBio.

I also described our recently opened Algal Innovation Centre (AIC), where it is possible to carry out pilot-scale algal cultivation, including of GM algae. As a result of the talk several contacts have been made with companies who are interested in the AIC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Frontiers - What ever happened to biofuels? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was one of 4 invited participants in this programme, broadcast on BBC Radio 4 and available as a podcast. I had many emails and contacts from the wider public, including at the Festival of Plants exhibit, generally indicating that this had increased people's awareness of the possibility to use solar energy with algae, not just for biofuels, but also for other 'green tech'. Their attitude to biofuels per se was also more positive.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/player/b02ykygv
 
Description BBSRC funded Algal Biotechnology workshop for researchers and industry representatives from New Zealand and UK to discuss progress and opportunities in the exploitation of microalgae 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop brought together algal researchers and industry representatives from New Zealand and UK to discuss progress and opportunities in the exploitation of microalgae, particularly as feedstock for aquaculture and as sustainable sources of novel bio-products. The UK delegation included six leading academics, together with representatives of four SMEs from the algal biotech sector: namely, Varicon Aqua, TeeGene Ltd, Greenskill Ltd and Algenuity. Approximate 20 NZ delegates joined the workshop and comprised algal researchers from the Cawthron Institute, several NZ universities, and biotech companies in the Nelson region. We were also honoured to be joined by Min Sung Park, a world authority on algal biotechnology and Distinguished Professor at the Centre for Microalgal Biotechnology and Biofuels, Institute of Hydrobiology, Wuhan, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.phyconet.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/NZ-UK-workshop-report.pdf
 
Description High Value Products from Plants conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of algal synthetic biology approaches to help support algal industrial biotechnology. This was at a Network in Industrial Biotechnology & Bioenergy (NIBB) meeting organised by the High Value Compounds from Plants NIBB. Interest was sparked amongst researchers to consider using algae, as well as plants, and production platforms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description IntoBiology resource 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A final year undergraduate student in Plant Sciences produced a webpage describing work on algae in Plant Sciences and Biochemistry. The webpage is part of the programme established by IntoBiology, aimed at encouraging school children to consider studying plant biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://intobiology.org.uk/unlocking-the-potential-of-algae-how-the-green-stuff-in-your-pond-might-go...
 
Description Katrin Geisler and Payam Mehrshahi - Lead lecturers for a workshop titled "Expressing transgenes in Chlamydomonas and Phaeodactylum - a guide to commonly used methods for transformation of their nuclear genomes" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshop titled "Expressing transgenes in Chlamydomonas and Phaeodactylum - a guide to commonly used methods for transformation of their nuclear genomes" was held on 10th - 11th December. Funding was secured from EIT-Food and AlgaeUK that enabled travel grants to be awarded to delegates from the UK, Italy, Germany, Turkey, Philippines, Brazil, Ghana, and cover their administration and catering costs. The aim of the workshop was to provide hands-on training in use and application of the latest technologies and methodologies for transformation and engineering of the microalgae Chlamydomonas and Phaeodactylum. The format included a daily programme of presentations at the Department of Plant Sciences teaching laboratory introducing delegates to different algal transformation methods, theory of techniques, standard operating procedures and best practices that result in successful transformation of these algae. The delegates were also introduced to the basics of advanced DNA assembly and cloning strategies. During the hands-on sessions delegates had the opportunity to handle, study under the microscope and prepare microalgae before transforming them with transgenes. The programme provided a great opportunity for postgraduate, postdoctorate and researchers to gain training in algal transformation techniques. We expect to run the course again in 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://data.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/PlantMet/index.php/workshop-on-expressing-transgenes-in-chlamydomona...
 
Description Lead lecturer for a workshop titled "Expressing transgenes in Chlamydomonas and Phaeodactylum - a guide to commonly used methods for transformation of their nuclear genomes" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshop titled "Expressing transgenes in Chlamydomonas and Phaeodactylum - a guide to commonly used methods for transformation of their nuclear genomes" was held on 10th - 11th December. Funding was secured from EIT-Food and AlgaeUK that enabled travel grants to be awarded to delegates from the UK, Italy, Germany, Turkey, Philippines, Brazil, Ghana, and cover their administration and catering costs. The aim of the workshop was to provide hands-on training in use and application of the latest technologies and methodologies for transformation and engineering of the microalgae Chlamydomonas and Phaeodactylum. The format included a daily programme of presentations at the Department of Plant Sciences teaching laboratory introducing delegates to different algal transformation methods, theory of techniques, standard operating procedures and best practices that result in successful transformation of these algae. The delegates were also introduced to the basics of advanced DNA assembly and cloning strategies. During the hands-on sessions delegates had the opportunity to handle, study under the microscope and prepare microalgae before transforming them with transgenes. The programme provided a great opportunity for postgraduate, postdoctorate and researchers to gain training in algal transformation techniques. We expect to run the course again in 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://data.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/PlantMet/index.php/workshop-on-expressing-transgenes-in-chlamydomona...
 
Description Lecturer at the Lisbon Microalgae Biotechnology Advanced Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a lecture titled "ENGINEERING MICROALGAE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY" to course participants who were from international academic institution and industries. The talk helped the audience grasp the current technologies available for engineering of microalgae, the problems with current technologies and how these can be overcome. Questions from the audience helped to expand the topic being covered by my talk (e.g. discussion of current acceptance of GM algae across Europe and Globally).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.limbac.com/
 
Description PDRA Katrin Geisler gave talk at Molecular Life of Diatoms Satellite meeting, Norwich, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The main Molecular Life of Diatoms conference was accompanied by a satellite meeting on Friday the 19th of July, which focused on important technical advances in diatoms genome editing including methods development, mutant collections, plasmid and data deposition. We presented data on the MoClo syntax and he Golden Gate cloning system that we and others are developing for algae.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://meetings.embo.org/event/19-diatoms
 
Description PHYCONET (BBSRC NIBB) Meeting: "UK Microalgal biotechnology, creating a unified vision" Cambridge February 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A workshop of academia, funders, policy makers and industry, aimed at identifying ways to augment and support the UK microalgal business. As a result of the meeting, we made links with several companies and have obtained two Business Interaction Vouchers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.phyconet.org.uk/document_category/uk-microalgal-biotechnology-creating-a-unified-vision
 
Description Phyconet (BBSRC NIBB) Annual Meeting, Plenary speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The talk was aimed at showing that the potential exploitation of algae for industrial purposes needs to be underpinned by fundamental biological understanding. Several industrial colleagues agreed, saying they recognise the need for better algal taxonomy and physiology to support their activities and ensure their IP can be protected.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.phyconet.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/PAC17_programme.pdf
 
Description Pint of Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I presented a talk on the potential uses of algae for bioenergy production as part of the Pint of Science festival in Cambridge, where scientists engage with people having a drink in a local pub. This takes place in London, Cambridge, Bristol and other university towns each year. As result of my talk and questions afterwards, although most people were not aware initially what algae were, nor how they could be used to generate energy, their opinions became more positive and optimistic towards biofuels generally. Pint of Science was awarded "Points of Light" by the Prime Minister David Cameron in November 2015 and the founders were interviewed about it on London Live TV.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pint_of_Science
 
Description Presentation at Phyconet NIBB annual meeting - Thinking outside the flask - the Algal Innovation Centre in Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact It was a networking meeting between academia and industry. As a result we have initiated collaboration with colleagues in an SME in Spain and are providing biological material to a UK SME
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Science on Saturday, part of SET week in Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We had a stand in the science tent outside Dept of Plant Sciences. We demonstrated what algae are, what we use for now and how they might be used in the future for energy production. There were activities such as viewing microalgae with microscopes, extracting different light-harvesting pigments, and observing algae phototaxis. Children could handcraft their own algae using pipe cleaners or take part in an interactive algae quiz to win prices.

School asked for visit to talk to years 10-13.

Established the material to mount a Royal Society Summer Science Exhibit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2015,2016
 
Description Science on Sundays 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Short talk and Q&A on the nature of algae and how their characteristics could be used for sustainable energy, water remediation, or other green tech solutions. Held in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, the audience were interested in plants, and so this was an opportunity to provide information on what algae are, and how they might be used in novel ways. The audience fed back that they felt much better informed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.botanic.cam.ac.uk/Botanic/NewsItem.aspx?p=27&ix=196
 
Description The Life Scientific on BBC Radio 4 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed by Jim Al-Khalili about my scientific career and interest in algae and vitamins. The programme "The Life Scientific" was broadcast on BBC Radio 4 and was also available on BBC iPlayer and as a podcast. As a result I have had numerous contacts about possible scientific and industrial collaborations, as well as enquiries from the general public about the various topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08bzl8y