Biosynthesis, Regulation and Engineering of Bacterial Carbon Fixation Machinery

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Institute of Integrative Biology

Abstract

The single-cell cyanobacteria are among the most abundant organisms on earth. They created and help to sustain our atmosphere, and account for an estimated 20-30 % of current global carbon fixation. To enhance carbon fixation, cyanobacteria develop small compartments, called carboxysomes, to absorb carbon dioxide and transform it to chemical energy by the process named photosynthesis. These highly efficient machines are structurally defined by an outer protein-based shell and internal highly concentrated CO2-fixing enzymes. The shell is composed of many distinct proteins, and serves as a selective "barrier" for the passage of specific molecules into and out of the compartments.

At present, there are great concerns over global food and energy security. How can we improve the food supply to keep pace with the world population? How can we develop environmentally sustainable solutions for food and energy production? Producing and engineering of synthetic carboxysomes and introducing them into other organisms, particularly plants, has significant potential for improving photosynthesis, carbon sequestration and crop yield. As the cyanobacteria is evolutionarily close to the plant chloroplast, lessons learned from the cyanobacteria will be very informative to plant sciences and engineering. Recent developments in synthetic biology have opened the door to generating artificial biological machines by providing the necessary strategies and approaches. However, producing functional carboxysomes in other organisms requires comprehensive knowledge about their development and physiological regulation in their natural hosts, the cyanobacteria.

The aims of this project are to elucidate comprehensively how cyanobacterial cells create these specialised compartments, how their activities are dynamically regulated within the cells in response to the changing environment, and how these machines function together with other cellular activities in the entire metabolic network within cells. In the first part of this research project, we will use a special optical microscopy to watch the development and distribution of carboxysomes in living cells, and study how these organelles are regulated within the cells grown under different environmental conditions. The second section will characterise how these organelles interact and function together with other cellular components to achieve their metabolic performance. Next we will find out how multiple proteins are organised in order to build the organelle shape. We will develop a computer programme to build a model of the compartment and simulate the protein dynamics and passage of molecules in and out of the compartment. Advanced understanding of the compartment structure, function and regulation derived from the three sections is important for genetic engineering of novel biological machines with appropriate functionality. In the last section, we will use the knowledge learned from the cyanobacterial cells to synthesise artificial biological machines with carbon fixation activities.

This work represents a model for studying the development of complex biological machines within cells. It will teach us about how thousands of proteins can assemble together by themselves to form a functional entity within cells, and what regulatory strategies are developed by the cells to lead the development and function of these machines. In translational terms, this work will provide an instructive example for the design and engineering of novel biological "factories" for specific cellular activities and physiology. If we can conduct genetic engineering to enable higher plants to develop synthetic cyanobacterial carbon-fixing machines, it will significantly enhance food and energy production.

Technical Summary

To promote cell metabolism, many bacteria express proteinaceous microcompartments to encapsulate enzymes in a defined cytoplasmic environment. The first bacterial microcompartments discovered were carboxysomes (CBs). Their remarkable capacity of enhancing carbon fixation is ensured by specific protein assembly, and is regulated by the carbon flux pathways in the cell. Current understanding of the physiological regulation of CBs is still sparse. This project aims to survey extensively CB assembly and regulation by using a combination of molecular genetics, biochemistry, confocal microscopy, state-of-the-art AFM and EM imaging, as well as proteomics and computational modelling, and apply the knowledge to improve the synthetic strategies for engineering of CBs in other organisms. We will use live-cell fluorescence imaging and an imaging analysis method we have recently established to determine the spatial distribution of CBs in vivo, which are correlated with the carbon fixation. The developed imaging techniques will be also used to monitor the dynamic subcellular organisation of CBs under physiological regulation, and functional integration of CBs within the cellular metabolism. We will further explore the composition and stoichiometry of building blocks during CB biosynthesis using quantitative proteomic analysis. High-resolution AFM imaging will be used to determine the protein organisation in the shell. Based on advanced understanding of the shell structure, we will utilise computational modelling and molecular dynamics simulation to evaluate the molecular basis leading the assembly and permeability of the shell. In the last section, we will use synthetic biology approaches and recently developed systems for heterologous expression to produce functional synthetic CBs. This project will provide insights into the assembly and regulation of CBs, and will underpin the synthetic engineering of CBs in plants for supercharging photosynthesis and carbon fixation.

Planned Impact

This project represents fundamental science addressing the molecular basis of the assembly and regulation of carboxysomes (CBs). Thus, the primary impact is to the broad scientific community. However, the live-cell microscope and nanotechnology imaging and image analysis approaches developed will provide a resource that will be open to outside users and will be of interest to biotechnology industries. In the long term, the significant potentials of CB biosynthesis in promoting cellular metabolism will attract the interests from synthetic biologists. It will help to develop environmentally sustainable solutions for food and energy production.

- Academic and commercial communities of protein biochemistry, microbiology, carbon fixation and plant sciences: We envisage considerable potential benefits of the fundamental outputs for those who work on cyanobacterial metabolism and photosynthetic carbon fixation. It will also contribute to the wider microbiology and protein science communities. Knowledge derived from this project will be conceivably informative to the plant scientists who wish to engineer chloroplasts for increasing crop productivity.

- Synthetic biology: We foresee the creation of new synthetic biological strategies. We have started to work with New England Biolabs for improving gene assembly strategies. Liverpool GeneMill has expressed strong interest to this project and will support the design and DNA synthesis of CB operons.

- Microscope manufacturers: The developed imaging technologies, including live-cell and time-lapse fluorescence imaging, high-resolution AFM imaging and affinity mapping, can be widely used to image many biological samples. The PI currently has collaborative projects with JPK Instrument and Bruker Nano Surfaces Division, which will profit from the AFM imaging approaches developed in this work. The technical development will greatly enhance the imaging capacity of Liverpool Centre for Cell Imaging (CCI), and benefit other users. CCI has a long-term working relationship with Zeiss Microscope, which will facilitate us to build industrial links and define the potential applications of the technical developments in this project.

- Biotechnology industries: This project will bring deep understanding of the self-assembling materials. It has potential societal impacts on renewable energy and food security issues. We have started the collaboration with Eppendorf-New Brunswick for optimising the growth of cyanobacteria using bioreactors. The PI has established the contact with Dr. David Parker, the Platform Leader Bio-Fuels Group at Shell Global Solutions, for exchanging the idea of engineering microorganisms for bioenergy production. Given the conceivable possibility of engineering CBs in plants to enhance photosynthesis, the PI will contact plant biotechnology industries for the feasibility of the translational work.

- Scientific community: We expect to provide extensive training to the PDRA/technician in the multidisciplinary skills during this work. We will ensure the academic impact of this work through timely seminars and publications. We will present the outputs at workshops and international meetings. This programme will promote the national and international collaborations by sharing data and expertise.

- Outreach activities: The PI has collaborated with Nuffield Foundation to host summer replacement students. During this project, he will continue to offer placements for Nuffield Bursaries students with related projects. The PDRA will be involved in the Liverpool PhD and postdoc communities to deliver the scientific outputs. We will work with the Liverpool World Museum to develop exhibits showcasing this work.

- Intellectual property: The methodological and analytical approaches developed in this project may lead to the intellectual property. We will liaise with Liverpool Business Gateway to ensure the timely protection of intellectual property in this project.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description 1. We characterised assembly factors that are essential for mediating bacterial organelle formation using mutagenesis and microscopic imaging (Plant Physiology, 2019, 179: 184-194). The information is critical for organelle engineering to enhance metabolic reactions.
2. We have produced synthetic carboxysomes in bacteria, which is essential for the fundamental understanding of carboxysome biogenesis and the potentials and strategies for plant and biomaterial engineering (Frontiers in Plant Science, 2018, 9: 739).
3. We developed the imaging strategy, using , to characterise protein self-assembly and dynamics in sollution (Methods in Molecular Biology, 2018, 1814: 373-383).
4. We have used state-of-the-art microscopy to capture the dynamic self-assembly of proteins from tiny bacterial structures, known as bacterial microcompartments (BMCs), which play an important role in metabolism (Nano Letters, 2016, 16(3): 1590-1595). We have further conducted extensive studies on the environmental regulation of BMC protein self-assembly (Nanoscale Research Letters, 2019, 14:54), providing structural evidence on the regulation of BMC formation.
5. We reported how the rod-shaped cyanobacterial cells tune the synthesis of carboxysomes and activity of carbon fixation in response to environmental change, such as changing the light intensity (Plant Physiol, 2016, 171(1): 530-541). In addition, we have performed studies on the activities of bacterial carbon fixation under circadian regulation.
6. We have isolated functional carboxysomes from cyanobacteria and perform the first structural and mechanical characterisation of carboxysomes at work (Nanoscale, 2017, 9: 10662-10673).
Exploitation Route 1. The finding advances our understanding of the fundaments of BMC biosynthesis and regulation.
2. The finding opens up a whole new way of exploring inner-cell architecture and functionality, and could help revolutionise the future of protein-based nanomaterial design and drug delivery in human medicine.
2. It informs the design and engineering of nano-scale factories to improve photosynthesis performance and biomass production.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Contributed to a Halloween Science outreach event on 31 October 2018, to disseminate the principles of protein self-assembly and biological shapes to 200 school student. https://twitter.com/luningliu/status/1057892900674170880 Contributed to a showcase exhibition at Meet the Scientist in the Liverpool Word Museum to families, publicising the power of modern microbiology, biotechnology and nanotechnology in changing our life. Working with academia and industries to find new methods for crop engineering to improve productivity.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education
Impact Types Societal

 
Description A Dragonfly multimodal fast imaging platform with SRRF-stream (Super-Resolution Radial Fluctuation) in the Liverpool Centre for Cell Imaging (CCI)
Amount £290,246 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R01390X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2019
 
Description A new generation of crystallographic detector for Multi-user Barkla
Amount £219,626 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R000220/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Description Deciphering the physical basis underlying the self-assembly of bacterial organelles
Amount £108,592 (GBP)
Funding ID RGF\EA\180233 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Description Elucidating the organisation, activity and regulation of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters for engineering CO2 accumulation
Amount £330,756 (GBP)
Funding ID URF\R\180030 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2021
 
Description Engineering a new nanobioreactor for hydrogen production
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 201703780114 
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2019
 
Description Enhancing crop productivity by engineering CO2-fixing organelles from cyanobacteria
Amount £99,990 (GBP)
Funding ID CH160004 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Formation and molecular mechanisms of manganese biofilm mediated by endophytic bacteria from wetland plants
Amount ¥300,000 (CNY)
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences 
Sector Public
Country China
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Organisation, dynamics and biogenesis of a photosynthetic membrane
Amount £481,703 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R003890/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2021
 
Description Unlocking the molecular stoichiometry of functional CO2-fixing organelles for synthetic engineering
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RGF\EA\181061 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 04/2021
 
Title AFM 
Description atomic force microscopy imaging on biological samples 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We have applied high-resolution AFM imaging on many biological samples. Recently we have established a hybrid AFM/confocal/TIRF microscopy for studying cell dynamics. AFM imaging on amyloid morphology provides further motivation to investigate the role of oxidative stress in AMA pathogenicity. The study has led to a paper published: Davies HA, Phelan MM, Wilkinson MC, Migrino RQ, Truran S, Franco DA, Liu LN, Longmore CJ, Madine J. Oxidative stress alters morphology and toxicity of aortic medial amyloid. Biophys J, 2015, 109(11): 2363-2370. AFM imaging on exosome structure has revealed that CLL cells secrete exosomes that alter the transcriptome and behaviour of recipient cells. Such communication with microenvironment is likely to have an important role in CLL disease biology. The study has led to a paper published: Farahani M, Rubbi C, Liu LN, Slupsky JR, Kalakonda N. CLL exosomes modulate the transcriptome and behaviour of recipient stromal cells and are selectively enriched in miR-202-3p. PLoS ONE, 2015, 10(10): e0141429. 
 
Description AFM - Madine 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Department Institute of Integrative Biology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution provide microscopic imaging and data analysis
Collaborator Contribution provide amyloid samples
Impact The collaboration has led to a publication (Davies HA, Phelan MM, Wilkinson MC, Migrino RQ, Truran S, Franco DA, Liu LN, Longmore CJ, Madine J. Oxidative stress alters morphology and toxicity of aortic medial amyloid. Biophys J, 2015, 109(11): 2363-2370); A manuscript based on the collaborative results is under review.
Start Year 2014
 
Description BMC - Ando 
Organisation Kanazawa University
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing protein samples
Collaborator Contribution provide microscopy imaging and data analysis
Impact this collaboration is multi-disciplinary. We have expertise in protein expression and isolation. The collaborator has skills in biophysic analysis
Start Year 2016
 
Description BMC - Bond 
Organisation Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)
Department Bioinformatics institute (BII)
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution provide structural information of BMC proteins and metabolite molecules and data analysis.
Collaborator Contribution provide molecular dynamics simulations methods to determine molecule transport, structural changes and protein-protein interactions.
Impact developed a joint PhD studentship (2017-2021); submitted an EPSRC grant proposal in November 2017 based on the preliminary collaborative results.
Start Year 2016
 
Description BMC - Chiu 
Organisation Baylor College of Medicine
Country United States 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution providing samples and constructs for microscopy imaging
Collaborator Contribution high resolution microscopy imaging
Impact this collaboration is multi-disciplinary. We have expertise in protein purification and mutagenesis. The collaborator is expert in microscopy imaging and data analysis. The preliminary results have helped to secure a BBSRC grant (BB/R003890/1)
Start Year 2015
 
Description BMC - De Pablo 
Organisation Autonomous University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution BMC isolation and expression, data analysis
Collaborator Contribution provide AFM training and imaging analysis of BMC samples
Impact secured a Johnston Fund (University of Liverpool, £2155) to support postdoc researcher to visit de Pablo Lab in March 2018.
Start Year 2017
 
Description BMC - Kerfeld 
Organisation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution microscopy imaging of bacterial microcompartment assembly
Collaborator Contribution generating constructs and structural analysis
Impact One publication in Nano Letters, featured as a cover article Visualization of bacterial microcompartment facet assembly using high-speed atomic force microscopy. M. Sutter, M. Faulkner, C. Aussignargues, B.C. Paasch, S. Barrett, C.A. Kerfeld, L.N. Liu. Nano Letters, 2016, 2016, 16(3): 1590-1595, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04259.
Start Year 2015
 
Description BMC - Lin 
Organisation Huazhong Agricultural University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution making genetic constructs and protein purification
Collaborator Contribution providing technical support for plant engineering
Impact The collaboration has secured a Royal Society Challenge Grant (Enhancing crop photosynthesis and productivity by engineering CO2-fixing organelles. 2017-2018, CH160004. £120K. PI)
Start Year 2016
 
Description BMC - Nixon 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution making cyanobacterial constructs and thylakoid membrane samples
Collaborator Contribution plant engineering, biochemical investigation of thylakoid membrane composition.
Impact the preliminary collaborative work has helped to secure a BBSRC grant (BB/R003890/1)
Start Year 2015
 
Description BMC - Parry 
Organisation Lancaster University
Department Lancaster Environment Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution build genetic constructs to engineer carboxysomes in plants
Collaborator Contribution conduct plant transformation
Impact A new collaboration. No outputs yet. This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, including microbiology, biochemistry, synthetic biology and plant engineering. The collaboration has secured a Royal Society Challenge Grant (Enhancing crop photosynthesis and productivity by engineering CO2-fixing organelles. 2017-2018, CH160004. £120K. PI)
Start Year 2017
 
Description BMC - Price 
Organisation Australian National University (ANU)
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution microscopy imaging of bacterial microscopy proteins and assemblies
Collaborator Contribution generating mutants and sharing protocols
Impact Royal Society International Exchange grant: £12,000. A manuscript is in preparation
Start Year 2015
 
Description BMC - Rosta 
Organisation King's College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution provide structural information and analysis of BMC proteins
Collaborator Contribution provide computational simulations approaches to analyse the molecule transport
Impact a manuscript based on the collaborative results is in preparation. The collaboration has supported an EPSRC grant application.
Start Year 2016
 
Description BMC - Zhou 
Organisation University of Science and Technology of China USTC
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution prepare constructs and proteins
Collaborator Contribution structural analysis
Impact A manuscript based on the collaborative data is in preparation
Start Year 2016
 
Description Ci transporter - Zhang 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution study the physiological functions and localisation of bicarbonate transporters in cyanobacteria
Collaborator Contribution study the crystal structures of bicarbonate transporters using X-ray crystallography
Impact One manuscript is under review. (Wang C, Sun B, Zhang M, Huang X, Guo H, Chen X, Huang F, Chen T, Mi H, Liu LN, Zhang P (2018) Structural mechanism of the active bicarbonate transporter from cyanobacteria. Sci Adv, under review)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Cryo-EM - Shirouzu 
Organisation RIKEN
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution this is a PhD studentship funded by the University of Liverpool and Riken. The student will stay two years in each institute. My research group will provide cell culture and biochemical purification training for the student.
Collaborator Contribution The Riken group will provide training in cryoEM sample preparation and imaging and data analysis.
Impact The collaboration is multidisciplinary, based on the two groups expertise. The collaboration will focus on genetic modification, macromolecular complex isolation and cryo-EM imaging using molecular biology, biochemistry and structural biology approaches
Start Year 2017
 
Description Halloween Science event - Outreach activity with school children 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Outreach activity entitled "Spooky Science" for Halloween. 200 primary and secondary school children attended activities at the Institute of Integrative Biology. The Liu group engaged in "Magnetic Madness" activities to exhibit the principles of protein self-assembly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://blogandlog.wordpress.com/2019/01/25/halloween-science-at-the-institute-of-integrative-biolog...
 
Description Invited talk at CCM9 meeting 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at CO2-concentrating mechanism 9 meeting in Cambridge, UK, August 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited talk at Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK 2018.02.12
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk at Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Sheffield University, Sheffield, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk at Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Sheffield University, Sheffield, UK 2017.11.08
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk at HZAU China 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan China, 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://lst.hzau.edu.cn/zhxw/201701/t20170103_99141.htm
 
Description Invited talk at IHB China 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited talk at Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 2017.03.07 Invited talk at Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk at Photosynthesis Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at 17th International Photosynthesis Conference in Maastricht, Netherlands, August 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited talk at State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University China 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk at State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Nuffield Foundation 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Take two Nuffield Foundation summer students for placements in the lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Participate in Open Day of the Institute 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Press release for Nano Letters 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release for research outcome published in Nano Letters 2016
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04259
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.technology.org/2016/03/11/new-insight-construction-bacterial-microcompartments/
 
Description Press release for Plant Physiol 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release of research outcome published in Plant Physiology
http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/171/1/530.long
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160331124542.htm
 
Description Press release for the new paper in Molecular Plant 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release for the research outcome published in Nanoscale 2017 (Casella S, Huang F, Mason D, Zhao GY, John GN, Mullineaux CW, Liu LN*. Dissecting the native architecture and dynamics of cyanobacterial photosynthetic machinery. Molecular Plant, 2017, 10: 1434-1448. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2017.09.019. ). Link: https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2017/10/12/molecular-architecture-photosynthetic-machinery-revealed. It has been also highlighted by the Chinese social media: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/MuEOZiIEJvme6gCpvN1aIw.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2017/10/12/molecular-architecture-photosynthetic-machinery-revealed
 
Description Press release for the new paper in Nanoscale 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release for the research outcome published in Nanoscale 2017 (Faulkner M, Rodriguez-Ramos J, Dykes GF, Owen SV, Casella S, Simpson DM, Beynon RJ, Liu LN*. Direct characterization of the native structure and mechanics of cyanobacterial carboxysomes. Nanoscale, 2017, 9: 10662-10673, DOI:10.1039/C7NR02524F). Link: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-06/uol-nrh060817.php; https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/research/news/articles/nanotechnology-reveals-hidden-depths-bacterial-machines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170608123523.htm
 
Description Research Blog: Understanding molecular machinery 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Research blog to showcase the research focus of the lab to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/integrative-biology/public-engagement/research-blog/understanding-molecu...
 
Description showcase at Meet the Scientists in Liverpool Word Museum January 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The event organised at Liverpool Word Museum by the University and Faculty was aimed at a family audience, with fun activities. We participated in the demonstration on cutting-edge research on bacterial organelles and biotechnology and nanotechnology to address the global impact of Liverpool's health and life sciences research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/wml/events/displayevent.aspx?EventID=35294