14CONFAP Comparative genomic and physiological analysis of C4 plant-microbe symbiosis

Lead Research Organisation: Aberystwyth University
Department Name: IBERS

Abstract

Miscanthus (grown in the UK) is a perrenial crop containing large amounts of carbon, that we can burn in power stations to produce energy, or digest biologically to produce useful chemicals (e.g. for production of bioplastics). Sugarcane (grown in Brazil) is a very similar crop, bred for its sugar content.

Both plants have bacteria called endophytes living in their roots. The plant has a symbiotic relationship with these bacteria; some of the bacteria help the plant fix nitrogen, others may help the plant tolerate drought stress.

This project aims to exchange knowledge and expertise on these endophytes including what types of endophytes are present and how they function. In the long term, this could lead to us being able to innoculate plants with specific beneficial bacteria, thereby making them more tolerant to drought, and to increase their growth.

Technical Summary

The overall aim of this project is to exploit beneficial plant-microbe interactions in sugarcane and Miscanthus for sustainable sugar and bioenergy crop production in Brazil and the UK respectively. This project brings together world experts on beneficial endophytic bacterial interactions with C4 crops. Expertise within the partners comprises genomics, transcriptomics, physiology and signalling of both plants and microbes. Targets for this collaboration are biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and drought tolerance, as these represent two of the most pressing environmental challenges for crop production under current and future climates.

Sustainable production of high yielding energy crops is essential in order to meet targets for fossil fuel substitution and atmospheric carbon reduction. Plants sequester atmospheric carbon via photosynthesis, which can be used as feedstock for renewable fuels and chemicals. Endophytic bacteria with the potential to promote plant growth have been identified in two of the world's leading bioenergy crops: sugarcane and Miscanthus. The crops are very closely related, and so are conducive to comparative genomics studies, yet also demonstrate a number of adaptive differences. Sugarcane has been extensively bred for its sugar content, making it a high value crop; however in common with the majority of C4 grasses, its growth is limited to the tropics. Miscanthus is an undomesticated genus with a wide geographic range across South East Asia. It is of great interest as a lignocellulosic energy crop due to its rapid growth even in low temperatures. IBERS has a large collection of diverse Miscanthus genotypes which form the basis of the UK breeding programme.

Planned Impact

N/A

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description To address sustainable sugar and bioenergy crop production, this project focused on comparative analyses of beneficial plant-bacteria symbioses in Miscanthus and sugarcane. Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer, with sugarcane contributing $36 billion, nearly 1.6%, to its economy in 2012 (sugarcane.org), and production increasing annually. Two major economic and environmental concerns are the nitrogen and water requirements of the crop. Sustainable production practices are therefore required in order to generate high crop yields without chemical fertilisers and irrigation, both now and under future climate scenarios.
Endophytic bacteria with the potential to promote plant growth have been identified in two of the world's leading bioenergy crops: sugarcane and Miscanthus. This project aimed to use the BBSRC funded National Plant Phenomics Centre and sequencing and bioinformatics facilities at IBERS, combined with the exchange of expertise between laboratories in the UK (IBERS, JHI) and Brazil (UFRJ, EMBRAPA, UENF), to enhance the fundamental understanding and future exploitation of the plant-bacteria symbiosis.
Beneficiaries of this collaboration include Brazilian researchers, students, agronomists, cane producers, biorefinaries, and the environment.
Reciprocal workshops were held in the UK (June 2015) and Brazil (November 16) in which partners have exchanged methodology, knowledge of the two crop systems and their endophytes, and physiological and genomics expertise on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and drought tolerance conferred by bacterial endophytes in C4 crops. Student training has been included (although Farrar was on adoption leave in November 2016, two of her PhD students travelled to Brazil for the workshop and stayed on for additional training at UFRJ and EMBRAPA), and additional researchers were invited to attend the workshops in order to expand the network.
Data has been exchanged on the plant (genome, transcriptome, molecular markers) and bacteria (physiological and biochemical analyses, including BNF) for comparative analyses between sugarcane and Miscanthus, and a joint publication is planned. Endophytes have been isolated from Miscanthus and sugarcane in the UK and Brazil respectively, and a number have been fully sequenced in this and related projects. It seems there is not much similarity in the diversity of bacterial endophytes in tropical sugarcane and temperate Miscanthus in terms of species present, however there may be more functional similarities, e.g. plant growth promotion and/or biological nitrogen fixation, and this is under further investigation in subsequent projects. Partners in this project were successful in securing further funding via the BBSRC-CONFAP Virtual Joint Centre 'UK-Brazil Nitrogen Fixation Centre'.
Exploitation Route The discovery and characterisation of plant growth promotion by bacterial endophytes is extremely timely, with a number of start-up companies emerging in recent years. The findings of the members of this collaboration provide comprehensive resources ranging from methodology, novel bacteria characterised in terms of identity and functionality, through to mechanistic understanding provided by bacterial genome sequences, RNAseq and small RNA data. Members of this consortium were successful in securing further funding via the BBSRC-CONFAP Virtual Joint Centre 'UK-Brazil Nitrogen Fixation Centre' which brings together a wider network with the aim of improving sustainable agriculture in Brazil via biological nitrogen fixation.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Energy,Environment

 
Description Results from this project are applied via Brazilian crop producers through interaction with EMBRAPA's Knowledge Exchange network, with the aim of improving agricultural practices for both economic gain for the growers and improved environmental practices. EMBRAPA researchers work at the interface between academia and industry and share their results widely, e.g. 1. ALVES, Gabriela C; SANTOS, Carlos Leandro Rodrigues dos; ZILLI, Jerri Édson; REIS JUNIOR, Fabio Bueno dos; MARRIEL, Ivanildo Evódio; SEGUNDO, URQUIAGA; BODDEY, Robert; REIS, VERONICA M. Agronomic evaluation of Herbaspirillum seropedicae as inoculant that improves maize yields in Brazil In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, fOZ DO IGUAÇU. aBSTRACT BOOK. Seropedica: Embrapa Agrobilogia, 2018. v.1. p.76 - 76 2. MATOSO, E. S.; REIS, VERONICA M.; SILVA, L. M.; VARNES, L. S.; SILVA, S. D. A. E. Crescimento de cana de açúcar inoculada com bactérias diazotroficas In: II Mostra Acadêmica e VI Simpósio de Biotecnologia: campo, bancada e industria., 2018, Pelotes. Anais. Pelotas, RS: Instituto Federal Sul -Rio - Grandense, 2018. v.1. p.1 - 1 3. COTRIM, C. S. A.; RIBEIRO, F. S.; REIS, VERONICA M. Evaluations of sugarcane variety CTC9001 inoculated with fi ve diazotrophic bacteria on nitrate assimilation In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, Foz do Iguaçu. Abstract book. Seropedica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.81 - 4. Carvalho, T.L.G de; THIEBAUT, F.; GAMOSA, E.; CARDOZO, A. M.; HARDOIM, R. P.; REIS, VERONICA M.; Ferreira, P.C.G.; HEMERLY, A. S. Expression profi le of nitrogen regulation during maize association with diazotrophic bacteria In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, Foz do iguaçu. Abstract book. Seropédica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.51 - 5. WILLIAN, PEREIRA; RENAN, O PEDULA; Pereira, A.; SOUSA, J. S.; NIVALDO, SCHULTZ; SEGUNDO, URQUIAGA; REIS, VERONICA M. Extraction of N in sugarcane under increased N-fertilizer use and inoculation with five diazotrophs In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, Foz do Iguaçu. Abstract book. Seropédica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.102 - 102 6. GOMES, L. B. E.; Silva, T. F. R. da; ALVES, Gabriela C; REIS, VERONICA M. Growth and contribution of BNF to different species of Brachiaria inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, Foz do iguaçu. Abstract book. Seropédica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.90 - 90 7. GUIMARAES, N. F.; Russo, S.H.C.R.; Loureiro, D.P.; Aragão, A. R.; ALVES, Gabriela C; REIS, VERONICA M. Growth evaluation of the sugarcane varieties RB966928 and RB975201 inoculated with a mixture of diazotrophic bacteria In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, Foz do Iguaçú. Abstract book. Seropédica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.75 - 75 8. GUIMARAES, N. F.; FERREIRA, N. S.; LOUREIRO, D. P.; Aragão, A. R.; ALVES, Gabriela C; Vidal, M. S.; ROUWS, L. F. M.; REIS, VERONICA M. Growth of micropropagated sugarcane seedlings inoculated with fi fteen strains of diazotrophic bacteria In: XVI Symposium on Biological nitrogen fi xation with NON-LEGUMES IV Latinamerican Workshop of PGPR, 2018, Foz do Iguaçu. Abstract book. Seropédica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.74 - 74 9. ALVES, Gabriela C; Aragão, A. R.; REIS, VERONICA M. Growth of sugarcane variety CTC9003 inoculated with fi ve strains of diazotrophic bacteria In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, Foz do Iguaçu. Abstract book. Seropédica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.76 - 76 10. Leite, T.L.V.; GUIMARAES, N. F.; REIS, V. M. Influencia de inoculante multiplo na variedade de cana de açúcar White Pararia (Saccharum barberi) In: VI Reunião ANual de Iniciação Cientifica - RAIC, SEROPEDICA. Anais do evento. , 2018. 11. FERREIRA, N. S.; MATOS, G. F.; ROUWS, J. R. C.; Reis, V.M.; ROUWS, L. F. M. Inoculação com Rhizobium sp. acelera brotação de mini-toletes de cana-de-açúcar cultivar RB867515 In: III Simpósio Nacional de Estudos para Produção Vegetal no Semiárido, 2018, Campina Grande. Livro de resumos. , 2018. v.1. p.96b3568b486cfd9 - 12. Dias, A. C.; ALVES, Gabriela C; LORENZET, I. J. S.; SA, L. M. S.; SILVA, T. O.; Loureiro, D.P.; REIS, VERONICA M. Maize growth under low and high N-levels and inoculated with four different strains of diazotrophic bacteria In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, Foz do Iguaçu. Abstract book. Seropedica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.85 - 85 13. ALVES, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; MARTINS, M. R.; SANTOS, R.; REIS, VERONICA M.; URQUIAGA, SEGUNDO SACRAMENTO; Jantalia, C.P.; BODDEY, R. M. On the effectiveness of crop inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria in Brazil for the mitigation of greenhouse gases In: XVI SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION WITH NON-LEGUMES' in association with 'IV LATINAMERICAN WORKSHOP OF PGPR' and RELARE, 2018, Foz do Iguaçu. Abstract book. Seropedica: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2018. v.1. p.16 - 16 Additionally project partners have been involved in Engagement activities for schools, museums and the general public: "Plant-Environment Sensory Interactions: multiplicity of forms and looks (Interaction, Diversity, Sustainability and Art)" The project is a partnership between the Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology (LBMP) at IBqM/UFRJ, Laboratory Nano at School of Fine Arts (EBA) at UFRJ and the Botanical Gardens of Rio de Janeiro (JBRJ), whose mission is to develop activities focused on education and environmental awareness. The final objective of all the activities developed is, through direct interaction with students, teachers and the general public, to build new knowledge, reflections and discussions that lead to the promotion of behavior change and attitudes towards environmental issues, aiming at the conservation of its natural resources and its sustainable use. The activities involve the creation of scientific and artistic installations with which the public interact, representing the signaling of the plants with the environment through a multiplicity of looks: Interaction, Diversity, Sustainability and Art. Among the themes of scientific and artistic installations is: "Biological Nitrogen Fixation (FBN) and sustainability", where it is intended to show that there are "good bacteria", how they talk to plants and the importance of BNF in sustainability and food production. During 2016-2018, this project was taken to schools, museums and science fairs, where the audience was the society in general that has an interest on the theme, and school teachers and students that were directly invited to attend. Expository activities were developed to demonstrate biotechnologies being developed at the LBMP/UFRJ involving "Biological Nitrogen Fixation (FBN) and sustainability". In 2016, 2017 and 2018 the group at UFRJ participated in the "Brazilian National Science and Technology Week" (SNCT), and the activities were always adapted within the general themes of the SNCT. This event is visited by students from several public schools, and from different grades. We estimate that each year our project reached around 500-600 people.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description BBSRC iCASE Endophytic bacteria: co-existence and chemical warfare
Amount £95,042 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M01505X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description BBSRC-Newton Fund Call for Virtual Joint Centres with Brazil, China and India in Agricultural Nitrogen 'Understanding and exploiting biological nitrogen fixation for improvement of Brazilian agriculture'
Amount £209,428 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description IBERS studentship 'Targeting extremophilic bacterial endosymbionts for plant growth promotion and phytoremediation applications'
Amount £54,000 (GBP)
Organisation Aberystwyth University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description KESS2
Amount £52,885 (GBP)
Organisation European Social Fund (Welsh Government/ EU) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 12/2021
 
Description NRN-LCEE Returning Fellowships
Amount £9,990 (GBP)
Funding ID R39GO1/CC8004/RFS008 
Organisation Welsh Assembly 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
 
Description UNDERSTANDING AND EXPLOITING BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION FOR IMPROVEMENT OF BRAZILIAN AGRICULTURE 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-I on Virtual Joint Centre award
Collaborator Contribution PI and Co-Is on Virtual Joint Centre award
Impact Due to start 2016
Start Year 2016
 
Title Muneo Bio Kit inoculant for sugarcane 
Description Inoculant for sugarcane 
IP Reference  
Protection Trade Mark
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact https://agriculture.basf.com/br/pt/protecao-de-cultivos-e-sementes/produtos/muneo-biokit.html Muneo ® BioKit: complete and innovative solution for protection, increased longevity and productive potential of sugarcane Ensure production health with Muneo ® BioKit, the solution that unites chemicals and biologicals to increase productivity and fight pests and diseases in sugarcane crops Muneo ® BioKit acts against the attack of pests and soil diseases allowing the rational management of nematodes according to the AgCelence ® benefits , in addition to acting in promoting growth. With the use of a biological asset, Muneo ® BioKit is the sustainable solution for - in addition to promoting increases in productive potential - increasing the longevity of the cane field. Through the promotion of growth, in synergy with the AgCelence ® benefits , this solution induces the plant to produce phytohormones that act in the development of the root system and increase the absorption of nutrients, which leads to growth and the guarantee of greater productivity, promoting greater tolerance to distinct and adverse edaphoclimatic conditions. Benefits Protection against pests and diseases. Rational management of nematodes. Physiological effects (AgCelence® benefits). Growth promotion. Induces phytohormone production. Greater productivity gain.
 
Description Aberystwyth University Access All Areas 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Products from plants - display including posters and products made of plant materials, and an activity for children making plastic from cornflour
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/events/access-all-areas/
 
Description Aberystwyth University Science Fair 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Every year during Science Week, 1700+ school children and their teachers visit Aber to be enthused about science via a diverse range of hand-on exhibits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Articles for Biochemical Society's blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Experience communicating with a wider audience about the experience of being a PhD student and the research project. Raise awareness of the research group.
https://thebiochemistblog.com/2017/05/18/phyte-club-inside-the-plant-microbiome/
https://thebiochemistblog.com/2017/03/27/the-very-best-things-about-phd-life/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://thebiochemistblog.com/2017/05/18/phyte-club-inside-the-plant-microbiome/
 
Description British Science Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 2016 - PhD students presented a poster of their research project with an audience of school children and teachers. Posters were later copied and sent to teachers for display in schools.
Students from 9 Secondary schools were in attendance over the course of the week.
2017 - PhD students organised and ran a stand for the three day event, supervising a team of undergraduate students.
• A three day event demonstrating chemical changes and properties to early secondary school aged children from several local schools using hands-on experiments they could try.
• Voted third place out of around 40 different stands at the event.
• Over 3000 schoolchildren attended over the event.
• Video online including PhD student talking about endophytes https://www.aber.ac.uk/en/news/archive/2017/03/title-198574-en.html
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL https://www.aber.ac.uk/en/news/archive/2017/03/title-198574-en.html
 
Description Plant-Environment Sensory Interactions: multiplicity of forms and looks (Interaction, Diversity, Sustainability and Art 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The project is a partnership between the Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology (LBMP) at IBqM/UFRJ, Laboratory Nano at School of Fine Arts (EBA) at UFRJ and the Botanical Gardens of Rio de Janeiro (JBRJ), whose mission is to develop activities focused on education and environmental awareness. The final objective of all the activities developed is, through direct interaction with students, teachers and the general public, to build new knowledge, reflections and discussions that lead to the promotion of behavior change and attitudes towards environmental issues, aiming at the conservation of its natural resources and its sustainable use. The activities involve the creation of scientific and artistic installations with which the public interact, representing the signaling of the plants with the environment through a multiplicity of looks: Interaction, Diversity, Sustainability and Art. Among the themes of scientific and artistic installations is: "Biological Nitrogen Fixation (FBN) and sustainability", where it is intended to show that there are "good bacteria", how they talk to plants and the importance of BNF in sustainability and food production. We are taking this project to schools, museums and science fairs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Plant-Environment Sensory Interactions: multiplicity of forms and looks (Interaction, Diversity, Sustainability and Art) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project is a partnership between the Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology (LBMP) at IBqM/UFRJ, Laboratory Nano at School of Fine Arts (EBA) at UFRJ and the Botanical Gardens of Rio de Janeiro (JBRJ), whose mission is to develop activities focused on education and environmental awareness. The final objective of all the activities developed is, through direct interaction with students, teachers and the general public, to build new knowledge, reflections and discussions that lead to the promotion of behavior change and attitudes towards environmental issues, aiming at the conservation of its natural resources and its sustainable use. The activities involve the creation of scientific and artistic installations with which the public interact, representing the signaling of the plants with the environment through a multiplicity of looks: Interaction, Diversity, Sustainability and Art. Among the themes of scientific and artistic installations is: "Biological Nitrogen Fixation (FBN) and sustainability", where it is intended to show that there are "good bacteria", how they talk to plants and the importance of BNF in sustainability and food production.

During 2016-2018, this project was taken to schools, museums and science fairs, where the audience was the society in general that has an interest on the theme, and school teachers and students that were directly invited to attend. Expository activities were developed to demonstrate biotechnologies being developed at the LBMP/UFRJ involving "Biological Nitrogen Fixation (FBN) and sustainability". In 2016, 2017 and 2018 the group at UFRJ participated in the "Brazilian National Science and Technology Week" (SNCT), and the activities were always adapted within the general themes of the SNCT. This event is visited by students from several public schools, and from different grades. We estimate that each year our project reached around 500-600 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
 
Description Segment on BBC news 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed for Welsh language news segment. Recently for a section on women in science, previously for a segment about renewable energy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/p03fd8qc/newyddion-9-s4c-pennod-19
 
Description Various student engagement activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact IBERS Excellence with Impact Poster session. 28th April 2016
• Presenting a poster of my research plans as part of the IBERS EWI event
• 80-100 people attended the event.
Presentation to School Teachers. 8th June 2016
• A ten minute oral presentation of research project to secondary school teachers.
• 20-30 teachers were in attendance.
Public Engagement Poster Session. 18th June 2016
• Presented a research poster to an audience of the general public.
• Over 100 people attended
World Food Day poster. 16th October 2016
• Public outreach event marking World Food Day, organised and hosted with fellow postgraduate students.
• The event illustrated the journey of food from production, through processing, to consumption, and waste, and highlighting environmental impacts.
• ~50 people attended.
Science and Energy Lecture. 19th May 2017
• Delivering a 2 hour lecture to primary school children on energy changes, with hands on demonstrations of a range of experiments.
• Groups from three primary schools were in attendance, totalling over 80 children.
• There will hopefully be a repeat of this event 2018.
Worcester Postgraduate Research Conference 29th June 2017
• 15 minute oral research presentation to a conference session of academic researchers and other postgraduate students from a range of disciplines and institutions.
• 80-100 people were at the event.
Online Outreach
• Blog (friendlybacteria.wordpress.com) writing about Science (mainly microbiology) for a general audience. I'm not sure how many people this has reached.
• Social Media: use of Instagram to post about Science and Nature (@friendly_bacteria) and Twitter to do the same (@frndlybacteria). Over 500 followers on Instagram and nearly 1300 on Twitter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017