Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: Avian Influenza

Abstract

In nature, many distinct subtypes of avian influenza (AI) viruses circulate in wild aquatic birds with no consequence to farmed poultry or human health. However, on occasion, these viruses infect domesticated poultry and undergo genetic changes that sometimes result in the emergence of novel viruses with unforeseen biological and pathological characteristics. In recent years, a number of novel AI viruses including H5N1, H5N2, H5N8, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 have emerged in poultry. H5N1 and H9N2 strains have, within a short space of time, spread to many countries globally, inflicting enormous economic losses together with zoonotic infections of humans with fatal outcomes.

In 2013, a novel H7N9 AI virus strain emerged in poultry in China and caused a localized epidemic in humans. The virus is characterised as having a low pathogenicity phenotype and causes subclinical disease and no mortality in chickens. However, human contact with infected birds has led to sporadic severe disease in humans and over 180 fatalities. The virus is now enzootic in poultry in China and possibly other neighboring regions. In order to reduce its zoonotic impacts, large scale culling of infected and potential contact poultry flocks is being carried out in China, with losses so far amounting to over $6.5 billion and predicted to increase substantially. These pre-emptive control measures have become less effective as the spread of the virus in birds widens. The virus continues to evolve and new reassortant genotypes are emerging, carrying genes of other co-circulating poultry influenza virus strains. This exceptionally rapid evolution may potentially drive further increases in virus infectivity, transmissibility and virulence for both poultry and humans; posing great threats to global food security, animal and public health, socioeconomic wellbeing and the environment.

Considering the emerging and potentially global consequences of this novel H7N9 virus, there is an urgent need to bring this virus under control, reduce its prevalence in the environment and halt its spread to humans. Developing such control measures requires a comprehensive knowledge base about the nature of infecting virus, such as the viral factors that allow cross-species infection, the rates and mechanism of transmission between birds and from birds to humans and the genetic determinants of virulence in mammalian species compared to birds.

The proposed research aims to gain insight into the viral factors that are contributing to the emergence and spread of novel H7N9 virus within poultry, and its transmission to and pathogenicity in humans (using a well-characterised ferret model for human infection). We will also assess the potential threat presented by virus strains that could emerge by similar reassortment events in the future. This project will investigate: (i) how does the internal H9N2 gene cassette change the virological properties of H7N9 influenza virus?; (ii) how do internal gene cassettes from diversified clades of H9N2 viruses impact on H7N9 virus pathogenesis and transmission in avian and mammalian species?; and (iii) how do the H7N9 viruses transmits from poultry to humans?

The linking of identified genetic signatures associated with cross-species transmission and virulence with publically available virus genetic data will ultimately help to better predict potential immediate threats. The knowledge gained during this study will enable the design and development of improved tailor-made tools including vaccines, diagnostic reagents and antivirals allowing better control and management of AI infections. Improved control measures together with offering direct benefits may also provide substantial indirect economic, public health, environmental and social benefits to wider communities on both the national and global scale.

Technical Summary

The emergence of a novel genotype of H7N9 virus threatens human and animal health, global food security and world economies. In order to minimize these impacts, a complete understanding is required of the biological properties of the current and predicted future H7N9 reassortant viruses including virus infectivity, host tissue tropism, cross-species transmission and pathogenesis. This project will investigate the genetic parameters that contribute to H7N9 virus maintenance in poultry and transmission to humans. To address this, advanced molecular virology and animal infection studies will be performed. A series of H7N9 viruses will be generated using reverse genetics that represent circulating viruses in poultry, and some human infection isolates. Due to rapid reassortment with other H9N2 viruses, recombinant viruses that carry H9N2 internal genes of representative current prevalent strains in poultry of different geographical regions will also be generated. A detailed assessment of infectivity and replication of the recombinant viruses using established in vitro virus infection assays will be performed. Viruses exhibiting marked differential biological behavior in vitro will be further evaluated for their pathogenicity and transmissibility in chickens and ferrets (a well characterised model for human influenza infection). The likelihood of increased inter-species transmission of viruses by the airborne route will also be investigated. The air flow from the isolation unit that house the infected chickens will be diverted towards the isolation unit that house uninfected ferrets. Infection parameters such as clinical signs, virus shedding and, in the case of severe disease, post mortem and histopathological findings will provide evidence of virus transmission via air. These approaches ultimately will allow systematic dissection of viral genetic components directly impacting on H7N9 virus tissue tropism, pathogenesis, and transmission in avian and mammalian species.

Planned Impact

We have seen the global impacts of high pathogenicity avian influenza (AI) viruses. In addition, the recent emergence and enzootic spread of a novel H7N9 virus in China has further threatened poultry production systems, human health, food security, trade and the economy. H7N9, being a low pathogenicity virus, does not cause apparent disease in chickens but handling of infected birds has resulted in fatal human disease. The enormous impact of AIV on poultry production, trade and livelihood of millions of poor farmers and shop keepers is incalculable due to control measures, such as large scale culling of infected and at risk poultry flocks and closing down poultry trade markets and allied poultry industries. However, these pre-emptive measures were unable to prevent the virus becoming enzootic in poultry in China. New and improved tools are most certainly required to control and eradicate such viruses and their development and deployment will require an in-depth understanding of the viral factors driving virus persistence in chickens and transmission to humans.

This programme of research will generate and deliver knowledge that will directly impact on AI disease control systems globally. We will undertake integrated and innovative approaches that will analyse the virological parameters leading to H7N9 virus emergence. We will advance the fundamental understanding of influenza evolution, spread and virulence in poultry and humans. Thus, the research will directly benefits human and animal health, the poultry industry and the general public. The objectives of this project are directly aligned with the strategic priorities of BBSRC and other national and international organizations having an interest in disease control including; MRC, Defra, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

The research will harness the collaborative efforts and expertise of UK scientists working to improve the control of AIV for sustainable growth of the poultry industry and reduction of zoonotic infection risks. The research will also enhance research capacity and training of the next generation of scientists for multi-disciplinary research that addresses priority concerns of infectious diseases on global health and food security.

The outcomes of this research will be communicated to stakeholders via multiple mechanisms including publication of the outcomes on publically available open access information sharing systems. Information will be shared promptly via peer-reviewed open access journals, presentations at conferences and workshops helping to determine the research directions and priorities by the learned societies and funding bodies. The engagement with policy makers and disease control agencies will allow making informed decisions and developing effective strategies to combat the increasing number of emerging AI viruses.

The PIs also have experience collaborating with potential beneficiaries outside the immediate academic community, including governmental and non-governmental organizations and the corporate sector. Scientific staff and collaborators involved in the project will exploit as many opportunities as possible to disseminate the research for wider public benefits. This will be achieved by utilising well-established public engagement platforms such as BBSRC Business, periodic global animal health, zoonotic diseases impacting public health and food security teleconference. Staff involved in this project will also be encouraged to be STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) ambassadors and participate in STEM activities.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This project is just inciated and we are evaluating the potential risks of novel H7N9 genotypes emerging through genetic re-assortment with H9N2 viruses to the poultry industry and global human health.

The research has examined the H7N9 virus infectivity and replication in vitro in cultured cells and experimenst are underway to determine how internal genes of H7N9 virus derived from H9N2 viruses contributing in virus replication, virulence and transmission in chickens and humans.

New research method entitled" A restriction digestion and ligation independent technique for cloning influenza gene segments into pHW2000" was developed that allow efficient cloning of polymerase genes of influenza viruses for generation of recombinant influenza viruses using reverse genetic technique.

We identified that co-infection of low pathogenecity H9N2 and H7N9 viruses in ovo (in embryonated hen eggs) or in vivo (in infected chickens) results in emergence of novel strains of H7N9, H9N9 and H9N2 reassortant viruses with increased pathogenicity and transmissibility in chickens.
Exploitation Route The work has been presented in scientific meetings and to our collaborators. We and researchers around the world will use our findings and methods to improve control systems against influenza viruses. The outputs of the project entitled "A restriction digestion and ligation independent technique for cloning influenza gene segments into pHW2000" was presented at Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases (GARAD) Conference held at Fortuna Hotel Hanoi, Vietnam 17-19 January 2018.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Creative Economy,Environment,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description The work has been presented in scientific meetings. We and other researchers around the world will use our findings and methods to improve control systems against influenza viruses. New method entitled 2A restriction digestion and ligation independent technique for cloning influenza gene segments into pHW2000" was developed and presented at the Global Alliance for Research on Avian Disease-2018 (GARAD-2018) Conference held at Fortuna Hotel, Hanoi, Vietnam 17-19 January 2018. The research identified factors that aiding virulence and persistence of avian influenza viruses in different animals and bird species. The outcome of this research directly feed into surveillance and risk assessment of emerging and re-emerging viruses, enabling implementation of rapid and appropriate disease mitigation strategies.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Creative Economy,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description BBSRC International Partnering Awards
Amount £49,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P025803/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 07/2021
 
Description BBSRC-iCASE
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Description Institutional Links grants
Amount £269,123 (GBP)
Funding ID 261727271 
Organisation Newton Fund 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 07/2019
 
Description Japan Partnering Award
Amount £49,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P025803/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2021
 
Description Newton Institutional Links grant
Amount £269,123 (GBP)
Funding ID 261727271 
Organisation Newton Fund 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2019
 
Description Reducing the Economic and Zoonotic Impact of Avian Influenza (REZIAI): delivering novel vaccines and diagnostics from laboratory to the field.
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S013792/1 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2021
 
Description The Global Challenges Research Fund
Amount £640,473 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2024
 
Title Detection of HA antigens of avian influenza viruses 
Description Assay for detection of recombinant HVT expressing HA antigens of avian influenza viruses 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This new method will help to detect recombinant HVT vaccine expressing HA antigen in infected cell. 
 
Title ELISA and next generation sequencing of whole genome of influenza viruses at Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Vietnam (OUCRU) Hanoi, Vietnam. 
Description 1. Reagents (recombinant HA and NP proteins) and monoclonal antibodies were provide to OUCRU_ Vietnam for for establishment of serological and genomic assessment of diversity of influenza virus infections in Human and animals. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We this project help, The OUCRU-VN are established a permanent facility to undertake NGS analysis and serlogical analysis of avain influenza viruses. 
 
Description Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of samples and reagents for research
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents for research and research facilities
Impact Research output entitled "A restriction digestion and ligation independent technique for cloning influenza gene segments into pHW2000" was presented at January 17th to 19th 2018. Fortuna Hotel, Lang Ha Street, Hanoi, VietNam (Presented by postdoctoral scientist Dr Sushant Bhat
Start Year 2016
 
Description Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution (1) Exchange of research methods and reagents
Collaborator Contribution (1) Exchange of research methods and reagents. (2) Provision of training to PhD students and postdoctoral Scientist (3) Critical review of experimental data and manuscripts.
Impact (1) Joint funding: BBSRC Newton Fund: UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative (2018-2021). Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Value: £497,995.93. UK Co-Is: Prof John McCauley (Crick Institute), Dr Richard Reeve (University of Glasgow). Collaborators from China: Dr Yipeng Sun, Prof Jinhua Liu and Dr Juan Pu (China Agricultural University), Prof Yongqing Li (Beijing Academy of Agriculture and forestry Sciences), Dr Wenfei Zhu (National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC).
Start Year 2007
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department School of Public Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation National Agricultural Research Centre
Country Pakistan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Vietnam (OUCRU)
Country Viet Nam 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Department Veterinary Basic Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The overarching aims of the proposed research are to improve controls against H5 subtype of avian influenza viruses infecting poultry by investigating underlying mechanisms that define how vaccines renders effectiveness and develop novel approaches enhancing the effectiveness of H5 avian influenza vaccines. We recently generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognise a variety of different clades of H5 viruses. Propagation of AIV in eggs or cultured cells together with mAbs drives virus to escape from mAbs neutralisation activity. These classical virus neutralization assays (VN) followed by HA gene sequence analysis allowed us to defined the role of amino acid substitutions that are associated with evasion of antibody neutralization through emergence of antigenic variants and failure of vaccine efficacy.
Collaborator Contribution provided intellectual input for achieving prescribed objectives of this work.
Impact Talk entitled "Molecular determinants for antigenicity and vaccine efficacy of avian influenza viruses" was presented at Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop " Novel Vaccines and Diagnostic Technologies against Emerging and re-emerging Veterinary Pathogens" at Rizal Park Hotel, Manila, Philippines, 4-7 February 2019.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of technical ideas, reagents and samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field samples and data on avian influenza infection in poultry. This diseases is endemic in poultry in Pakistan.
Impact (1) Increased receptor binding avidity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses is associated with escape from antibody based immunity and enhanced zoonotic potential. presented by Joshua Sealy at GARAD and ZELS conferences in Haneoi, Vietnam from 17-27 January 2018.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan. 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Department Department of Microbiology
PI Contribution Exchange of technical ideas, reagents and samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field samples and data on avian influenza infection in poultry. This diseases is endemic in poultry in Pakistan.
Impact (1) Increased receptor binding avidity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses is associated with escape from antibody based immunity and enhanced zoonotic potential. presented by Joshua Sealy at GARAD and ZELS conferences in Haneoi, Vietnam from 17-27 January 2018.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Morphological differences of Influenza A viruses 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of research methods and reagents
Collaborator Contribution (1) Exchange of reagents and Research methods.(2) training of PhD students and Postdoctoral Scientists (3) use of research facilities
Impact Research output were presented at Avian Influenza A virus budding morphology: spherical or filamentous? presented at The European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) Riga, Latvia. 10 to 13 September 2017 (2) .Budding morphology of avian influenza A viruses. Microbiology Society, annual Conference 2017, 306 April, EICC, Edinburggh, UK
Start Year 2016
 
Description The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The focus of the research is to achieve sustainable global intensification of poultry meat and egg production whilst reducing risks to human and animal health and welfare. We are undertaking research to investigate the diversity of avian influenza viruses prevalent in poultry and wild birds in south east Asia.
Collaborator Contribution Royal Veterinary College, London is leading this GCRF One Health Poultry Hub. The project will address the need to meet rising demand for poultry meat and eggs in developing countries, while minimising risk to international public health. Population growth is driving global demand for poultry, meat and egg production; this unfortunately creates conditions in which animal diseases can spread to humans ('zoonoses'). These include bacterial food poisoning and strains with avian influenza with epidemic or pandemic potential. The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub will adopt a 'One Health' approach to the issue of combatting animal-to-human diseases by bringing together a team of laboratory, clinical, veterinary and social scientists. This team will test and evaluate novel interventions. The need for safe poultry production is most urgent in South and South East Asia, so the RVC and its partners will then use their local networks in these regions to put its positive research to immediate use.
Impact Development of international interdisciplinary partnership of 55 investigators from 13 countries to address the emerging global challenges of food security and public health associated with intensification of poultry production.
Start Year 2018
 
Description The role of segment 3 in H9N2 avian influenza virus pathogenicity 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a Joint studentship project funded by The Pirbright Institute and The Roslin Institute. We identiifed molecular markers that are responsible for increase in virus pathogenicity and transmission.
Collaborator Contribution The Roslin Institute contributed both intellectually and by proving research training, samples and regents to achieve the prescribed objectives this project.
Impact 1. Oral Presentation Title: Identification of segment 3 sequence polymorphisms which alter shut off activity and pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in vivo. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard and Munir Iqbal. Global Alliance for Research Into Avian Diseases (GARAD). January 17th to 19th 2018. Fortuna Hotel, Lang Ha Street, Hanoi, VietNam 2. Poster title: What is the role of H9N2 avian influenza virus PA-X within an avian model?. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. UK- China CERAD (Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases), 3rd Symposium Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. August 31st - 1st September 2017. The Harbour Hotel, Alexandra Terrace, Guildford, Surrey, UK. 3. Poster title: What is the role of H9N2 avian influenza virus PA-X within an avian model?. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. Microbiology Society Annual Conference. April 3rd-6th 2017. Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC), Edinburgh, UK. 4. Oral Presentation title: Identification of sequence polymorphisms in segment 3 of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that affect PA-X activity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. Focused Meeting 2016: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Avian Viruses. September 27th-29th 2016. Charles Darwin House, London, UK. 5. Oral Presentation title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 avian influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. UK -Taiwan BBSRC Partnering Award workshop: Improving Control of influenza viruses. 26th-27th April 2016. Taipei, Taiwan. 6. Oral Presentation title: Identification of sequence polymorphisms in segment 3 of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that affect PA-X activity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2016; virus Workshop: Negative strand RNA Viruses. 21st-24th March 2016. Arena and Convention Centre, Liverpool, UK. 7. Poster title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. 7th Orthomyxovirus research conference. 16th-18th September 2015. Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 8. Poster title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. Edinburgh Infectious Diseases Annual Symposium. 20th May 2015. Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, UK.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation China Agricultural University (CAU)
Department College of Veterinary Medicine
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC)
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Agricultural Research Centre
Department Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute
Country Egypt 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department MSk Lab
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Suez Canal University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Department International Research Center for Infectious Diseases
Country Japan 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Zagazig University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Talk Presented at 2nd International Congress of Veterinary Microbiology, 16th -19th October 2018. Sherwood Breezes Resort-Lara, Antalya, Turkey. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference discussed improving prevention and control of viral diseases of poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Challenges for Poultry Industry". Organised by Fakieh Poultry at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2nd -3rd December 2018, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference discussed prevention and control of infectious diseases affecting poultry production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Interactive session with poultry stakeholders". Title: Overview of Avian Influenza group Research at The Pirbright Institute. Presented at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan, 3rd August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop discussed the economic impacts and prevention strategies against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry production and zoonotic infections.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 1. Improvement of vaccines and diagnostics for avian influenza viruses. South West Chicken Association. 28th Annual Trade Fair and Conference, 19 April 2016. Bristol, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact gave the overview of scientific advances for the control of avian influenza infection and spread in poultry to farmers and representative from poultry production chain.over 200 peoples attanded South West Chicken Association. 28th Annual Trade Fair and Conference, 19 April 2016. Bristol, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.farminguk.com/agricultural-shows-and-events/South-West-Chicken-Association-Conference-Tr...
 
Description 2. Overview of Avian Influenza group Research at The Pirbright Institute. Presented at "Interactive session with poultry stakeholders" at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan, 3rd August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research Project outcomes These include presenting research data for vaccine seed strains with emergent field avian influenza variants; The zoonotic risk posed by emerging avian influenza viruses circulating in the wild birds and poultry. Impact of virus evolution on vaccine efficacy and persistence in poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 4. H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of northern Vietnam: prevalence, diversity, pathogenicity. Options for the Control of Infuenza IX. Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-28 August 2016. 5. Defining the antigenic sites of H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Options for the Control of In uenza IX. Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-28 August 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International Influenza conference on options for the control of influenza infections in animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://2016.isirv.org
 
Description 5. Defining the antigenic sites of H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Options for the Control of In uenza IX. Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-28 August 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International conference on the control of Influenza virus infections in animals and humans..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://2016.isirv.org
 
Description Combating avian influenza by developing novel diagnostic tools and vaccines. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Combating avian influenza by developing novel diagnostic tools and vaccines. ZELS grant holders and Stakeholders meeting in Tanzania 24-25 January 2017.

Progress report on BBSRC funded ZELS project on improvement of vaccines and diagnostics for avian influenza viruses to international experts working on the control of infectious diseases of livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Demonstrating Mathematics (Angita Shrestha) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Angita Shrestha (PhD student within Avian Influenza group) provided help in a Maths session to the new Oxford Doctoral Training Porgramme (DTP) cohort.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Evolution of H9N2 avian influenza virus under immune pressure. Presented at 10th International Symposium on Avian Influenza, 15th - 18th April 2018, The Grand Hotel, Brighton, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The primary aim of the workshop was to forge long-term research partnerships between early-career researchers, livestock industry and national disease control authorities in the UK and the Philippines. In addition, the activity hopes provide information about the emerging and next generation diagnostic and vaccine strategies and their utilization to reduce the impact of viral diseases on livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.slideshare.net/zerep_cire/2019-newton-agham-researcher-links-workshop-vaccines-and-diagn...
 
Description Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar entitled "Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics" was presented as invited speaker to Postgraduate students and staff at RVC (Hawkshead Campus), UK. 19 October 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics. Seminar as inviated speaker at RVC (Hawkshead Campus), UK. 19 October 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk delivered on the topic "improvement of vaccines and diagnostic for poultry at The pirbright Institute UK, as an invited speaker at Royal Veterinary College (RVC) London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description H9N2 avian influenza viruses: impact of evolutionary changes on virus antigenicity, receptor binding and zoonotic potential. Presented at "Conference on Animal Infectious Diseases and Human Health" held at The Veterinary Biotechnology Branch of Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine & the Veterinary Immunology Branch of Chinese Society for Immunology. August 7th-10th, 2018 Harbin, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Focus of the conference was to improve control against infectious diseases affecting poultry and livestock.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description H9N2 avian influenza viruses: impact of evolutionary changes on virus antigenicity, receptor binding and zoonotic potential. Presented at "Conference on Animal Infectious Diseases and Human Health" held at The Veterinary Biotechnology Branch of Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine & the Veterinary Immunology Branch of Chinese Society for Immunology. August 7th-10th, 2018 Harbin, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outcomes to prevent and control of infectious diseases of animals and humans.
- Avian influenza virus evolution and efficacy.
-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Immuno-pathobiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses: looking at how the viruses evolve and persist in poultry. Presented at "Techniques for Healthy Farming and Diseases Prevention & Control of Livestock and Poultry. Beijing, August 13th-15th, 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outputs. Improvement of vaccines and diagnostics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Influenza update meeting (Pengxiang Chang) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact presented work entitled: Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H7N9 virus by in vitro immune escape mutant selection method.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases conference health in Hanoi 17-19 January 2018. Purpose of the conference was to establish global partnerships and links between academic researchers and the poultry industry to improve joined up work in regards to preventing, controlling and
combating avian diseases. The conferences provided a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas around the single theme of exploiting available opportunities to deal with emerging and existing infectious avian diseases in poultry production systems and to safeguard food supplies and human health.
Conference speakers discuused basic, applied and commercial aspects of research on avian diseases including:
• Evolution and Epidemiology of Avian Pathogens
• Host-Pathogen Interactions - Virulence and Pathogenicity
• Pathogen Mechanisms of Immune Evasion
• Next Generation Disease Control Strategies
• Vaccines
• Immunity
• Diagnostics
• Zoonoses and Socio-economic impacts of avian diseases
• Global Research Opportunities and Threats
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.theeventsportal.com/GARAD-2018/3/Home
 
Description Mapping antigenic determinants of H9N2 avian influenza viruses and improving vaccines and diagnostics" presented at Foreign Talent Lecture: New strategies and new techniques for the prevention and control of major avian diseases. Shandong Binzhou Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine Academy, Binzhou, China. 6th August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The focus of the meeting was to improve the control systems against poultry diseases including development of improved vaccines and diagnostics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop on "Novel Vaccines and Diagnostic Technologies Against Emerging and Re-emerging Veterinary Pathogens, Rizal Park Hotel, Manila, Philippines 4-7 February 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The primary aim of this workshop was to forge long-term research partnerships between early-career researchers, livestock industry and national disease control authorities in the UK and the Philippines. The workshop provided information on emerging and next generation diagnostic and vaccine strategies and their utilization to reduce the impact of viral diseases on livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.slideshare.net/zerep_cire/2019-newton-agham-researcher-links-workshop-vaccines-and-diagn...
 
Description The Pirbright Village Duck Fair held on 16 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Local Village Fair, interaction with local residence to expanse research aims and activities of The Pirbright Institute and benefits to UK and around the globe to prevent and control infectious diseases of animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UK-China Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative project kick-off workshop" at China Agriculture University, Beijing, 26th-28th September 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Emerging new approaches were discussed for prevention and control of infectious diseases affecting swines and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Understanding Antigenic Diversity, Zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Presented at "UK-China Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative project kick-off workshop" at China Agriculture University, Beijing, 26th-28th September 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting focus was to share research plans funded under "UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative". Research projects investigate pathogens, zoonotic pathogens or "commensals" associated with food safety issues affecting poultry and swine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://bbsrc.ukri.org/funding/filter/joint-swine-poultry-initiative/
 
Description Zoonotic Pathogens and Biorisk Management. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk was presented at workshop "Zoonotic Pathogens and Biorisk Management" at University of Veterianry and Animal Scieences Lahore, Pakistan and Institute of public health, Lahore 26-28 October 2016.

Both Medical and Veterinary professionals attended the workshop for CPD.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016