Evaluating Costs and Benefits of Prophylactic Health Products and Novel Alternatives on Smallholder Aquaculture Farmers In Asia and Africa (IMAQulate)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Stirling
Department Name: Institute of Aquaculture

Abstract

Rapidly growing demand for seafood products for domestic and export markets is driving intensification of aquaculture sectors dominated by small-holders in much of Asia. Ensuring effective health management has become the single most important challenge for sustainable intensification of the smallholder sector just as restrictions on antibiotic use are being imposed. Farmers are increasingly dependent on a proliferating range of prophylactic products (including pre and probiotics), often of uncertain provenance & efficacy. Furthermore, the emergent markets for these products lack appropriate regulatory frameworks and the economic burden of unjustified claims is likely to fall most heavily on small-holders. An independent cost-benefit assessment of the efficacy, costs and benefits of such products is urgently required. Working across a range of major commodity farmed species and system types, the project will also assess the potential for novel low-cost alternatives to contribute to improved animal health and profitability of intensified smallholder operations.

Technical Summary

Probiotics alter the intestinal microbiome, or the microbiological composition of pond water and sediments. Modifications in the composition of the microbiome, alter the immune response and change a host's ability to resist infection. The microbiome educates the immune system; inducing tolerance to luminal contents and by stimulating and enhancing local and systemic immune responses for the detection of incoming pathogens. In addition, the microbiome promotes gut physiological functions such as maintenance of mucosal barrier integrity, competitive exclusion of gut pathogens, organisation of gut lymphoid tissue, modulation of epithelial cell differentiation, absorption of nutrients and induction of Ig+ cells, granulocytes and T cells. A balanced microbiota is essential for health and growth in farmed species; perturbation of non-pathogenic microbes in the existing microbiome alters production. Probiotics have been found to increase lymphoid tissue of fish interacting with the microbiome in a complex response involving the production and regulation of cytokines and effector and regulatory T cells. For example, different probiotics have been found to have beneficial effects in Tilapia with increased serum complement activity, enhanced phagocytosis and bacterial killing associated with an increase in peripheral inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNFa [. Several other studies report probiotic Bacillus sp. to increase shrimp survival and notably in a mix with Vibrio sp to be protective against V.harveyi and the white spot virus (WSSV). Vaccines exploit the adaptive component of the immune system but many do not provide full protection. Vaccines are also inappropriate for shellfish, which rely on innate mechanisms. Scope therefore exists to target the innate component for both finfish and shellfish, non-specifically, to infection by acting as a 'surveillance and rapid response' mechanism. Unlike the adaptive system it functions through all life stages.

Planned Impact

The project aims (i) to improve profitability of intensifying smallholder farmers directly: through improved prophylactic health management capacity and indirectly through development of standardized assessment procedures and improved regulation of commercial PHPs (ii) to develop internal capacity to support future research on PHP efficacy, regulation and economic benefit.
 
Description In year 2 we have continued implementation of the following iterative activities in order to address the preventative health management and regulatory issues underpinning the development focus of the IMAQulate project (i) qualitative and quantitative surveys of prophylactic health product (PHP) value-chain stakeholder including farmers and retailers/ distributors, incorporating a detailed product inventory (ii) laboratory analysis of PHPs against manufacturer claims (iii) A PHP 'pedigree analysis' based on a range of indicators e.g. use-prevalence, certification of manufacturing quality assurance, qualitative and quantitative laboratory analysis of product active ingredients against label claims and expert opinion on these claims in relation to product composition and manufacturer user guidance (iv) the pedigree analysis has been used to select 'high-potential' PHPs for evaluation in 'on-farm trials' with commercial partners, comparing health, survival and commercial performance with negative controls and low cost alternative prophylactic treatments including a biofloc and prebiotics (v) Indian and UK partners are investigating the antimicrobial and/or immunomodulatory properties of widely available natural products which may hold potential for low-cost alternatives to antibiotics. The potential for synergistic interactions between such prebiotics and probiotics (as 'synbiotics') are also being evaluated as part of on-farm trials.
A total of commercial aquatic 859 PHPs have now been inventoried in India (from 14 outlets and product registration data) and Bangladesh (from 197 outlets); of which 336 contain pre and/or probiotics and 284 contain probiotics. In Kenya there is yet no real market for aquatic PHPs; instead our focus has been on in-feed products targeting livestock (mainly juvenile poultry) as an entry-point. Only six probiotics were identified from 50 outlets (3 originating from India, 2 also with fish health claims). Most smaller producers remain heavily dependent on antimicrobials for therapeutic treatments.
India has the greatest probiotic diversity with 213 commercially available probiotics compared to 71 in Bangladesh. Bangladesh relies almost exclusively on imports, both formal and informal of PHPs classes, most significantly from India which has several major regional production bases (notably Hyderabad, Chennai, Mumbai adjacent to the main shrimp producing regions which constitute the most lucrative market for these products. Of a total of 35 manufacturers (excluding simple re-packaging) of probiotics identified marketed probiotics in India and Bangladesh; by far the largest number were in India (14), followed by Thailand, Japan, Singapore, S. Korea and China with 2-3 each. Many larger companies are multinationals typically with 2-3 global production bases located to serve strategic regional markets; choice also being linked to regulatory criteria and ease of export.
Manufactures can be differentiated according to broad differences in quality assurance capacity; larger companies including multinationals being more likely to have independent certification e.g. against IS0 9000 standards. These companies are also more likely to be more widely marketed under exclusive regional dealership contracts; very often through major feed producers, or in some cases as subsidiaries of agribusiness with feed & hatchery production capacity). Such relationships are major determinants of the promotion and technical advice provision to independent farmers. Some companies (e.g. project commercial partner INVE) specialise in production of high-value products to the niche hatchery sector where market access is less restricted.
Laboratory analysis (by CIFT and RVC partner laboratories) of over 70 commercial probiotics sampled from Bangladesh and India also confirm a greater likelihood of divergence in measured versus label ingredient declarations (qualitative and quantitative) for products originating from smaller indigenous 'cottage' type manufacturers versus larger nationals and multi-nationals. Similar dubious product claims e.g. around credible mode of action, working concentration levels etc. tend to follow a similar pattern. CIFT and UoS are also analysing a selected probiotics for the presence antimicrobial resistance genes to a range of antibiotics widely used in aquaculture.
Over 850 farmers have now been interviewed as part of health surveys covering the four project species in India, Bangladesh and Kenya. Initial survey findings in India and Bangladesh, indicate that small-scale intensifying farmers (a key project stakeholder group) lacking the disease diagnostic capacity required to determine whether or not the PHPs they use deliver benefits, are much more likely to apply 'soil & water' than 'in-feed' probiotics. This is because short-term improvements in water quality can be more readily observed or measured, and may in turn ameliorate the onset of or impacts of health problems. However the higher pond dosage & associated costs for soil & water application also means less well-resourced farmers are highly likely to apply PHPs therapeutically in response to adverse water quality indicators i.e. contrary to manufacturer guidance on their intended recurrent prophylactic application.
For reason focus of producer-trials has shifted to 'extended-nursing' in smaller containment units; a also being widely adopted by farmers across the region as a more general biosecurity measure. This shift has also necessitated implementation of additional hatchery level health management surveys in four of the projects species-country contexts.
Thus, farmer trials of selected PHPs have/ are being initiated at hatchery and nursery stages after which the health and production performance of treated stocks will be monitored through grow-out in ponds and cages. Juvenile productions stages were selected as intervention points (i) life-stages with particularly high mortality levels and adverse grow-out outcomes for less healthy stocks (ii) juvenile PHP treatment costs are relatively low compared to grow-out applications i.e. associated with lower biomass and culture system volumes (iii) reflecting increasing adoption of biosecure nursing phases as components of grow-out farming operations. In India a bio-floc nursery system will also be evaluated as a potential low cost alternative to 'soil & water' probiotics. Trials are being implemented as part of formal collaborations with six commercial partners including one probiotic manufacturer and six commercial hatchery/ nursery producers. In India, this will be led by the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology and the University of Stirling in collaboration Ananda Group, a major Indian commercial shrimp producer and exporter based in Andhra Pradesh. In Bangladesh, WorldFish Bangladesh and Bangladesh Agricultural University are focusing on shrimp/ prawn (P. mondon/ macrobrachium rosenbergii), Pangasius catfish and tilapia production systems and in Kenya, Machakos University and the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute have partnered with social enterprise Sidai and Victory Farms to focus on pond and cage tilapia systems in/ around Lake Victoria.
Exploitation Route Considerable progress has been made in preliminary stakeholder assessment, needs analysis and linked to this a draft communication strategy developed. A first stakeholder workshop with PHP supply-chain actors was held in Dhaka in December 2016 whilst individual meetings with sectoral support and regulatory bodies were conducted during a recent joint-mission to Andhra Pradesh. Interim findings were also disseminated through three commercial stakeholder and policy workshops implemented in India, Bangladesh and Kenya between Nov 2018 and Jan 2018. Requests have been received from regulatory agencies in India and Bangladesh for further updates on the PHP risk-assessment tool being developed by the project.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Education,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Retail

URL https://stir.ac.uk/imaqulate
 
Description 4 MSc students and junior staff of the recently established Noakhali Science and Technology University (NSTU) funded to work on the project through a separate British Council 'Inspire' Grant (lead by the University of Stirling). The students have been mentored in application of mixed methods-research skills in applied commercial settings. In February 2018, the IMAQulate project published an article discussing the aims and objectives and preliminary findings of the project (https://thefishsite.com/articles/assessing-preventative-health-alternatives-to-antibiotics). Industry stakeholders have since contacted the project team to discuss the research and findings, noting that it is both important and useful to the PHP industry. An article was published in Bengali in Fish Week Compendium 2017 published by Department of Fisheries (DoF) under the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Bangladesh, about the overview of the use of prophylactic health products (PHPs) in aquaculture in Bangladesh. The number of the copies of compendium is 8500 that has been distributed across the country to all the fisheries offices and being used as a training material for farmers and aquaculture value-chain stakeholders. The article is now being used as a training material for aquaculture farmers in Bangladesh. A series of stakeholder policy workshops held in India, Bangladesh and Kenya engaged government policy-makers, industry professionals and third-sector and community organisations to communicate the key findings of the research. In India and Bangladesh, policy recommendations were made to facilitate a more effectively regulated market for PHPs based on survey and empirical research findings in the respective countries. In Kenya, where the market for PHPs is in the early stages of maturation and use of PHPs among aquaculture farmers is minimal, the key messages were tailored to share lessons learned and prevent policy failures as seen in India and Bangladesh from occurring in Kenya. Stakeholders at all three workshops reported finding the activities useful and constructive. Regulators expressed particular interest in the PHP risk-analysis tool being developed by the project, also the basis for a follow-on project in Bangladesh. Findings have already contributed to development of a 'National Fish Health Management Strategy of Bangladesh' (NFHMSB).
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description IMAQulate influence on the National Fish Health Management Strategy of Bangladesh' (NFHMSB)-
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Dr Muhammad Meezanur Rahman (WorldFish Center) lead a serious of consultations on behalf of the with Bangladesh Department of Fisheries (DOF) culminating in the drafting of 'National Fish Health Management Strategy of Bangladesh' (NFHMSB) which will also feed into a national drugs regulatory process by the Directorate General of Drug Administration(DGDA). IMAQulate findings regarding quality assurance risks in the manufacture and distribution of commercial probiotics used in aquaculture fed directly into this process.
 
Description CIRAD funding to present IMAQulate findings at FAO workshop on Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture
Amount £500 (GBP)
Organisation Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD) 
Sector Public
Country France
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2018
 
Description Commercial company
Amount € 850 (EUR)
Organisation Inve Aquaculture, Inc. 
Start 04/2018 
End 04/2019
 
Description No scheme name - negotiated studentship from a commercial organisation
Amount £87,425 (GBP)
Organisation Vaisakhi Bio-Marine (P) Ltd. 
Start 08/2019 
End 08/2022
 
Description Risk-based pedigree-analysis for regulation of prophylactic aquaculture health products and improved smallholder health management in Bangladesh
Amount £70,479 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S019006/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 05/2020
 
Title Enzyme to prepare beta-glucans 
Description Identification of key enzyme and establishment of SOP for the enzymatic synthesis of immune-active beta-glucans. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Too early to tell 
 
Title Outlet, farm and hatchery survey database 
Description WPs 1 and 2 have involved extensive surveys of aquaculture health management outlets and farm and hatchery health management surveys, and the results from all three are held in a combined database. The outlet survey collected data on products on sale across India, Bangladesh and Kenya (including certification, ingredients, health claims, instructions for use, price, country of origin) and has mapped these products between the three countries. The latter will be of particular interest in analysis as it will reveal if and how products are exported between countries - a trade movement of particular significance between India and Bangladesh, where illegal imports are suspected to be taking place. The health management surveys of farms and hatcheries detailed extensive information about farm practices and use of PHPs by these facilities (including products used, mode of application (prophylactically/theraputically), reason for choosing these products, sources of information regarding products, source of products). This has provided a detailed understanding about the patterns of use of PHPs and general health management practices in India, Bangladesh and Kenya. The database will be used for data management and analysis, collating a large volume of data on multiple levels of the PHP value chain. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Although PHPs are routinely framed as a response to the problem of imprudent antibiotic use in aquaculture, UoS screening of commercial PHPs marketed to shrimp producers India has revealed problems with some products in the main probiotic PHP product class.PHP label-information in the database and other secondary data will underpin a tool being developed by the project - designed to support a risk-based sampling approach to safety and quality assurance and raise awareness of these issues. This will be extended to farmers, PHP providers and policy makers in a follow-on project - including existing consortia members from Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) and the World Fish Center (WFC): Project 1027024: Risk-based Pedigree-analysis For Regulation Of Prophylactic Aquaculture Health Products And Improved Smallholder Health. Risk indicators include: (i) lack of credibility around mode of action & efficacy claims (ii) sub-therapeutic active ingredient concentrations (iii) contamination with/ fraudulent inclusion of antibiotics (iv) contamination with bacteria pathogenic to humans (v) presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (vi) sub-optimal sampling approaches as part of emergent regulatory efforts 
 
Description ASC 
Organisation Aquaculture Stewardship Council
PI Contribution The Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC), founded by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Dutch Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH), provides a certification scheme for aquaculture facilities globally. Certification and its implications for animal health management is a component of the research conducted by the IMAQulate project. Findings have potential to contribute to (i) evolution of ASC standards subject to periodic public review (ii) development of group certification systems designed to support participation of small-holder farmers (see below).
Collaborator Contribution ASC are a key third-sector stakeholder for the IMAQulate project and so this collaboration will bring opportunities for dissemination and exploitation of project findings. Specifically, ASC (and other certification bodies) are introducing mechanisms to enable smaller farmers to become certified against social and environmental performance standards, including group-certification and pre-improver programmes.
Impact Dr Murray presented IMAQulate results on PHP risk management to 50+ small-holder farmers at a group-certification meeting hosted by ASC in Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India in January 2018.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Ananda Group: on-farm shrimp probiotic trials in Andhra Pradesh, India 
Organisation Ananda Group
PI Contribution IMAQulate has partnered with Ananda Group, one of Andhra Pradesh's largest vertically integrated shrimp (L. vannamei and P. monodon) producers and exporters, to implement 'on-farm' probiotic trials at their R&D facility in Bhimavaram AP. Ananda staff collaborated closely on the conception and implementation of these trials contributing to capacity building of Ananda managers, researchers and technical staff. Ananda provided access to their hatchery, pond and laboratory facilities and co-funded the operational costs of on-farm trials with IMAQulate.
Collaborator Contribution Ananda Group hosted the on-farm trials (WP3) in Andhra Pradesh (see above). Technical staff contributed to water quality analysis, production data recording and other logistical support. Ananda Group hosted the 2nd IMAQulate annual progress and planning meeting in Bhimavaram, AP in January 2018 (including giving the consortium a tour of farm, nursery, hatchery and laboratory facilities) and final policy workshop with commercial and policy stakeholders in Nov 2018.
Impact A 'peer-reviewed' paper reporting the trial outcomes has been drafted and is close to submission. A policy workshop with commercial and policy stakeholders was hosted by Ananda in Nov 2018. We are exploring the potential to extend small-scale biofloc juvenile nursing kits to small-scale farmers in partnership with the Ananda Foundation, a charitable arm of the group.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Gazi Fish Culture Ltd 
Organisation Gazi Fish Culture Ltd.
PI Contribution IMAQulate collaborated with Gazi Fish Culture Ltd. implementing 'on-farm' trials evaluating the efficacy a 'high potential' commercial probiotic (screened by the project) on juvenile shrimp (L. monodon) production metrics. There is a rapidly growing aquaculture industry and a considerable market for PHPs in Bangladesh; better understanding of their costs and benefits will benefit the hatchery.
Collaborator Contribution Gazi Fish Farms will provided aquaculture facilities (hatchery and growout ponds) for PHP trials.
Impact Trials initiated in April 2018 have been completed. Preliminary findings have been disseminated in Stakeholder workshops in Bangladesh, India and Kenya and a 'peer reviewed' article is in draft. Consortium members contributed the following multi-disciplinary skills; aquaculture production, microbiology, immunology. Based on an earlier farmer health survey, trial parameters (e.g. salinity) were adjusted to be representative of the projects target small-holder population.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Glycan synthesis 
Organisation Iceni Diagnostics
PI Contribution Exchange of ideas and staff with regards the chemical synthesis of glycans and sugar phosphates.
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of ideas and staff
Impact Improved methods for the chemical synthesis of glycans and sugar phosphates.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Glycoarrays 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration on glycoprofiling using microarray approaches to define the carbohydrate content of commercial prebiotics from Bangladesh.
Collaborator Contribution Access to facilities and expertise to print carbohydrate microarrays.
Impact Information for inclusion in publication in due course.
Start Year 2017
 
Description INVE 
Organisation Inve Aquaculture, Inc.
PI Contribution INVE manufacture aquaculture health management products. Based on screening of 86 commercial probiotic products by UK and Indian project laboratories, INVE products were selected for further 'on-farm' performance evaluation based on quality assurance indicators and credibility of mode of action claims. The project has completed or close to completion of 5 independent on-farm trials with commercial producers of shrimp (L. vannamei and P. monodon), pangasius and tilapia juveniles in India, Bangladesh and Kenya. INVE have welcomed that independent assessment of the efficacy and modes of action of their products and publication of the findings.
Collaborator Contribution INVE supported trials through provision on commercial products and advice around their manufacture and recommended application under specific environmental conditions. They have also offered to support junior researchers with travel funding to present findings at scientific fora.
Impact Three 'on-farm' trials initiated with commercial producers from Mar/ April 2018 have been completed, one trial in Kenya is on-going. Preliminary findings have been disseminated in Stakeholder workshops in Bangladesh, India and Kenya and three 'peer reviewed' articles are in draft. Consortium members contributed the following multi-disciplinary skills; aquaculture production, microbiology, immunology. Based on an earlier farmer health survey, trial parameters (e.g. salinity in shrimp trials) were adjusted to be representative of the projects target small-holder population.
Start Year 2018
 
Description NOVA Hatchery 
Organisation Nova Harvest Ltd
PI Contribution IMAQulate collaborated with NOVA Hatchery implementing 'on-farm' trials evaluating the efficacy a 'high potential' commercial probiotic (screened by the project) on juvenile pangasius catfish (P. hypophthalmus) production metrics. There is a rapidly growing aquaculture industry and a considerable market for PHPs in Bangladesh; better understanding of their costs and benefits will benefit the hatchery.
Collaborator Contribution NOVA Hatchery contributed the use of of aquaculture facilities including grow-out ponds for PHP trials.
Impact Trials initiated in April 2018 have been completed. Preliminary findings have been disseminated in Stakeholder workshops in Bangladesh, India and Kenya and a 'peer reviewed' article is in draft. Consortium members contributed the following multi-disciplinary skills; aquaculture production, microbiology, immunology. Based on an earlier farmer health survey, trial parameters were adjusted to be representative of the projects target small-holder population.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Victory Farms, Kenya 
Organisation Victory Farms
PI Contribution The project will share knowledge and findings with this commercial farm. PHPs are an emerging market in Kenya, primarily used in the terrestrial livestock sector and to a lesser extent in aquaculture, and so early education of the costs and benefits of these will greatly benefit aquaculture farms. IMAQulate collaborated with Victory Farms, Kenya implementing 'on-farm' trials evaluating the efficacy a 'high potential' commercial probiotic (screened by the project) on juvenile shrimp (L. monodon) production metrics. There is a rapidly growing aquaculture industry and a considerable market for PHPs in Bangladesh; better understanding of their costs and benefits will benefit the hatchery.
Collaborator Contribution Victory farms provided aquaculture facilities (hatchery, grow-out ponds and lake net-cages) and logistical support (daily feeding etc) to implement 'on-farm' trials evaluating the efficacy of a 'high potential' commercial probiotic (previously screened by the project) on juvenile tilapia (O. niloticus) production and grow-out.
Impact Trials initiated in April 2018 have been completed. Preliminary findings have been disseminated in Stakeholder workshops in Bangladesh, India and Kenya and a 'peer reviewed' article is in draft. Consortium members contributed the following multi-disciplinary skills; aquaculture production, microbiology, aquatic pathology and immunology. Trials were conducted under exactly the same environmental conditions used in commercial juvenile tilapia (O. niloticus) by this the largest producer in Kenya. The ability to produce more robust juveniles will also contribute to the company's plan to initiate a small-holder contract grower scheme to expand production.
Start Year 2017
 
Description AMR Workshop, London, November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Francis Murray participated in meeting on One Health antimicrobial-use monitoring methodologies hosted by Royal School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in London in November 2017, sharing methods used by the IMAQulate project. A joint review has been produced as an outcome of the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ARCH Workshop London December 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a one day workshop regarding the BBSRC-NERC joint aquaculture call for consortium and innovation research project submissions in London on 6 December 2017. This was yet another opportunity to interact with a range of researchers, potential future collaborators and funders. Indeed it lead to the development and submission of a project proposal under the call with new collaborators (BBSRC ref: BBS00408/1).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/funding/filter/uk-aquaculture-collaborative-pro
 
Description ARCH-UK Meeting, London 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact VJ Smith participated in the UK Aquaculture Research Collaborative Hub (ARCH UK) Workshop in London on 23 June 2017. ARCH UK, an BBSRC-funded aquaculture network aimed at identifying shared and specific issues preventing the sustainable growth of all sectors of the UK aquaculture industry. It is also an important vehicle to bring together a wide group of researchers and educators broadly involved in aquaculture related projects. The meeting was useful to showcase the RCUK projects to a wider range of interested researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.aquaculturehub-uk.com/newsupdatesreports/
 
Description ASC meeting Utrecht December 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact A planning meeting was attended by Francis Murray with ASC (Aquaculture Stewardship Council) staff at their HQ in Utrecht in December 2017 to communicate project aims ad objectives and preliminary findings. Supporting such capacity building efforts will be a key aspect of our exit strategy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Attendance at a BBSRC-NERC Workshop and networking event, London, December 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact This was a one-day networking event organised by BBSRC and NERC to bring together scientists and aquaculture practitioners to foster relationships as a way forward in identifying and solving problems and limitations of the industry. It was an excellent opportunity to forge new links and obtain a better understanding of he problems that need to be addressed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/events/2015/1512-unlocking-aquaculture-innovation-through-collaboration/
 
Description BBSRC APHT Workshop London Feb17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Valerie Smith participated in a one day workshop organised by BBSRC (and the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory) to bring together a multidisciplinary community to explore development and deployment of intelligent sensing systems for early detection of animal (including aquaculture species) and plant health threats. This was held on London on 21 February 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BBSRC Workshop (Animal Health Sensing), London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participant as an invited delegate at the BBSRC Workshop on 'Intelligent Sensing Systems for Early Detection of Animal and Plant Health Threats' held in Mayfair, London on 21st February 2017. Opportunity to network and engage with a wide range of researchers and experts in animal health, including those working in the field of aquaculture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/events/2017/1702-intelligent-sensing-systems-early-detection-animal-plan...
 
Description Bangladesh Agricultural Economist Association roundtable discussion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Francis Murray (UoS) and Dr 'Ripon' Mohammad Mahfujul Haque (BAU) attended a roundtable discussion organised by the Bangladesh Agricultural Economist Association (BAEA). The meeting discussed aligning Bangladesh policy with the EU's strategy for the blue economy. The discussion was moderated by Mr. Sajjadul Hasan, Secretary of Prime Minister Office, who praised the IMAQulate project's input to the discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description MPEDA Workshop, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, January 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dr Francis Murray presented project findings at an MPEDA (The Marine Products Exports Development Authority) workshop on 8th January 2018 in Andhra Pradesh supporting smallholders to deal with the challenges of group certification under third-party audited environmental and sustainability standards (e.g. BAP/ASC/GlobalGap). These efforts is being supported by the Government of India in response to a threatened trade ban following a spate of antimicrobial residue detections in EU/ USA export markets. The poor health management capacity of small-scale farmers has implicated as causal factor. This followed a planning meeting by Francis Murray with ASC (Aquaculture Stewardship Council) staff at their HQ in Utrecht in December 2017. Supporting such capacity building efforts will be a key aspect of our exit strategy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description One-day meeting at Hawkshead RVC on 'Microbiome networking' day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr. Rachel Lawrence (RVC) networked with other microbiome people at a one-day meeting at Hawkshead RVC on 'Microbiome networking' day.
National interest -audience academics and vets, postgrads- main purpose discussion of further research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation of on-farm trial findings and systematic literature review at WAS/EAS Aqua 2018 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Francis Murray and Dr Mahmoud Eltholth (both of UoS) presented IMAQulate findings from WPs 2 and 3 at the World Aquaculture Society/European Aquaculture Society's Aqua 2018 conference in Montpellier from 25-29 August 2018. They presented 'Assessment of the Effectiveness and Cost Benefit of Prophylactic Health Products in Shrimp' (WP3) and 'Assessment of the Effectiveness and Cost Benefits of Prophylactic Health Products in Aquaculture: a Systematic Review' (WP2/3).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.was.org/meetings/pdf/Aqua18BluePages.pdf
 
Description Presentation to FAO alongside Aqua 2018 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Francis Murray presented to the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Agroecology & Integrated Agriculture and Aquaculture workshop in a meeting running alongside Aqua 2018 to make early policy recommendations regarding the regulation of PHPs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to potential PhD students, academics and vets a poster about the efficacy of PHP and their effect on the immune response 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Dr. Neelima presented to potential PhD students to academics and vets a poster about the efficacy of PHP and their effect on the immune response. So main purpose further research discussion, dissemination and networking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Seminars at UFF, Rio Je Janerio, Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented two seminar talks at at one day Symposium on Invertebrate Immunology: Relevance to Human Health at Universidad Federal Fluminense (UFF), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on 24th July. Two presentations were given: One was entitled 'Extracellular chromatin trapping of pathogens: A double-edged sword? Insights from lower animals.' The other was 'WFDSC-domain containing proteins and their importance in lower vertebrates & invertebrates'. Presenter V J Smith. This symposium was useful to engage with scientists from a range of backgrounds , including biomedical researchers, in Brazil. Great interest in the talks was shown and dicussiins were held as to possibilities for future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Stakeholder dissemination in Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A stakeholder workshop was held in Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India, in November 2018 to communicate project findings to high-level stakeholders in relevant governmental bodies, NGOs, farmer associations and PHP producers. The purpose of the workshop was to disseminate the findings from this research to key stakeholders in Andhra Pradesh. Stakeholders from industry, regulatory bodies and local government were invited to attend to discuss findings, implications for regulation and next steps for research, industry and regulation. Dr Francis Murray (UoS) and Dr Toms Joseph (CIFT) presented at the workshop, hosted by the Ananda Raju Foundation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.stir.ac.uk/about/faculties-and-services/natural-sciences/aquaculture/research/aquacultur...
 
Description Stakeholder engagement workshop in Dhaka, Bangladesh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A stakeholder workshop was held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in November 2018 to communicate project findings to high-level stakeholders in relevant governmental bodies, NGOs, farmer associations and PHP producers. The purpose of the workshop was to disseminate the findings from this research to key stakeholders in Bangladesh. Stakeholders from industry, regulatory bodies and local government were invited to attend to discuss findings, implications for regulation and next steps for research, industry and regulation. Dr Francis Murray, Dr Mohammed Mahfujul Haque (BAU), Dr Muhammad 'Meezan' Rahman (WFC), Mr Hazrat Ali (WFC) and Mr Ahmed Jaman (WFC) presented at the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.stir.ac.uk/about/faculties-and-services/natural-sciences/aquaculture/research/aquacultur...
 
Description Stakeholder engagement workshop in Machakos, Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A stakeholder workshop was held in Machakos, Kenya, in January 2019 to communicate project findings to high-level stakeholders in relevant governmental regulatory and research bodies, social enterprises, farmer associations and commercial feed producers. The purpose of the workshop was to disseminate the findings from this research to key stakeholders in Kenya, sharing findings and lessons learned from India and Bangladesh where the market for these products is more mature. Stakeholders from industry, regulatory bodies and local government were invited to attend to discuss findings, implications for regulation and next steps for research, industry and regulation. Dr Francis Murray (UoS) and Dr Patricia Muendo (Machakos University) presented at the workshop, hosted by the Machakos University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.stir.ac.uk/about/faculties-and-services/natural-sciences/aquaculture/research/aquacultur...
 
Description Synposium participation and presentation NBFGR, Lucknow India, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Guest Speaker at the International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health and Epidemiology for Sustainable Asian Aquaculture: 20-21 April 2017. Held at the Indian Council for Agricultural Research, National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India. Talk title: Modulation of Finfish Immune System for Disease Management: Pathogen trapping by defence cells of fish, delivered by V J. Smith. Outcomes, broadening network base with scientists and aquaculture stakeholders in India and other South Asian countries. Requests for future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.nbfgr.res.in/