UK - China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy (CINAG)

Lead Research Organisation: Rothamsted Research
Department Name: Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems

Abstract

UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy (CINAG)

Despite making great progress, China still needs to increase agricultural production to feed its growing population with its increasing expectations while overcoming the considerable environmental problems that industrial and agricultural development has brought with it such as air and water pollution and soil acidification. Currently the three main cereal crops (wheat, maize and rice) use only 33% of the nitrogen fertiliser applied, and less than 40% of the nutrients in recyclable organic 'wastes' such as livestock manure are returned to agriculture. China Agricultural University (CAU), the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed innovative and successful ways of working with farmers to improve the situation, increasing yields of winter wheat and summer maize by 35% and reducing nitrogen fertiliser use by 20%. However, the Chinese Government has set the goal of increasing yields with zero increases in chemical inputs by the year 2020.

Rothamsted Research and its partners in this proposal, the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) and Bangor University (BU), have worked with CAU, CAAS and CAS for over 10 years, producing research into agriculture and the environment that has been published in the very best journals such as 'Nature' and 'Science' but also used by Chinese farmers through such mechanisms as a Chinese fertiliser recommendations system and farmer field schools. We propose to increase our UK-China collaborative research through a Virtual Joint Centre in Nitrogen Agronomy that would:
1. Carry out joint research projects, in particular using novel 'Farm Platforms' that will allow us to develop economically and environmentally sustainable farm systems through research at the farm level.
2. Exchange staff and students for laboratory and field work, with a strong focus on UK-to-China movements and for periods of 1-3 months, e.g. summer student visits from the UK to China to work on the new CAU Cropping Farm Platform.
3. Hold joint conferences and meetings, with public participation.
4. Share data management, publications and practical work with farmers in China and the UK.
We will develop novel metagenomic-based indicators of N use efficiency and soil quality, use these indicators, and other emerging knowledge, to test and develop farm systems that permit the sustainable intensification of (especially Chinese) agriculture, and take these developments to Chinese farmers. We will achieve this through four Work Packages: improved fundamental understanding of N cycling; harnessing novel N technologies; improved agronomic practices; predictive capacity and knowledge exchange

The Centre will build on previous collaborations such as China Partnering Awards and joint projects between the partners such as 'Sino-United Kingdom Low Carbon Agriculture' project (Grant FCO-C02/62.1001), 2008-2011, funded jointly by the UK FCO and the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and an existing VJC with CAAS: The 'Centre for the Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture' (CSIA) and closely link to similar international initiatives such as EU 'N Expert Panel', utilising the Panel's approaches for expressing NUE at (1) the farm level and (2) through the food chain in order to compare systems and regions and as a stimulus to use N more efficiently.

The Centre will translate its research into practice in China through the existing and very 'Science and Technology Backyard (STB)' programme, managed by our partners at CAU, CAAS and the Hebei Institute of Agricultural Sciences, and linked to Chinese local government extension agencies, fertiliser companies and farmers.

Planned Impact

The Chinese government has set the goal for researchers of increasing agricultural output but with zero increase in chemical inputs, especially of N fertiliser, after 2020. This is a major challenge, requiring the reconfiguration of Chinese agriculture over the next 10 years. The UK and other developed countries need a step change in how they improve and monitor N use efficiency and soil quality in general. We can now identify key steps in N cycling and mineralisation using standard enzymatic assays, and use these together with soil metagenomes that determine the phylogenetic diversity of key genes as measures of soil functional health (including the expression level of key genes involved in C and N cycling). We propose to apply these methods to the quantitative assessment of N cycling and general soil quality and health in China and the UK, delivering a novel molecular diagnostic test for soil N supply. This would take methods of measuring soil quality to a new level and facilitate maximising N use in cropping systems.

We will carry out preliminary tests of manure metagenomics to see if this can inform on nutrient content and better N use efficiency from manures. We will develop recommendation tables for organic amendments, especially manures, for China's Fertiliser Recommendations and a CrapApp (see http://www.swarmhub.co.uk/about.php?id=3919 ) for China. We will develop next-generation monitoring schemes with key indicators developed from Sustainable Intensification metrics and current work with the Sustainable Development Solutions Network such as the 'Indicators and a Monitoring Framework for Sustainable Development Goals'.

The research focus will be provided by using complementary farm platforms in the UK and China, linked to research on other farm platforms around the world via the Global Farm Platforms programme (GFP). In particular, CAU will be establishing a new arable platform on an existing 500-ha university farm 70 km south of Bejing. Together we will design and develop an innovation and demonstration farm for China: the CAU Farm Platform (CAUFP). The farm will test and compare economically, agronomically, environmentally and socially sustainable farm businesses and be a model for the whole of China and be the focus of joint research that will include UK staff and students working on the CAUFP. Translation will be primarily through the continuing very successful socioeconomic and agronomic integrated science of the 'Science and Technology Backyard (STB)' programme, managed by our partners at CAU in collaboration with the Crop Science Group at CAAS and the Hebei Institute of Agricultural Sciences, and linked to Chinese local government extension agencies, fertiliser companies and farmers.

The VJC will help address poverty issues for Chinese farmers by providing solutions relating to the environmental and economic sustainability of food production in China. Proven, internationally-excellent, research groups from the UK and China will collaborate to improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency across a range of cropping systems, and dedicated capacity building, research translation and outreach activities will ensure direct economic and social benefits to farmers across the country. Through an increase in the skills and knowledge base of Chinese agricultural researchers the VJC will further improve China's ability to undertake and disseminate research to maximise impact on the issues of rural and economic growth through the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Furthermore, there will be significant development of research infrastructures for the agriculture, food security and environmental protection sectors; all of which have been identified as priorities by the Chinese government for welfare enhancement and economic development.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description A modelling study conducted by members of the CINAg team and reported in the journal Environmental Science and Technology (Vol 50, pages 13409-13418) illustrates how optimising use of manure nutrients in the range of livestock production systems in China could reduce N, P and K fertiliser input by up to 27, 82 and 100% by 2020 if barriers to recycling manure nutrients can be overcome.

Improved knowledge of inorganic fertilizer and manure effects on soil health and ecosystem services: manure significantly changes soil biological and chemical properties while traditional fertilizer management has biggest effect on soil structure; manure application is a means to increase soil organic carbon and can substitute inorganic fertilizers, thus helping to realize the goals for global 0.4% soil carbon increase and zero inorganic fertilizer increase in the intensively managed agriculture on the North China Plain.

A novel set of potential soil health indicators for different soil types (for the UK, but for further assessment and development for China).

Improved knowledge/recommendations on practices and application rates for specific cropping rotations and regions (particularly the North China Plain), based on experimental results and extensive scenario modelling that will enable reductions in fertilizer N use with no reductions in crop yield, directly contributing to meeting China's zero increase in fertilizer policy.

Improved knowledge on the use of urease and nitrification inhibitors with N fertilizers and manures to improve crop N use efficiency, and of the factors influencing their effectiveness; this knowledge can be used for development of improved fertilizer products and tailored recommendations regarding their use.

Demonstration of the potential for acidification (with sulphuric acid) of digestates from anaerobic digestion of food-waste, crop and livestock manure-based feedstocks to greatly reduce N losses via ammonia volatilization and improve digestate N use efficiency following application to arable crops.

Improved quantification of N losses through different parts of the manure management chain for China livestock production systems

A framework for a decision support tool for manure nutrient use in China (MANNER-China; together with the N-Circle project)

Academic outputs include >60 joint publications in peer-reviewed journals (with more in preparation and submission), numerous international conference and workshop presentations, and several published datasets.
Exploitation Route These findings have implications for future nitrogen fertilizer use and particularly manure management in China. Options regarding optimal nutrient use can be developed as guidance for farmers and inform policy direction and actions. The development of nutrient management plans to fully account for manure nutrients will be environmentally beneficial (fewer nutrient losses to the wider environment), but only economically beneficial if previous fertilizer industry subsidies are redirected to improve manure management practices. To improve manure utilization, large changes and investments in the livestock farm infrastructure, namely, animal housing, manure storage, and facilities for manure transportation and application, are needed. An integrated manure and fertilizer nutrient recommendation system has to be developed that takes account of the total nutrient and available nutrient contents of manures. Finally, the resulting improved knowledge needs to be disseminated to farmers.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b03348
 
Description • Improved nutrient management on cropping farms meaning less fertilizer N use with no decline in food production; • Many smallholder farmers trained in improved cropping and fertilizer practices, increasing nutrient use efficiency, maintaining or increasing yields and improving smallholder farmer livelihoods; outputs of CINAg will continue to be channelled through the Science and Technology Backyard programme; • Consultants, advisers and policy makers trained in the principles of sustainable manure management through targeted workshops; • Increasing rates of recycling of livestock manure nutrients to agricultural production; • A longer-term impact of lower losses of N to water/air - there is a tension in the shorter-term with the increase in large intensive livestock farms, but as improved manure management practices are implemented, environmental impacts will decrease; • Contribution to the Agricultural Green Development (AGD) programme, which will use Quzhou county (on the North China Plain) as a demonstration region for improved farmer practices and pollution control measures; integrated livestock-cropping systems with effective recycling of nutrients is a key component of the AGD • CINAg researchers contributed to the development and design of a new research programme with the aim to develop and assess novel technologies for ammonia mitigation for China agriculture
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Cultural,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Manure management training workshop
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Agri-Tech in China (Newton Network+)
Amount £31,432 (GBP)
Organisation Newton Fund 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 06/2018
 
Description Amelioration of soil acidification from long-term chemical fertilizers combined with organic materials
Amount £17,170 (GBP)
Organisation Centre for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture, Rothamsted 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2018
 
Description UK-China Joint Centre for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture
Amount £5,160 (GBP)
Organisation Newton Fund 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Title Greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen use efficiency and biomass from digestate experiments on winter wheat at North Wyke and Henfaes, UK (2017) 
Description The data contains nitrogen (N) offtake, N emissions (ammonia and nitrous oxide), soil parameters (pH, EC, NH4+, NO3-), biomass and grain production from a winter wheat field experiment located at Bangor University (Henfaes Research Station in North Wales) and Rothamsted Research (North Wyke (NW) in Devon). Data were collected between April 2017 and August 2017. Measurements and soil and plant samples were taken from 45 plots in a randomized complete block design. Sixteen extra mini-plots at the prevailing wind (south westerly) edge of the experiment site were used at NW for NH3 volatilization measurements. The treatments were control (C, without N application), food based digestate (D), food based digestate + the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole (DMPP; D+NI), acidified food based digestate (AD), acidified food based digestate + the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole (DMPP; AD+NI). Four rates of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3; 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg N ha-1) were applied to compare yields and fertilizer replacement rate of the digestate treatments (targeted at 190 kg N ha-1). Soil pH, soil electrical conductivity (EC), soil NH4+ and soil NO3-, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions were measured periodically for C, D, D+NI, AD and AD+NI and nitrogen concentration in grain and straw, grain yield and plant biomass for all treatments. Nitrogen offtake, losses and fluxes were used to determine the N use efficiency (NUE) and fertilizer replacement rate of the digestate treatments. Measurements were undertaken by members of staff from Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography and Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Agricultural Sciences - North Wyke. Data was collected for the Newton Fund project "UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy". Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen use efficiency and biomass from inorganic fertiliser additions to grassland at North Wyke and Henfaes, UK (2016) 
Description The data consists of nitrogen (N) offtake, N emissions and soil N parameters, and herbage quality parameters from a three-cut silage plot trial located at two grassland sites within the UK collected between April and October 2016. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon and Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales. At each site measurements were taken from 16 plots, organised within a randomised complete block design. Fertiliser was applied three times and three cuts were performed, all parameters measured were following a fertiliser application. Nitrogen parameters measured were crude protein (CP) of herbage, ammonia (NH3) emissions, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and soil ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3). Herbage quality parameters measured were dry matter, acid-digestible fibre (ADF), ash, CP, metabolizable energy (ME), and non-digestible fibre (NDF) and digestibility (D) was calculated. Nitrogen offtake, losses and fluxes were measured to determine the N use efficiency and the economic viability of different N fertilisers. Measurements were undertaken by members of staff from Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography and Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Agricultural Sciences - North Wyke. Data was collected for the Newton Fund project "UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy". Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Soil biological properties from a digestate experiment on winter wheat at North Wyke and Henfaes Farm, UK (2017) 
Description The data consist of nitrogen gene data, soil biodiversity indices and microbial community composition for three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) from a winter wheat field experiment located in the United Kingdom and collected between April 2017 and August 2017. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon and Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales. At each site measurements were taken from 15 plots, organised within a randomised complete block design where 5 plots did not receive fertilizers (controls), 5 plots received food-based digestate, and 5 plots received acidified food based digestate a nitrification inhibitor. Soil samples were taken within two weeks of digestate application and shortly before winter wheat harvest. Soil chemical parameters were: soil nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, amino acids and peptides, soil organic matter content as loss-on-ignition, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, permanganate oxdisable carbon citric acid extractable phosphorous, Olsen-P and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil biological measure were: microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Soil samples were taken by members of staff from Centre of Ecology & Hydrology (Bangor), Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography Sustainable Agricultural Sciences, and Rothamsted Research North Wyke. Measurements were carried out Rothamsted Research Harpenden and the Centre of Ecology & Hydrology (Wallingford). Soil physico-chemical parameters were measured on the same soil samples and are presented in a related dataset. https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/90df9dfa-a0c8-4ead-a13d-0a0a13cda7ab Data was collected for the Newton Fund project "UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy". Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Soil biological properties from an inorganic fertiliser (grass trial) experiment at North Wyke, Henfaes Farm and Easter Bush, UK (2016) 
Description The data nitrogen gene data, soil biodiversity indices and microbial community composition, for three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) from a three-cut silage plot trial located at three grassland sites within the UK collected between April 2016 and October 2016. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon, Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales and Easter Bush in Scotland. At each site measurements were taken from 16 plots, organised within a randomised complete block design where 4 plots did not receive fertilizers (controls), 4 plots received urea only, 4 plots received urea and urea-inhibitors, and 4 plots received ammonium-nitrate (Nitram). Fertiliser was applied three times and three cuts were performed, all parameters measured were following a fertiliser application. Samples were taken before the fertilizer additions, at peak growth and before the last silage cut. Soil chemical parameters were: soil nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, amino acids and peptides, soil organic matter content as loss-on-ignition, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, permanganate oxdisable carbon citric acid extractable phosphorous, Olsen-P and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil biological measure were: microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Soil physico-chemical parameters were measured on the same samples and are available in a related dataset measured on the same soil samples and are presented in a separate dataset in the project data series (https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/7a87dde4-b54e-49b0-8751-1d59e8aebb90). Measurements were undertaken by members of staff from the Centre of Ecology & Hydrology (Bangor, Edinburgh, Lancaster, Wallingford), Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography and Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Agricultural Sciences, North Wyke. Data was collected for the Newton Fund project "UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy". Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Soil chemical and physical properties from a digestate (winter wheat trial) experiment at North Wyke and Henfaes Farm, UK (2017) 
Description The data consist of soil physicochemical and biological data for three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) from a winter wheat field experiment located at two research sites in the United Kingdom. Soil samples were collected between April 2017 and August 2017. Extractions and measurements were carried out thereafter. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon and Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales. At each site measurements were taken from 15 plots, organised within a randomised complete block design where 5 plots did not receive fertilizers (controls), 5 plots received food-based digestate, and 5 plots received acidified food based digestate and the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole (DMPP; ADNI). Soil samples were taken within 2 weeks of digestate application and shortly before winter wheat harvest. Microbial community composition and nitrogen genes were measured on the same soil samples and are presented in a separate dataset (https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/391c0294-07f1-4856-b592-428bd44055ca). Soil samples were taken by members of staff from Centre of Ecology & Hydrology (Bangor), Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography Sustainable Agricultural Sciences, and Rothamsted Research North Wyke. Measurements were carried out Rothamsted Research Harpenden and the Centre of Ecology & Hydrology (Wallingford). Data was collected for the Newton Fund project "UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy". Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Soil chemical and physical properties from inorganic fertiliser additions to grassland at North Wyke, Henfaes and Easter Bush, UK (2016) 
Description The data consist of soil physicochemical and biological data for three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) from a three-cut silage plot trial located at three grassland sites within the UK collected between April 2016 and October 2016. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon, Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales, and Easter Bush in Scotland. At each site measurements were taken from 16 plots, organised within a randomised complete block design: 4 (control) plots did not receive fertilizer, 4 plots received urea only, 4 plots received urea and urea-inhibitors, and 4 plots received ammonium-nitrate (Nitram). Fertiliser was applied three times and three cuts were performed. All parameters were measured following fertiliser application. Samples were taken before fertilizer additions at peak growth and before the last silage cut. Soil physical parameters were: aggregate size distribution, aggregate stability, texture (sand/silt/clay) and soil moisture. Soil chemical parameters were: soil nitrate and ammonium, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, amino acids and peptides, soil organic matter content as loss-on-ignition, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, permanganate oxdisable carbon, citric acid extractable phosphorous, Olsen-P and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil biological measures were: microbial biomass, carbon and nitrogen. Microbial community composition and nitrogen genes were measured on the same soil samples and are presented in a separate dataset (https://doi.org/10.5285/59f81d41-a789-4c5c-8ab8-36baa7ac2c55) Measurements were undertaken by members of staff from the Centre of Ecology & Hydrology (Bangor, Edinburgh, Lancaster, Wallingford), Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography and Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Agricultural Sciences, North Wyke. Data was collected for the Newton Fund project "UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy". Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description CAAS 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing research facilities and resources, including the North Wyke Farm Platform and co-supervising PhD students. Input to joint publications.
Collaborator Contribution Supporting travel and subsistence costs of visiting researchers. Providing expertise and scientific staff time in soil quality and environment. Input to joint publications.
Impact joint publications: Liang, S., Sun, N., Zhang, X., Li, Y., Xu, M., and Wu, L. (2019). Modeling crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat and maize production systems under future climate change. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 115, 117-136. Ren, F., Sun, N., Xu, M., Zhang, X., Wu, L., and Xu, M. (2019). Changes in soil microbial biomass with manure application in cropping systems: A meta-analysis. Soil and Tillage Research 194, 104291. degree awarded
Start Year 2016
 
Description CAU 
Organisation China Agricultural University (CAU)
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing research facilities and resources, including the North Wyke Farm Platform. Input to joint publications.
Collaborator Contribution Providing expertise and scientific staff time in modelling. Input to joint publications.
Impact joint publication Wu, L., Feng, L., Li, Y., Wang, J., and Wu, L. (2019). A Yield-related agricultural drought index reveals spatio-temporal characteristics of droughts in southwestern China. Sustainability 11,, 714.
Start Year 2018
 
Description FAAS 
Organisation Fujian Academy of Agricultural Science
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Rothamsted Research provided experimental facilities, training and office and bench space for the visiting researcher Yushu Zhang for 1 year. Post-doc and technician support was also given to Dr Zhang during his stay at North Wyke, in which time he undertook experiments aimed at quantifying N2O uptake by soils and measuring N fixation by clover and the transfer of fixed N between clover and grass in mixed swards. Rothamsted staff also contributed to publications being drafted by Dr Zhang relating to his experimental work in China.
Collaborator Contribution FAAS supported the travel, subsistence and salary costs of Dr Zhang for the 1 year period. Dr Zhang devised and undertook laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying N2O uptake by soils and measuring N fixation by clover and the transfer of fixed N between clover and grass in mixed swards. Dr Zhang drafted several papers arising from previous experimental work in China and directly arising from his studies at North Wyke.
Impact Three papers have been published in peer-reviewed journals to date: Zhang Y, Ding H, Zheng X, Ren X, Cardenas L, Carswell A, Misselbrook T. (2018). Land-use type affects nitrous oxide production pathways in subtropical acidic soils. Environmental Pollution 237, 237-243 Zhang Y, Ding H, Zheng X, Cai Z, Misselbrook T, Carswell A, Müller C, Zhang J. (2018). Soil N transformation mechanisms can effectively conserve N in soil under saturated conditions compared to unsaturated conditions in subtropical China. Biology and Fertility of Soils 54, 495-507 Zhang, Y., Zheng, X., Ren, X., Zhang, J., Misselbrook, T., Cardenas, C., Carswell, C., Muller, C., Ding, H. (2019). Land use type affects nitrate production and consumption pathways in subtropical acidic soils. Geoderma 337, 22-31
Start Year 2016
 
Description Huazhong Agricultural University 
Organisation Huazhong Agricultural University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing experimental facilities and resources for undertaking collaborative experimentation (Rothamsted Research and Bangor University). Input to joint publications.
Collaborator Contribution Supporting travel and subsistence costs of visiting scientists. Undertaking experimental work in the Rothamsted and Bangor University laboratories. Input to joint publications.
Impact 1 publication published to date; agronomy, soil science and microbiology
Start Year 2016
 
Description NWAFU 
Organisation North West Agriculture and Forestry University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing research facilities and resources, including the North Wyke Farm Platform. Input to joint publications.
Collaborator Contribution Supporting travel and subsistence costs of visiting researchers. Providing expertise and scientific staff time in nutrient losses to water. Input to joint publications.
Impact Several joint publications in peer-reviewed journals: Jiang, R., Li, X., Zhu, W., Wang, K., Guo, S., Misselbrook, T., Hatano, R. (2018). Effects of the ridge mulched system on soil water and inorganic nitrogen distribution in the Loess Plateau of China. Agricultural Water Management 203, 277-288 Ma D, Chen L, Qu H, Wang Y, Misselbrook T, Jiang R. (2018). Impacts of plastic film mulching on crop yields, soil water, nitrate, and organic carbon in Northwestern China: A meta-analysis. Agricultural Water Management 202, 166-173 Zhu, W., Li, H.J., Qu, H.C., Wang, Y.L., Misselbrook, T., Li, X., Jiang, R. (2018). Water stress in maize production in the drylands of the Loess Plateau. Vadose Zone Journal 17, doi: 10.2136/vzj2018.06.0117 Guo S, Li X, Zhu W, Gunina A, Kuzyakov Y, Misselbrook T, Jiang R. (2019). Fate and transport of urea-N in a rain-fed ridge-furrow crop system with plastic mulch. Soil and Tillage Research 186, 214-223
Start Year 2017
 
Description SWU and AGD 
Organisation Southwest University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dave Chadwick has taken up a short-term fixed (5-year) position at Southwest University (Chongqing) where he co-leads the Resource Utilisation Group, in the Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Agriculture Green Development in the Yangtze River Basin.
Collaborator Contribution This is a second centre for the Academy of Agriculture Green Development, led by the academician Prof Zhang Fusuo (China Agriculture University).
Impact Joint PhD studentships and publications are anticipated
Start Year 2019
 
Description Ammonia conference, UCAS Beijing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentations on ammonia emissions, sources, impacts and mitigation were given by an international panel of speakers to an audience including academics, policy makers and agricultural industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BBSRC Meeting of Virtual Joint Centres in Agricultural Nitrogen 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Principal Investigators, or their nominees, of the BBSRC/Newton-funded Virtual Joint Centres (VJCs) in Agricultural Nitrogen were invited to take part in a shared strategy and planning meeting. This provided the opportunity for the project leaders to meet each other, share experiences and become more familiar with the research and activities being undertaken within the different Centres.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description CINAg - N-Circle joint meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A joint meeting of the two Newton-funded UK-China Virtual Joint Centres on Nitrogen - invited speakers from leading UK and Ireland research centres, >50 delegates attended from China. Updates on the VJC activities were given.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description CINAg China engagement visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A visit by Keith Goulding to various research institutions involving mentoring of PhD students, discussions with researchers on research strategy, presentations to students, research staff and other visitors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description CINAg meeting April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Annual meeting of the UK and China CINAg participants together with the Green Agricultural Development program at Quzhou, Hebei province, China. Th ework of the CINAg project was described and how this relates to the Green Agriculture Development program. Visits were made to the Quzhou Research Station to discuss ongoing experimentation and also to 2 village sites included in the Science and Technology Backyard Program, to discuss knowledge exchange activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description CINAg workshop - Beijing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact CINAg project workshop in CAU, Beijing consisting of presentations from UK and China researchers, field visit to Quzhou research station and farming villages, presentations to students and mentoring of PhD and MSc students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Farm visits Hebei province 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Visits to several dairy farms in Hebei province to discuss manure management practices
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Field visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation of ongoing research on sustainable agriculture and improving nitrogen use efficiency to the annual review meeting of the CAU Quzhou field research station and the local Science and Technology Backyard (STB) program. Discussions were had regarding the benefits of the STB as a knowledge exchange platform bringing impact and improvement to smallholder farmers across China, and how the CINAg project can best engage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description INI 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Platform presentation 'Nitrogen budgets for lowland temperate beef and sheep grazing systems: the North Wyke Farm Platform' to the 7th International Nitrogen Initiative 2016 Conference in Melbourne, Australia, 4-8 December 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.initrogen.org/
 
Description International Botanical Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on 'Recovery from long term nitrogen deposition' given by Prof Keith Goulding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Manure management project, Hebei province 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A manure management project being run by CAS to directly engage with, train and influence the knowledge and practices of dairy farmers and extension workers in the Hebei province regarding the sustainable management and utilisation of livestock manure.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nitrogen Workshop (Sweden) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Poster presentation: 'UK-CHINA VIRTUAL JOINT CENTRE FOR IMPROVED NITROGEN AGRONOMY' at the 19th N Workshop, Skara, Sweden, 27-29 June 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Report to Hebei government 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A policy recommendation report was provided by CAS to the Hebei regional government relating to the sustainable management and utilisation of livestock manures in the province, drawing on the outcomes of research conducted within CINAg.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description STB Review Lishu 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CINAg members participated in an international review group for the Lishu Science and technology Backyard Programme (STBP), held in Lishu, China from 26th - 30th June 2016. This included a workshop on 'Sustainable agricultural development for smallholders' and a site visit to the Lishu STBP and associated experiments on maize nutrition with discussions on the potential for inclusion of sensors and further measurements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016