Materials exploitation of the biointerface to control MSC quality and niche phenotype

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Medical, Veterinary &Life Sci

Abstract

We understand that stem cells hold the key to curing many degenerative conditions. Currently lacking, however, are the technologies that will open up use of stem cells for regenerative therapies. In the body, in their niches, adult stem cells are controlled by their environment - a complex mixture of proteins, sugars and other cells. This environmental control allows stem cell growth with maintenance of stem cell phenotype (the cells observable characteristics). However, when we take stem cells out of the body and grow them in the lab they don't have these environmental controls and so quickly loose stem cell characteristics, making it hard to grow large numbers of clinically useful stem cells.
In this project we will refine a material that we use to arrange proteins and cells in a particular way to allow stem cell growth. First, we will investigate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow. MSCs are responsible for provision of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon cells. We will improve on our ability to grow these cells in the lab and will understand how the cells regulate themselves so that we can identify drugs and drug targets that we can exploit to improve growth in larger-scale stem cell cultures. Further we will develop our technology to allow culture without animal products so that the cells are clinically relevant for use in humans. However, in this project, rather than investigating MSC use in skeletal regeneration, we wish to see if we can maintain their ability to modulate the immune system for longer. MSCs have exciting potential to be used almost as a drug along with transplants as they can modulate immune responses to help prevent transplant rejection. The blood transfusion service are investigating this possibility and we will work with them using our approaches to expand high quality MSCs with immune modulatory capacity retained.
Further, we will use our materials systems to investigate haematopoietic stem cell (HSC - stem cells that make blood cells) maintenance. In the bone marrow, HSCs stick to MSCs and this preserves their stem cell characteristics. In the lab HSCs don't proliferate and rapidly loose their stem cell phenotype. HSCs are important as they are central to a widely used stem cell therapy - the bone marrow transplant that remains a successful tool in the fight against conditions such as leukaemia. In leukaemia, HSC progeny cells that go on to make blood cells (red blood cells that carry oxygen around the body and white blood cells that fight infections) become diseased. Thus, bone marrow, that contains stem cells, can be moved from a healthy donor to a recipient who has had their own, diseased, stem cells killed. The donated stem cells have the ability to repopulate the blood of the recipient with disease free cells. This is an amazing example of the ability of a few stem cells to repopulate and regenerate.
There are, however, some major drawbacks. Firstly, this is a one donor to one recipient therapy and the ability to match recipients with tissue-matched donors is very limited. While there have been advances, such as use of mobilised peripheral blood stem cells, supply still falls far short of demand and this severely limits the therapy that can be offered.
While it is very ambitious to say that we believe our technology can be used to grow HSCs in the lab, we believe we can take the first steps towards this. Our aim is to bioengineer niche environments using MSCs and our novel materials. By controlling the characteristics of the MSCs we will increase the number of HSC sticking to them. This achieved, we will investigate HSC phenotype maintenance and look for the tempting possibility of HSC growth.
Understanding stem cells and unlocking their potential is one of the major challenges of this century. This project aims both to improve understanding and unlock potential.

Technical Summary

We understand that control of growth factors (GFs) and cell adhesion is critical to maintain MSC phenotype and to drive differentiation. While mechanisms of differentiation are better understood, understanding MSC self-renewal is more challenging.
We have identified a polymer system based on polyethylacrylate (PEA) that facilitates manipulation of cell adhesion and GF presentation to MSCs allowing us to control MSC self-renewal. PEA controls the arrangement of fibronectin adsorbed on its surface, exposing the RGD adhesion tripeptide and the growth factor binding region that we can subsequently decorate with very low, but effective, concentrations of GFs. We have preliminary data that shows that we can both control MSC osteogenesis and expression of MSC and niche marker proteins using this system. Our system is amenable to conversion into 3D matrices and we have developed in-house plasma polymerisation systems to facilitate this. Further, that we use human fibronectin as the interface allows us to move to xeno-free cultures.
In this project we will produce environments that control MSC self-renewal and expression of niche markers to (a) allow us to investigate mechanisms of MSC proliferation and (b) explore HSC homing. Through metabolomic investigation of self-renewal we will identify targets to allow us to improve MSC growth. We will investigate the potential of our expanded cells to support transplantation through improved maintenance of immune modulatory effects.
Further, we will investigate if the improved niche-related MSC phenotypes increase hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homing and maintenance of HSC phenotype in culture. In the niche, MSCs and HSCs co-exist and HSCs home to MSCs in order to maintain their phenotype. MSCs in the niche are regulated by extracellular matrix interactions and GFs, as with our PEA system. Improvement in HSC maintenance will facilitate gene/drug therapy and is a Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service priority research aim.

Planned Impact

Scientists and Healthcare Professionals
We will use high impact, open access publishing to ensure our research is disseminated as broadly as possible (see academic beneficiaries section). This will be of direct interest to the biomaterials, tissue engineering, stem cells and medical communities. Our results will form the basis for new research directions across the world through new collaborations.

Patients
Islet transplant is used to correct type 1 diabetes, particularly in patients with hypoglycaemic unawareness who have limited quality of life due to their inability to know when they may become hypoglycaemic and become unconscious. Widespread us of islet transplant is curtailed by the limited supply of cadaveric organs. Further, the number of islets that are retained in the portal vein after transplantation are limited by immune attack. The immune-modulatory capability of MSCs could thus be central in improving this therapy.
A cGMP compatible culture system that maintains immune-modulatory function would improve the quality of MSC grown in vitro and permit extended proliferation increasing the number of cell that can be harvested for clinical use. Therefore, the investigations proposed in this project could significantly contribute to our aims to produce more and better cells for transplantation.

For our HSC ambitions, a reliable in vitro system permitting HSC maintenance would be invaluable to achieve the transfer of therapeutic genes into HSCs or the use of genome editing tools such as CRISPR/TALENs to correct disease causing mutations in the perspective of novel gene therapies. Such therapies are again of major Pharma interest [1].
In addition to the established use of bone marrow (or peripheral blood stem cells) transplant for the treatment of malignant haematopoietic diseases, there are over 650 clinical trials [2] under way in the world related to HSCs; clinical needs and potential benefits are very significant.
In terms of our future aims of HSC expansion, there are around 25,000 allogeneic bone marrow transplant procedures currently performed worldwide pa [3], and there could be twice as many if matched donors could be found. By working towards 'one donor to multiple recipient' therapies we can revolutionise the capacity to supply improved care.

Health Service Providers
Our work is well aligned to SNBTS future directions and we have discussed this project with them in detail to understand what they want to achieve and what we need to achieve to help them take on our ideas towards translation. For transplant therapies, the side effects of immune suppression can be large and costly (e.g. cancer). For HSC therapies, the health services are restricted in their ability for care due to availability of high-quality HSCs; engineering or expanding HSCs could help overcome this.

Industry
Our work will be of interest to industrialists working in the material science /stem cell space. Companies working in this area include those with interest in stem cell therapies e.g. Admedus, t2cure, Scarless, Lipogems and Roslin Cells and also providers of innovative cell culture platforms e.g. BiogelX, Stem Cell Technologies and Porvair as well as major multinationals in this space e.g. Nunc. These companies would have economic benefit from licensing and exploiting our products, developing and marketing new bone marrow development products.

Public
Our work will be of benefit to the general public, raising interest in science, educating about the challenges faced by researchers, increasing funding for research, increasing awareness of the importance of stem cell growth. We will engage with the next generation of scientists and clinicians to inspire them about opportunities to develop new stem cell technologies.

1. Gersbach. Genome engineering: the next genomic revolution. Nat Meth 11, 1009 (2014)
2. http://clinicaltrials.gov
3. Pasquini. Current use and outcome of HSC transplantation. 2013. www.cibmtr.org

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Regeneration 
Description Regeneration A project and public event bringing artists into the laboratory and encouraging scientists to explore their more creative sides. The final event included music and poetry performance, composition, digital performance, screen prints, crafted objects and paintings. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Collaboration between artists and scientists, producing poetry, compositions, visual performances, paintings etc. 
URL https://www.facebook.com/groups/1487009134873094/?fref=nf
 
Description We are developing understanding of how mesenchymal stem cell self-renewal and how we can then generate stem cells with enhanced immune moderating properties to help with transplantation.
Exploitation Route We want to look for ways to drug the pathways so that it can be expanded into a biotechnological process. We have identified activity metabolites using the nano vibrational approach and these can maintain the immunomodulatory properties of the MSCs for longer while they grow faster.
Sectors Healthcare

 
Description Impact is nascent as the award only recently finished and the big paper is under review rather than published. However, we filled a preparing and this led to a good level of social media discussion as the concept of using materials to find activity metabolites with drug potentials very new.
First Year Of Impact 2000
Sector Education,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Glasgow Orthopaedic Research Initiative
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description 'EPSRC and SFI Centre for Doctoral Training in Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine
Amount £7,013,578 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S02347X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 12/2027
 
Description Engineering growth factor microenvironments - a new therapeutic paradigm for regenerative medicine
Amount £3,661,144 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P001114/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2021
 
Description Excellence with Impact - Outreach and Stakeholder engagement at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 05/2019
 
Title HSC isolation from bone marrow samples 
Description Helped to optimise a protocol for extraction of CD34+ cells from primary bone marrow samples received by the lab. In collaboration with the University of Glasgow Paul O'Gorman Leukaemia research centre, advice was given to isolate this cell type more efficiently and on freeze/thawing protocols. This protocol is now standard practice in the CeMi 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This cell type is now available to use by the lab, we are beginning to create a bank of this cell type. There are now 3 new PhD projects based on the use of these cells. 
 
Title Polymer surfaces to control growth factor presentation. 
Description We have made a polymeric surface that drives organisation of fibronectin into nanonetworks that bind growth factors at ultra-low dose but with high biological efficacy. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We have performed a first veterinal trial with the technology that has been very successful. We are now progressing towards human use. 
 
Title Stem cell retention topography 
Description We have developed a nanoscale topography that facilitates growth of human mesenchymal stem cells with multipotency retained. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We are currently working with the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service using this surface to help identify chemicals that can help develop transplant grade mesenchymal stem cells. 
 
Title Nanotopography reveals metabolites that maintain the immunomodulatory phenotype of mesenchymal stromal cells during large-scale expansion 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://researchdata.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/973
 
Description COllaboration with Astra Zenica 
Organisation AstraZeneca
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am working on a post doctoral project with them.
Collaborator Contribution This is a new partnership looking at niche bioengineering
Impact To early
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaboration to examine the functional impact of infection on the bone marrow niche 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have utilised our expertise in developing bone marrow niche models in the laboratory and have begun to investigate how a bacterial infection alters the HSC supporting capacity of stromal feeder layers.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators have provided the bacterial strains and the reagents and techniques required to assess the colonisation of the pathogen.
Impact No outputs as yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration to examine the functional impact of infection on the bone marrow niche 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have utilised our expertise in developing bone marrow niche models in the laboratory and have begun to investigate how a bacterial infection alters the HSC supporting capacity of stromal feeder layers.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators have provided the bacterial strains and the reagents and techniques required to assess the colonisation of the pathogen.
Impact No outputs as yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Anacail (Spin off) 
Organisation Anacail Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have stabilized a collaboration with Anacail to sterilize protein coating preserving the bioactivity. This will allow the commercialization of future implants in sterilize conditions.
Collaborator Contribution The have been performing the sterilization of the samples and given ideas.
Impact We have been able to find a range of doses to preserve the bioactivity of the big protein coatings and sterilize the samples at the same time. In the future we are going to be working towards finding the right amount of doses to preserve the bioactivity of smaller molecules (such as growth factors).
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Aaron Lau, University of Strathclyde to evaluate the potential of novel biomaterials on MSC function and phenotype. 
Organisation University of Strathclyde
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have provided training, reagents and access to equipment to members of Dr Lau's team. We have shared our expertise in MSC cell culture, and methods of analysis to evaluate the potential of novel biomaterials provided by Dr Lau's group on MSC phenotype and function.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators have synthesised novel biomaterials which are as yet untested on the effects on cellular differentiation and function. After the initial studies have been performed to evaluate the potential of these materials, our collaborators will provide us with access to these in order to further our own research aims.
Impact No outputs as yet as this collaboration has only recently been established. We expect a publication to be generated from these studies in the near future.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Geistlich 
Organisation Geistlich
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Testing of in vitro cell culture on Geistlich implant materials
Collaborator Contribution Contribution of implant materials from Geistlich
Impact Disciplines involved - Dentistry, cell engineering, materials
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with Manchester Biogels 
Organisation Manchester BIOGEL
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We bring biological expertise
Collaborator Contribution They bring materials expertise
Impact We are working to use their hydrogels to enhance CRISPR of stem cells
Start Year 2020
 
Description Ear pericyte project -Chris West 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Cells provided by Chris West were used in a project using the polymer-based growth factor delivery system developed in the CeMi. Cells were extracted from patients in Edinburgh by CW and used by HD to investigate chondrogenic potential for regenerative medicine purposes.
Collaborator Contribution Cells were extracted from patient biopsies, sorted and phenotyped.
Impact Student completed a successful undergraduate project on this work. A manuscript is currently in preparation for publication. This partnership was multidisciplinary, Chris West and his research assistant are plastic surgeons, hence they have access to the tissue required for this project.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Souhtampton Collaboration 
Organisation University of Southampton
Department Bone and Joint Research Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a long term collaboration where cells, materials and expertise are shared to drive research
Collaborator Contribution This is a long term collaboration where cells, materials and expertise are shared to drive research
Impact A large number of papers, grants and IP.
 
Description Analytical Science Twitter Poster Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Twitter based poster conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Blog post 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Blog post published on the lab website about a review that was published, this was then shared on social media platforms and led to increased engagement with the article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://glasgow.thecemi.org/2018/09/21/making-stem-cells-feel-at-home/
 
Description Cambridge Stem Cell Symposium 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Ewan Ross attended the Cambridge Stem Cell meeting 2018, where he presented his research in the form of a poster presentation. Impact from his meeting was discussion with colleagues from other universities with national and international, as well as establishing new collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cell block science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presented at prisoner outreach day at HMP Shotts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Centre for the Cellular Microenvironment symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact We organised an open symposium with expert speakers from the UK, EU and US - and from academic and industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference - Oral Presentation - BORS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 2016 BORS conference was organized in Glasgow, were I gave a talk with the title 'Engineering osteogenic coatings' and new collaborations were initiated between research and clinical groups afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Conference organisation CCE-GLORI 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The local CCE-GLORI workshop is organised by Dr Monica P. Tsimbouri every year. It is a workshop where postgraduate students present their work to their peers and supervisors and discussion then follows the talks.
This is highly beneficial to students and promotes collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference organisation-GLORI2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Monica P. Tsimbouri organises GLORI bi-annually. This conference encourages collaboration between the basic sciences, applied sciences, engineering and clinic. This has the aim of bringing the latest ideas in basic materials research into use to deliver the next-generation of orthopaedic care. It combines expertise from orthopaedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, biologists, engineers and chemists.
The conference is free for attendance and involves oral and poster presentations from professionals, scientists, clinicians and postgraduate students. It is always well attended.
It is sponsored by industry who are also involved in the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description GLORI at the CeMi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ms Hannah Donnelly
"Synergistic integrin-growth factor microenvironments to bioengineer the bone marrow
niche"
Glasgow Orthopedic Research Initiative 2018
23rd November 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description GLORI conference organisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Planning and Organisation of Dr Monica P Tsimbouri the scientific mentor of the Glasgow Orthopaedic Research Initiative (GLORI). GLORI has been established to encourage collaboration between the basic sciences, applied sciences, engineering and clinic. This has the aim of bringing the latest ideas in basic materials research into use to deliver the next-generation of orthopaedic care. It combines expertise from orthopaedic surgeons, biologists, engineers and chemists not only from Glasgow and Strathclyde Universities but the rest of Scotland too and also with the view to expand to the rest of the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk at GLORI Meeting 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at the GLORI meeting, 2018. Questions after the talk have led to new discussions and potential new collaborations with other audience members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Media interest BBC (nanokicking) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Talk sparked public interest

Many interested enquirers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Media interest BBC (orthopaedic materials) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Sparked public interest

Enquieries from the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Media interest BBC (stem cell growth) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Talk sparked public interest

Enquieries from the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Nanotoxicology Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk for the Naotoxicology Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Participation in an activity, workshop or similar - GLORI-2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participate in the organization and submitted a research abstract, stimulating discussion and chaired a conference session on bone regeneration strategies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
 
Description Public Outreach Event - At home with Life Sciences at IKEA Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Ewan Ross was involved with an institutional organised event and introduced members of the public with particular focus on children under 18 to life sciences. I described the functions of the major organs of the body and demonstrated how we are using our laboratory based research to promote bone regeneration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Research presentation at conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented research at Glasgow Orthopaedic Research Initiative Meeting 2020. Audience was made up of academics and orthopaedic surgeons.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Royal Society of Chemistry Biomaterials Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Conference presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Scottish Metabolomics Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description TCES 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Monica P Tsimbouri. exiting discussion after talk

Interested parties continued discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description TCES 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr P Tsimbouri. talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

Engagement with company Reps and received very good discount on equipment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description TERMIS EU 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Monica P Tsimbouri. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

There was further discussion during a later session about my talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Talk at the Glasgow Orthopaedic Research Initiative Feb 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Ewan Ross presented his research as an invited talk at this meeting. This talk allowed dissemination of current research as well as developing new Ines of research through collaborations with professional participants in the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Tissue and Cell Engineering Conference 2018, Keele University UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Ewan Ross presented his research in the form of a poster presentation at the TCES annual conference 2018. The impact of this presentation was to generate discussion with external colleagues and develop new working collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UKSB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr M. P. Tsimbouri. Interesting discussion following presentation

Discussion lead to problem solving for a fellow scientist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010