Mechanisms to Explain Variation in Serum Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Response to Dietary Saturated Fat

Lead Research Organisation: University of Reading
Department Name: Food and Nutritional Sciences

Abstract

A raised level of blood cholesterol (also referred to as LDL or 'bad' cholesterol) is an important risk factor for developing heart disease. Lowering cholesterol levels by changing our diet and taking certain medication (e.g. statins) represents a major public health strategy to decrease the risk of developing and suffering from heart disease in the UK population. A type of fat eaten in our diet known as saturated fat (found predominately in animal products such as meat and dairy) is well recognised as the main dietary component responsible for raising blood cholesterol, and reducing its intake has been the mainstay of dietary guidelines for the prevention of heart disease for over 30 years. However, findings from large, powerful studies called meta-analyses show no evidence for a direct link between the intake of saturated fat and deaths from heart attack and stroke. One explanation for this outcome is that the link between saturated fat and heart disease is not a direct one, but relies on the ability of saturated fat to raise blood cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This effect is complex, and highly variable between individuals because of important differences in metabolism and the way in which our body's absorb and digest cholesterol after eating meals high in dietary saturated fat. These individual differences make it difficult to study how dietary factors like saturated fat influence blood cholesterol in large numbers of people. However, these variations in metabolism can be measured relatively easily and used as biological markers to determine which people will respond well and those who will respond less well to diets which are lower in saturated fat.

The main aims of this proposal are to measure variation in blood LDL cholesterol in response to lowering the amount of saturated fat in the diet to the level recommended by the government for heart disease prevention (LDL Screening Study). From this initial study, we will select a group of high responders and a group of low responders in blood LDL cholesterol for a more detailed study to determine the metabolic processes responsible for the variation between these two groups (Metabolic Study). We predict that people who show a high blood LDL-cholesterol response to a diet lower in saturated fat will show a greater reduction in the absorption of dietary fat in their gut than low responders. We believe that this effect may be explained by changes in their gut bacteria, which can alter the composition of compounds called bile acids that promote the absorption of dietary fat. It may also be explained by a phenomenon known as gut permeability which may be increased by eating saturated fat. Gut permeability also differs between individuals and affects fat absorption and gut bacteria. In addition, we will measure the activity of specific receptors on the surface of cells (LDL receptors) that remove LDL from the blood and have been shown to be reduced by eating diets high in saturated fat (causing LDL cholesterol to rise). Finally, in the Metabolic Study we will also undertake a holistic measure of the metabolic state in high and low LDL-C responders using a technique known as metabonomics. This approach can measure thousands of metabolites simultaneously in samples of blood and urine, and detect subtle differences (metabolic signatures) between high and low responders that can be used as simple biomarkers for the sensitivity to dietary saturated fat. The results from this study will be used to overcome the problems of setting dietary guidelines for whole populations, which are frequently inappropriate for some subgroups of people in the population. This will be achieved by the tailoring of dietary advice to those at higher risk of developing heart disease and who therefore stand to gain the greatest benefit to their health.

Technical Summary

The relationship between a high intake of dietary saturated fat and CVD is not direct, but largely mediated through the effects of certain saturated fatty acids (SFA) in raising serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). A key outstanding question of fundamental importance to understanding the complexity of the relationship between dietary SFA, serum LDL-C and CVD risk is; what determines the biologically intrinsic, inter-individual differences in LDL-C response to dietary SFA? The overall aims of this proposal are to determine the metabolic and gut-related mechanisms that give rise to inter-individual variation in LDL-C to dietary SFA, and to identify biomarkers of these mechanisms that can be used to detect sensitivity to SFA.
The main objectives are; 1) to demonstrate variations in serum LDL-C in response to changing from a high to a low SFA diet; 2) to undertake a metabolic study in two groups of individuals, those in the top and bottom 10% of change in serum LDL-C, to demonstrate a relatively greater reduction in fat absorption in response to a reduction of dietary SFA, using stable isotope trace-labelling, in high versus low responders. This effect will be accompanied by relatively greater increases in the expression of LDL-receptors (in PBMCs by PCR), endogenous cholesterol synthesis (serum phytosterols), and serum deconjugated bile acids (targeted UPLC-MS) and/or short chain fatty acids (NMR & LCMS); 3) these effects will be related to changes in the gut microbiota (FISH, NGS & CLS genomics), and/or gut permeability (absorption & recovery of 51Cr-EDTA probe); 4) to identify serum and urinary biomarkers of these metabolic differences (1H-NMR & UPLC-MS metabonomics). Outputs from this study will provide new evidence to progress beyond dietary guidelines that are inappropriate for whole populations, towards the tailoring of advice to subgroups of individuals who are more or less responsive to dietary SFA, and who stand to gain more or less benefit to their CVD risk.

Planned Impact

The current UK dietary guideline to reduce total energy intake from dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) in men from 12.7% to 10% of total energy or less, can be estimated to achieve a decrease in serum LDL-C of 0.13mmol/l. In terms of impact, this equates to a 6% reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk or delaying or averting 3,000 deaths from CHD. In comparison, the inter-individual variation in serum LDL-C response to dietary SFA between the highest and lowest responders in two randomised controlled trials (DIVAS & RISCK) was in the order of 1.5 mmol/l. This represents a greater than 20-fold difference in CHD risk relative to the UK target, and provides a true perspective of the substantial impact of inter-individual variation in serum LDL-C response relative to our National dietary guideline for reducing CHD risk. This helps to explain why a dietary guideline for a population, with a diverse range of serum LDL-C responses, lacks impact in achieving its aim, and the urgent need to identify and intervene in responsive and unresponsive groups.

New knowledge and insight into the mechanisms that underlie variation in the serum LDL-C response to dietary SFA will exert multiple impacts by transforming the way in which dietary guidelines are formulated and applied, and in changing dietary practices to affect those most in need of dietary advice. These impacts will be achieved through academics, dieticians, health care professionals and medics at the interface of public health and medicine, who can inform and educate the end users of our research outputs. These end users include:

Policy makers - This includes academic and non-academic members of boards and panels who advise government and formulate policy on food and nutrition in relation to public health e.g. SACN, Public Health England and the Department of Health. Applicants on this proposal have a direct impact on these influential bodies as members, scientific advisers and consultants (see Pathways to Impact)

Charities, learned societies - bodies that exert significant impacts as active stakeholders of the role of nutrition in human health e.g. Nutrition Society, HEART UK, The British Nutrition Foundation, Association for Nutrition, British Heart Foundation. Applicants on this proposal also have a direct impact on these influential bodies as members, scientific advisers and consultants (see Pathways to Impact).

Industry and commerce - Our outputs will create opportunities in the food industry to reformulate foods and expand the portfolio diet for blood cholesterol reduction, by providing information on the mechanisms of action of functional foods. This also applies especially to the development of pre and pro-biotic products, with modes of action linked to the metabolic variables under study in this proposal. This translates into economic and societal impacts through the marketing and commercial sales of new products.

Research funders (e.g. BBSRC): our mechanistic outputs would inform future research by featuring in the frameworks and strategic priorities of research funding bodies in the UK and Europe, creating employment and new knowledge. This process will produce highly trained young researchers capable of tackling contemporary challenges in either the public or private sectors. All of which could make a substantial contribution to the economic competitiveness of the UK.

General public - subgroups of variable LDL-C responders may represent up to 20% of the UK population, who are either more or less in need of dietary advice to reduce CVD risk. The identification of both subgroups translates into economic and societal impact by reducing CVD risk in one group and the need for health care in the other. CVD has been described as a disease that begins in adolescence. Crucially, the impact of our research could exert impact in childhood, and thus be preventative through-out the life course, reducing the need for drugs, like statins, in later life.
 
Description The updates have been reported by Prof Bruce Griffin from University of Surrey.
Exploitation Route The updates have been reported by Prof Bruce Griffin from University of Surrey.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Healthcare

 
Description Collaboration with Professor Jon Gibbins, leader of the University of Reading Platelet Biology Research Group 
Organisation University of Reading
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Gloria Wang, a self funded PhD student, will explore the effects of saturated fat intake on platelet function as part of the project's dietary human intervention study.
Collaborator Contribution Professor's Jon Gibbins group is sharing their expertise to train and set up assays to assess platelet function. Professor Jon Gibbins will co-supervise this aspect of the work.
Impact The collaboration started in November 2017 thus, there are not any outcomes yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Dr Jon Swann is a partner of this BBSRC project and PI at Imperial College London 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Julie Lovegrove's team will be generating human biological samples from the 2 human studies for metabolomic analysis at Imperial College London
Collaborator Contribution Dr Jon Swann's team will be performing metabolonic analysis of biological samples generated from the 2 human studies performed at University of Reading and Surrey
Impact No outputs have been generated to date.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Professor Bruce Griffin (PI at University of Surrey and Lead partner of this BBSRC grant). University of Surrey and his team. 
Organisation University of Surrey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are joint PIs for this study (RISSCI) (Professor Julie Lovegrove an Professor Bruce Griffin). Both teams at University of Reading and University of Surrey will be performing the 2 human studies and sharing analysis of samples. University of Reading is analysing all circulating lipids and biochemical analystes and faceal samples
Collaborator Contribution We are joint PIs for this study (RISSCI) (Professor Julie Lovegrove an Professor Bruce Griffin). Both teams at University of Reading and University of Surrey will be performing the 2 human studies and sharing analysis of samples. Professor Bruce Griffins team at the University of Surrey will be leading the stable isotope analysis for the second human study.
Impact No outputs at present but all outputs will be joint between Universities
Start Year 2017
 
Title RISSCI (Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Saturated fat and Cholesterol Intervention) study 
Description Dietary intervention study to determine the effects of the quality of saturated fat intake on LDL-cholesterol response and other cardiovascular disease risk factors and to identify possible mechanisms for variation in response. This project is funded by the BBSRC 
Type Preventative Intervention - Nutrition and Chemoprevention
Current Stage Of Development Refinement. Non-clinical
Year Development Stage Completed 2017
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact Any benefits arising from this work will inform public health policy on optimum dietary strategies to prevent or delay the onset of heart disease. 
URL https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03270527
 
Description Film by the Royal Society for Public Health - Vision, voice and practice in collaboration with ITN films. Nutrition and public health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Film by the Royal Society for Public Health - Vision, voice and practice in collaboration with ITN films. Nutrition and public health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.rsph.org.uk/our-work/videos/itn-films/itn-film-2019/our-partners/the-nutrition-society.h...
 
Description Invited Keynote presentations at International conference on Chronic Diseases and Lifestyle. Presentation entitled 'Diet and Cardiovascular Disease Risk'. Lahore, Pakistan. Professor Julie Lovegrove 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Keynote presentations at International conference on Chronic Diseases and Lifestyle. Presentation entitled 'Diet and Cardiovascular Disease Risk'. Lahore, Pakistan. The audience was mixed, predominantly scientists and included the President of Pakistan. Numbers were 300+. The presentation raised may questions and discussion with further invitations to present and also collaborate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Keynote presentations at the 30th Anniversary of National Dairy Council Ireland symposium. Presentation entitled 'Dairy and cardiovascular risk'. Coleraine, Northern Ireland. Professor Julie Lovegrove. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited presentations (Symposium) KEYNOTE at 30th Anniversary of National Dairy Council Ireland symposium 'Dairy and cardiovascular risk'. Coleraine, Northern Ireland. There were 200+ in the audience with many questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited presentation at International conference. 13th Federation European Nutrition Societies (FENS) meeting. 'Impact of Dairy on Human health: Biomarkers of intake and CVD risk'. Julie Lovegrove. Dublin, Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations entitled 'Impact of Dairy on Human health: Biomarkers of intake and CVD risk'. 13th Federation European Nutrition Societies (FENS) meeting.Dublin, Ireland. Julie Lovegrove. 100+ scientists, students, industry members, policy makers attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited presentation at a workshop entitled "Inter-esterified fats in the food chain". British Nutrition Foundation. Professor Julie Lovegrove 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at a workshop entitled "Inter-esterified fats in the food chain". organised by British Nutrition Foundation for a BBSRC project. 20 attendees. Discussion and decisions made with a paper published form the workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited presentation at scientific workshop for the 2nd Anniversary of the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health. Entitled "Hugh Sinclair Unit: History, Achievements and Future. Reading, UK. Professor Julie Lovegrove 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation on the research performed at the Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition . The audience was mixed and was approximately 90 scientists, those from industry, policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited presentation by Professor Julie Lovegrove with a title "Dietary Fats and CVD risk. Dispelling the Myths' for the Korean Annual Nutrition Conference (virtual). 13th Nov 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An annual Conference by the Korean Nutrition Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited presentation in the Winter Nutrition Society conference, Royal Society of Medicine, London, 4-5 December 2018: Optimal diet and lifestyle strategies for the management of cardio-metabolic risk. Title of presentation: Dietary Dilemmas over Fats and Cardiovascular Disease Risk by Professor Julie Lovegrove 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is an annual international winter conference organised by the Nutrition Society with more than 200 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, policy makers, professional practitioners, industry/business persons and students (PhD, MSc and BSc). Professor Julie Lovegrove gave an overview of the recent dietary dilemmas over fats and cardiovascular disease risk, including her previous research work but also the aim of the current research project (RISSCI). The presentation was well received and participants showed a great interest in the topic and the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.nutritionsociety.org/events/winter-conference-2018-optimal-diet-and-lifestyle-strategies...
 
Description Keynote presentation in the Nutrition Society Annual Postgraduate Conference, September 2017, Reading, UK - Dietary dilemmas over fats and heart disease-Professor Julie Lovegrove 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Julie Lovegrove was a keynote speaker giving a presentation entitled 'Dietary dilemmas over fats and heart disease'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nutritionsociety.org/events/student-conference-2017
 
Description Podcast entitled "Challenges in Nutrition Research" made for the NIHR. Professor Julie Lovegrove 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Podcast covering "Challenges in Nutrition Research" made for the NIHR in their Health Research futures series. to a wide audience mainly aimed at health care professionals but access to other audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Podcast entitled "How personal will nutritional advice become in the future? - Medicine made for you - Part 2. Made by The Conversation for "The Anthill Podcast" series Professor Julie Lovegrove 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Podcast entitled "How personal will nutritional advice become in the future? - Medicine made for you - Part 2. Made by The Conversation for "The Anthill Podcast" series. available free of charge to the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://theconversation.com/how-personal-will-nutritional-advice-become-in-the-future-medicine-made-...
 
Description Presentation at the Food and Nutritional Sciences weekly seminar by Gloria Wong (PhD student) with title "Impacts of diets high in saturated or polyunsaturated fats on platelet function and other cardiovascular disease risk markers (RISSCI study)" 28/11/2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This presentation was given in the weekly (lunch) seminar of the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences were PhD students or invited speakers talk about their research work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the research group meeting by Gloria Wong (PhD student) with title "Effects of dietary fats on blood cholesterol levels and platelet function on healthy men" 10/04/2018, as part of the RISSCI study. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A progress of the RISSCI project was presented to other members of the research group which includes lecturers, research fellows, post graduate and undergraduate students. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation in the 1st FNS Research Symposium, University of Reading, 21st February 2019 - Impact of dietary fat composition on body fat distribution and cardiometabolic disease risk factor - Ezgi Ozen (PhD student) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This is an annual conference with more than 80 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, students (PhD, MSc and BSc) and external academic and industrial visitors. The aim is to showcase and communicate research projects undertaken by current PhD students and researchers in Food and Nutritional Sciences Department, University of Reading. Ezgi Ozen, a PhD student working on the project, presented her current and future work. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation in the 1st FNS Research Symposium, University of Reading, 21st February 2019 - Impacts of diets high in saturated or unsaturated fatty acids on platelet function and other cardiovascular disease risk markers-Gloria Wong (PhD student) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This is an annual conference with more than 80 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, students (PhD, MSc and BSc) and external academic and industrial visitors. The aim is to showcase and communicate research projects undertaken by current PhD students and researchers in Food and Nutritional Sciences Department, University of Reading. Gloria Wang, a PhD student working on the project, presented her current and future work. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation in the 2nd Food and Nutritional Sciences Research Symposium, University of Reading, 5 November 2019 - Impact of diets high in saturated or polyunsaturated fats on platelet function and other cardiovascular disease risk markers. Gloria Wong (PhD student) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This is an annual conference with more than 80 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, students (PhD, MSc and BSc) and external academic and industrial visitors. The aim is to showcase and communicate research projects undertaken by current PhD students and researchers of the Food and Nutritional Sciences Department, University of Reading. Gloria Wang, a PhD student working on the project, presented her future work. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation in the 3rd Food and Nutritional Sciences Research Symposium, University of Reading, 3-4 November 2020 - Dietary pattern analysis reveals key food groups contributing to the successful exchange of saturated with unsaturated fatty acids in healthy men (RISSCI study). Laury Sellem (PhD student) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This is an annual conference with more than 80 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, students (PhD, MSc and BSc) and external academic and industrial visitors. The aim is to showcase and communicate research projects undertaken by current PhD students and researchers of the Food and Nutritional Sciences Department, University of Reading. Laury Sellem, a PhD student working on the project, presented her future work. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation in the 3rd Food and Nutritional Sciences Research Symposium, University of Reading, 3-4 November 2020 - Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids has favourable effects on the platelet activation and aggregation (RISSCI study). Gloria Wong (PhD student) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This is an annual conference with more than 80 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, students (PhD, MSc and BSc) and external academic and industrial visitors. The aim is to showcase and communicate research projects undertaken by current PhD students and researchers of the Food and Nutritional Sciences Department, University of Reading. Gloria Wang, a PhD student working on the project, presented her future work. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation in the 3rd Food and Nutritional Sciences Research Symposium, University of Reading, 3-4 November 2020 - The effect of saturated fatty acid intake on body composition (RISSCI study). Ezgi Ozen (PhD student) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This is an annual conference with more than 80 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, students (PhD, MSc and BSc) and external academic and industrial visitors. The aim is to showcase and communicate research projects undertaken by current PhD students and researchers of the Food and Nutritional Sciences Department, University of Reading. Ezgi Ozen, a PhD student working on the project, presented her future work. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation in the Hugh Sinclair Nutrition Research Symposium, University of Reading, 15 February 2018 - Impact of dietary fatty acids on platelet function. Gloria Wong (PhD student) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This is an annual conference with more than 80 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, students (PhD, MSc and BSc) and external academic and industrial visitors. The aim is to showcase and communicate research projects undertaken by current PhD students and researchers of the Hugh Sinclair Human Nutrition Research Group, University of Reading. Gloria Wang, a PhD student working on the project, presented her future work. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation in the Nutrition Society Summer Conference 2020 by Dr Rona Antoni with a title "Dietary pattern analysis reveals key food groups contributing to the successful exchange of saturated with unsaturated fatty acids in healthy men" (virtual conference) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Annual national/international conference organised by the British Nutrition Society https://www.nutritionsociety.org/events/summer-conference-2020-protein-sources-benefits-and-global-challenges
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society/article/dietary-exchang...
 
Description Presentation in the Nutrition Society Summer Conference 2020 by Laury Sellem with a title "Dietary pattern analysis reveals key food groups contributing to the successful exchange of saturated with unsaturated fatty acids in healthy men" (virtual conference) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Annual national/international conference organised by the British Nutrition Society

https://www.nutritionsociety.org/events/summer-conference-2020-protein-sources-benefits-and-global-challenges
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society/article/dietary-pattern...
 
Description Presentation in the Nutrition Society Summer Conference 2020 by Professor Bruce Griffin with a title "Determination of variability in serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol response to the replacement of dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat, in the Reading, Imperial, Surrey Saturated fat Cholesterol Intervention ('RISSCI') project" (virtual conference) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Annual national/international conference organised by the British Nutrition Society

https://www.nutritionsociety.org/events/summer-conference-2020-protein-sources-benefits-and-global-challenges
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society/article/determination-o...
 
Description Presentation in the Winter Nutrition Society conference, Royal Society of Medicine, London, 4-5 December 2018: Optimal diet and lifestyle strategies for the management of cardio-metabolic risk. Title of presentation: A dietary exchange model to study inter-individual variation in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to dietary saturated fat intake - Dr Rona Antoni et al. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is an annual international winter conference organised by the Nutrition Society with more than 200 participants including academic staff, post-doctoral research fellows, policy makers, professional practitioners, industry/business persons and students (PhD, MSc and BSc). Dr Rona Antoni, a researcher working on the project, presented the food exchange model which was developed to replace dietary saturated fats with unsaturated fats in a free-living population. The presentation was well received and participants showed an interest in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.nutritionsociety.org/events/winter-conference-2018-optimal-diet-and-lifestyle-strategies...
 
Description Webinar on Fats forward - exploring the use of fats on our foods, today and beyond. Presentation entitled "Saturated Fats and Health". British Nutrition Foundation. Professor Julie Lovegrove 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Webinar on Fats forward - exploring the use of fats on our foods, today and beyond. Presentation entitled "Saturated Fats and Health". British Nutrition Foundation. Broadcast initially on 23rd January 2020. Over 500 listened and open for free since first broadcast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.nutrition.org.uk/component/rseventspro/event/61-free-bnf-webinar-fats-forward-exploring-...