Different sides of the same coin? Comorbidity and characteristics of canine neurodevelopmental disorders and their impact on animal welfare

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Veterinary College
Department Name: Clinical Sciences and Services

Abstract

Epilepsy is a complex brain disease, in which individuals are predisposed to spontaneous seizures, and is common in both humans and dogs. Epilepsy is estimated to affect 0.6% of dogs, with prevalence markedly higher in some breeds e.g. 17-33% in the Belgian Shepherd. Although seizures may be the signature symptom of epilepsy, epilepsy may have a variety of manifestations, not limited to seizure activity. Co-morbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders are commonly seen in people with epilepsy, and have been reported to have a greater impact upon the quality of life (QoL) of the individual patient. To date, the behavioural comorbidities of epilepsy in the dog have been little studied, with the main focus in veterinary medicine being upon seizure control (reducing seizure frequency/severity). This approach may leave many dogs vulnerable to the negative effects of undiagnosed comorbid disorders including anxiety, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This research programme will focus on two recognised neurodevelopmental comorbidities of epilepsy, ADHD and ASD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one third of human epilepsy patients, with hallmarks of ADHD including easy distraction, impulsivity, hyperactivity and slow learning. ADHD-like behaviour is seen in rat models of epilepsy and has recently been recognised as a comorbidity of canine epilepsy. ASD is characterised by social deficits and communication difficulties and stereotyped/repetitive behaviours. ASD symptoms occur in 15-35% of children with epilepsy, and ASD-like behaviours are seen in rodent models, but has not yet been considered as a comorbidity of canine epilepsy. Children with these disorders frequently present with overlapping clinical signs of ASD/ADHD, and it is likely that the epilepsy-ASD-ADHD phenotype has a complex and heterogeneous pathogenesis. This research programme will objectively study the behaviour of dogs with epilepsy to identify ASD and ADHD phenotypes, and identify neuroanatomical and electrophysiological processes associated with these phenotypes. We will study a cohort of pet owned Border Collies, recruited through liaison with veterinary surgeons, in a case-control study with half affected by epilepsy, and half healthy controls. Detailed seizure diaries and behavioural/training histories will be taken to explore their influence upon behaviour and the relationship between ASD/ADHD and drug response. Objective behavioural tests combined with owner questionnaires will be conducted to quantify ASD/ADHD-like behaviours and explore whether dogs with epilepsy show increased levels in comparison to healthy controls. Once a behavioural phenotype is established, we will investigate whether it is associated with neuroanatomical and/or neurophysiological markers. Awake and sedated EEG methods will be used to quantify interictal neurophysiological profiles, and magnetic resonance images will be collected to quantify brain volumetrics, to detect differences in brain activity and/or anatomy associated with ASD/ADHD, as are seen in humans with these disorders. Cognitive (judgement) bias tests will be used to measure the effect of ASD/ADHD on the affective state of dogs, and whether they have a negative impact on canine welfare. A validated ASD/ADHD questionnaire tool will be created and deployed as a cross-sectional prevalence survey to estimate how common ASD/ADHD are in the general canine population. This tool could ultimately be used by veterinary surgeons to screen for comorbidities. This approach has the potential to deepen our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders, establish the presence of new co-morbidities in dogs with epilepsy that require further attention (including treatment development) to protect canine welfare, and strengthen the dog as a spontaneously occurring model of epilepsy and its comorbidities.

Technical Summary

Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a common neurological disease in both man and dogs. Although seizures may be the hallmark of IE, IE may have a variety of manifestations, not limited to seizure activity. Co-morbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders are prevalent in people with epilepsy, likely resulting from altered neurobiological mechanisms involved in early brain development. These disorders can have a greater impact upon the quality of life (QoL) of the individual patient than seizures. To date, the main focus of epilepsy study in veterinary medicine has been upon seizure control (reducing seizure frequency/severity). This approach may leave many dogs vulnerable to the negative effects of undiagnosed comorbid disorders including anxiety, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This research programme will focus on two recognised comorbidities of epilepsy, ADHD and ASD, to deepen our understanding of the shared pathophysiology of epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We will study a cohort of pet owned Border Collies, in an age and sex matched case-control study of dogs with IE and matched healthy control dogs. We will define ASD/ADHD phenotypes in our study population by assessing behaviour in objective tests combined with owner questionnaires. Subsequently we will explore whether neurophysiological and/or neuroanatomical markers are associated with these phenotypes, using awake and sedated EEG to examine brain activity profiles, and MRI to quantify brain volumetrics. Finally, established cognitive (judgement) bias methods will be used to measure the effect of ASD/ADHD on the affective state of dogs. This approach has the potential to significantly improve canine welfare by the identification of co-morbidities that may compromise QoL and require further attention (e.g. treatment development), and will strengthen the dog as a spontaneously occurring, natural model of epilepsy and its comorbidities.

Planned Impact

Epilepsy is a major welfare issue in the dog, and of the ~10.5 million dogs kept as companion animals in the UK, 0.6-0.8% are estimated to be affected by epilepsy (approximately 63,000 dogs). Idiopathic epilepsy (IE; where no cause can be found) is a quality of life (QoL) issue for both the affected dog and their owner. Undiagnosed comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders (ADHD/ASD) may lead to further problems for owners, with hyperactivity, impulsivity and repetitive behaviours potentially challenging and distressing for owners to manage. Understanding epilepsy and its comorbidities will have an impact upon more than one species. Epilepsy, ASD and ADHD are prevalent disorders in man, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US estimating that 1 in every 26 people are affected by epilepsy, 1 in 68 children affected by ASD, and 1 in 10 children affected by ADHD. As potentially lifelong 'hidden' disabilities, these disorders of societal and financial importance, with epilepsy alone accounting for $15.5 billion in direct costs (medical) and indirect costs (lost or reduced earnings and productivity) each year in the US. Deepening our understanding of these disorders is of high importance, to allow the development of new, more effective therapies to reduce their individual and combined impact upon QoL.
Stakeholders who will benefit include:
- Commercial companies: Pet food, nutraceutical and veterinary pharmaceutical companies have an interest in the treatment of chronic diseases such as IE and behavioural abnormalities. This is a substantial industrial sector, with the pet food industry and related supply and services representing a combined annual turnover of over 24 billion Euros. Increased knowledge of the aetiopathogenesis of IE, ASD and ADHD in dogs will be advantageous in R&D studies of anti-epileptic drug development and drug efficacy, along with the relatively new field of identifying existing or novel therapies (drug/dietary) that improve co-morbid behavioural problems.
- Affected dogs: Neurodevelopmental problems in dogs with IE have been under-studied in veterinary medicine compared to studies of seizure control. Affected dogs may eventually benefit from more accurate diagnoses of their disorder(s), with behavioural abnormalities no longer going undiagnosed and so unmanaged, with new therapies potentially developed for their treatment.
- Veterinary practices: At present there are no guidelines on the diagnosis and/or treatment of behavioural problems co-morbid with epilepsy. Creation of a simple screening tool from this research to detect co-morbid behavioural abnormalities could aid vets in their decision to refer cases to behavioural specialists/pursue further behavioural management themselves. If ASD/ADHD are linked with resistance to AEDs, behavioural markers may aid vets in their treatment decisions and lead to a more 'personalised medicine' approach to epilepsy treatment.
- Dog owners: Owners of dogs with IE are recognised to experience distress due to the management of their dog's condition, which may involve both seizure activity and abnormal behaviours. Owners may eventually benefit from improved therapeutic management of their dog as a result of the accurate phenotyping of ASD/ADHD in this project, and further research into effective therapies.
- Human neurologists, neuroscientists and pharmacologists: If signs of ASD/ADHD are seen in dogs with IE, the dog may offer a naturally occurring model of neurodevelopmental disorders cormorbid with epilepsy. This will offer a better model than current rodent models, as the dog is physiologically more similar to humans, with increased behavioural complexity compared to rodents and the benefit of sharing the same environment. Downstream, this may lead to reductions in the number of rodents used in epilepsy comorbidity research, avoiding the need to induce seizures by using pet-owned animals, who will also benefit from new treatment development.

Publications

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Packer R. M. A. (2017) IMPACT OF CANINE EPILEPSY ON COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION in EPILEPSIA

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Watson F (2020) Behavioural changes in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. in The Veterinary record

 
Description For the first time we have identified cognitive deficits associated with naturally occurring canine idiopathic epilepsy; this is also seen in human epilepsy patients. Deficits are seen in affected dogs' 'trainability', and signs of cognitive dysfunction are also observed.

In addition, we have identified potential HPA axis dysregulation associated with idiopathic epilepsy, particularly in those dogs with the most frequent seizure activity.
Exploitation Route We will further explore these findings during the fellowship, to identify whether these cognitive deficits might be related to epilepsy co-morbidities (e.g. impaired attention associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) or occur independently. Management tools (e.g. dietary, pharmaceutical or behavioural interventions) could be developed to ameliorate these deficits. Work on nutritional and behavioural therapies are underway within the team.

We will further explore HPA abnormalities in this population in a variety of biological matrices and explore whether the endocrine system may be a target for future therapies.
Sectors Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0192182
 
Description Animal Welfare Student Scholarships
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Universities Federation for Animal Welfare 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description Animal Welfare Student Scholarships
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Universities Federation for Animal Welfare 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 09/2017
 
Description Internal PhD Studentship
Amount £83,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description RVC Animal Care Trust Major Grants Scheme
Amount £23,178 (GBP)
Organisation Animal Care Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 11/2022
 
Description Royal Veterinary College Animal Care Trust
Amount £15,873 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 06/2020
 
Description Small Projects and Travel Awards
Amount £549 (GBP)
Organisation Universities Federation for Animal Welfare 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2017
 
Description Awake, ambulatory electoencephalography of owned dogs 
Organisation University of Guelph
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution EEG measurement of dogs with and without epilepsy
Collaborator Contribution Training in EEG measurement techniques in awake dogs
Impact No outputs as yet; collaboration between clinical neurology and behavioural science
Start Year 2017
 
Description Behavioural therapies for canine epilepsy 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have devised a randomised blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial to investigate the effect of stress reducing behavioural interventions upon the seizure frequency and anxiety levels of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. I have secured funding for a PhD studentship to run this study, and will be the primary supervisor of this student. I will assist in the recruitment of suitable study cases and oversee the running of the study at RVC.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Emily Blackwell will provide expertise in clinical animal behaviour for this trial, including design of the behavioural interventions and objective behavioural testing at study visits. Half of the study cases are planned to be recruited and seen at University of Bristol.
Impact doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00003
Start Year 2019
 
Description Canine appetite/polyphagia and anti-epileptic drug use collaboration 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collection of data from cases (dogs with epilepsy, n>300) exploiting our existing network of owners to quantify appetite alongside clinical history and current medication, to explore associations between anti-epileptic drug use and polyphagia (excessive appetite)
Collaborator Contribution Use of a novel research tool, the DORA - Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite Questionnaire, to quantify appetite and food motivation: http://www.godogs.org.uk/
Impact Funding from UFAW for a summer studentship (2018) which is likely to lead to a publication in 2019.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Exploring cognitive deficits in dogs with epilepsy 
Organisation University of Sydney
Department Faculty of Veterinary Science
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collecting data from a wide variety of dog owners on the cognitive abilities and signs of cognitive dysfunction in companion dogs
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in animal training and quantifying cognitive deficits
Impact Two publications: PACKER RMA; MCGREEVY PD; SALVIN HA; VALENZUELA M; CHAPLIN C; VOLK HA (2018) Cognitive dysfunction in naturally occurring canine idiopathic epilepsy. PLoS ONE 13(2): e0192182 PACKER RMA; MCGREEVY PD; PERGANDE A; VOLK HA (2018) Negative effects of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs on the trainability of dogs with naturally occurring idiopathic epilepsy. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 200: 106-113.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Exploring owner experiences in canine epilepsy 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Following the recruitment of MRes student, veterinary surgeon Dr Amy Pergande, we are exploring owner experiences of managing canine epilepsy including the use of 'alternative' therapies, owner sourcing of information via the internet, and vet-owner relations. Our team bring expertise in canine epilepsy, and a wide client base of motivated owners who are keen to engage with this research.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Zoe Belshaw, a veterinary surgeon with expertise in social sciences contributes her cutting edge experience of utilising qualitative research methods, including semi-structured interviewing and thematic analysis, to explore owner management of canine epilepsy.
Impact Collaboration still in the data collection phase. Under the supervision of Dr Packer and Dr Belshaw, MRes student Amy Pergande is due to submit and complete this degree in April 2020.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Inertial Measurement Unit collaboration 
Organisation Newcastle University
Department Center for Behaviour and Evolution
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are measuring long term behavioural patterns and seizure activity in pet-owned dogs with and without epilepsy, as part of the main fellowship project, and a PhD studentship associated with the fellowship
Collaborator Contribution Use of inertial measurement units to quantify movement patterns in dogs, expertise in the analysis of this data
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration between biological sciences and engineering
Start Year 2017
 
Description BBSRC Animal Welfare Research Network Companion Animal Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 60 companion animal welfare scientists attended a workshop on cutting edge methods in the field, including talks by 10 researchers and round table discussions on enhancing collaboration in the field and opportunities for ECRs. This sparked many questions and discussion and promoted new collaborations. In addition to organising the workshop I gave a talk on measures of brain activity and their potential use in animal welfare science. This event was funded by BBSRC AWRN.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://awrn.co.uk/event/implementing-new-methods-to-improve-companion-animal-welfare-science-caws-i...
 
Description Dog health interviews for print and online media 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I have been interviewed several times on canine health and welfare by print and online media publications on various topics in canine health and welfare, including The Guardian (https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2018/jan/05/think-twice-about-buying-squashed-faced-breeds-vets-urge-dog-lovers); (https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/oct/06/mines-a-puguccino-pug-themed-cafes-and-events-irresponsible-say-vets). My research has been featured in blog posts in Psychology Today (https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/pets-and-their-people/201708/are-dogs-getting-cuter) and Smithsonian.com (https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/evolution-petface-180967987/).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Epilepsy lecture tour and round table discussion (Malta; Helsinki; Copenhagen) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lecture tour with an industry collaborator across Europe, giving talks on the behavioural co-morbidities of epilepsy in humans, and emerging evidence of their presence in canine patients. Two talks; one at ECVIM conference (Malta), one at WSAVA (Copenhagen) and a recorded round table discussion with other experts in canine epilepsy (Helsinki). Main audience was a variety of veterinary specialists from a variety of disciplines including internal medicine and neurology, and representatives from the pet food industry. Feedback from the audience was positive with many not previously considering behavioural or cognitive challenges in their own epilepsy patients, which they will think of more in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited Webinar for Canine Behaviourists 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Webinar for group of canine behaviourists, describing my recent research on epilepsy and behaviour and highlighting its relevance to canine behaviour practitioners, including trainers and behaviourists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cleverdogcompany.com/
 
Description Invited epilepsy talk at breeder health seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave an invited talk on idiopathic epilepsy and current knowledge in this area to the Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of GB, a breed affected by several epilepsy types. Breeders present were primarily from the UK, with some participants from Europe. I provided new insights on canine epilepsy beyond seizure activity, including impacts upon behaviour, welfare and cognition, which was novel information for this audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/media/1101373/kc_journal_february_2017.pdf
 
Description Invited talk at American Kennel Club National Parent Club Canine Health Conference, St Louis, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk on canine epilepsy at the AKC National Parent Club Canine Health Conference, to an audience of pedigree dog breeders. This sparked discussion on the management of epilepsy in canine patients beyond simply seizure management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.akcchf.org/news-events/events/educational/national-parent-club-canine.html
 
Description Invited talk at ECVIM Congress, Milan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk in special theme day of ECVIM on brachycephalic health entitled "Is it still ethical to breed, buy and treat severely affected brachycephalic dogs?". This sparked discussion with the audience, several of whom reported changed views.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ecvimcongress.org/programme/speakers/speaker-packer_r
 
Description Invited talk at ISVA conference 'Ethical Dilemmas in Veterinary Education', Warsaw, Poland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk at International Veterinary Students Association conference, Warsaw, Poland. Audience of international veterinary students.
"Killing with cuteness? The ethics and welfare of breeding brachycephalic dogs"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk at Interdisciplinary Workshop on Companion Animal Behaviour, Bern, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk "Exploring the behavioural, cognitive and welfare impacts of canine epilepsy" for a diverse audience of dog trainers, veterinary behaviourists, veterinarians and UG/PG students. Led to an invite to speak at the major veterinary conference in Switzerland in May 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.hundeunibern.ch/workshop/
 
Description Invited talk at Ontario Veterinary College Animal Welfare Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk at Ontario Veterinary College Animal Welfare Forum on pedigree dog health and welfare
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.theontarion.com/2017/10/ovc-hosts-animal-welfare-forum/
 
Description Invited talk at the 2nd International Canine and Human Epilepsy Workshop (iCHEW), Minnesota 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at the 2nd International Canine and Human Epilepsy Workshop (iCHEW) in Minneapolis on "Epilepsy Beyond Seizures: the Impact of Epilepsy on Canine Behaviour, Welfare and Cognition". Mixed audience of human neurologists, epilepsy researchers, veterinary neurologists and human patients with epilepsy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk at the 7th Swiss Veterinary Congress, Fribourg, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk "Exploring the behavioural, cognitive and welfare impacts of canine epilepsy" for an audience of veterinary behaviourists and general practice veterinarians in Switzerland. Audience noted that many of my findings were relevant to their own cases and they will think about them differently in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://tieraerztetage.ch/
 
Description Invited talk to Canine Behaviour conference, Kenilworth (UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk on the impact of pain and disease on dog behaviour at the "ACTION Conference: Psychological Trauma in Dogs: Welfare Implications and Treatment Strategies". Requests for talk slides to be made available to a variety of audiences, including veterinary undergraduates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Member of Brachycephalic Working Group, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I am a founding member of the Brachycephalic Working Group (BWG).

The BWG comprises leading UK dog welfare organisations, veterinary organisations, the Kennel Club, scientific & social researchers and relevant breed club representatives. The group aims to improve the health and welfare of brachycephalic (flat faced) dogs by working to improve the conformation-related health of individual dogs as well as also reducing the current trend towards rising demand for these dogs. These aims will be approached by developing a series of actions plans that target the brachycephalic welfare issue at several points.

I provide scientific expertise to this group through my own research (including neurological and respiratory health, and understanding of companion animal owners) and communication of research findings from other international groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL http://www.ukbwg.org.uk/
 
Description Plenary speaker and workshop participant - International Dog Health Workshop, Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was a plenary speaker at the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop in Paris, a workshop attended by a wide audience including scientists, veterinarians, kennel clubs and dog breeders. Following my plenary talk I participated in one of the workshop groups, who will reconvene at the next workshop in 2019 in London. My travel and attendance was supported by a Travel Award from the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://workshop2017.blogs-centrale-canine.fr/plenary-speakers-and-topic
 
Description Presentation at Canine Science Forum, Budapest, Hungary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Packer RMA; Davies A; Volk HA; Fowkes RC (2018) Can we trust the hair of the dog? HPA axis hypoactivity associated with chronic neurological disease and anxiety in domestic dogs

Audience of international canine scientists. New concepts presented to this audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://csf2018.elte.hu/
 
Description Stands at Kennel Club health events in the UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stands at two major Kennel Club events in 2018 to promote epilepsy research activities at RVC, including a stall for 2 days at Discover Dogs (London, UK) and a stall for 1 day at the Breed Health Coordinators Symposium (Kenilworth, UK). Engaging with the public, puppy buyers, breeders and owners. Resulted in increased participation across our epilepsy studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.discoverdogs.org.uk/
 
Description Talk at the 30th ESVN-ECVN Annual Symposium - Helsinki, Finland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Packer RMA; McGreevy PD; Salvin HA; Valenzuela M; Chaplin C; Volk HA. Increased prevalence of canine cognitive dysfunction in dogs with epilepsy. 30th ESVN-ECVN Annual Symposium. Helsinki, Finland, 2016, Audience of veterinary neurology specialists and specialists-in-training. New concepts presented to this audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.vetneuro2017.com/programme
 
Description Talk at the 31st ESVN-ECVN Annual Symposium - Copenhagen, Denmark 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Packer RMA; Davies A; Volk HA; Fowkes RC (2018) HPA axis dysregulation associated with chronic idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. 31st ESVN-ECVN Annual Symposium. Copenhgen, Denmark, 2018.

Audience of veterinary neurology specialists and specialists-in-training. New concepts presented to this audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://vetneuro2018.org/
 
Description Talk at the UFAW Recent advances in animal welfare science VI conference, Newcastle 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Packer, RMA; Fletcher, F; Farnworth, M (2018) "Could not live without one" Factors driving repeated purchase and recommendation of brachycephalic dog . UFAW Recent advances in animal welfare science VI. Newcastle, UK.
Talk to a diverse audience of scientists, policymakers, charities and students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ufaw.org.uk/ufaw-events/recent-advances-in-animal-welfare-science-vi
 
Description University engagement event on Wellbeing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I ran a stall on measuring stress in dogs (focused on epilepsy) at my institutions 'Night at the Vet College' event on Wellbeing along with my UFAW funded summer student. We engaged with students both within our organisation (undergraduates) and students visiting from local schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017