The ABC of fruit-shape formation in the Brassicaceae

Lead Research Organisation: John Innes Centre
Department Name: Crop Genetics

Abstract

Despite the great diversity in plant organ shapes, common principles may underlie shape determination. It has been recognised from the early days of genetics that it is possible to differentiate between gene activities that regulate shape and those that only affect size. Recently, key genetic factors involved in determining shape in domesticated fruit crops such as tomato, melon and pepper have been uncovered. Furthermore, tissue-level models of leaf and petal growth have led to the suggestion that shape depends on patterns of anisotropic growth oriented by a polarity field. We have recently extended these studies by demonstrating that such models also can account for the growth patterns and diversity of three-dimensional fruit shapes.

Angiosperms (flowering plants) evolved during the Cretaceous Period more than 100 million years ago and quickly colonised terrestrial habitats. A major reason for their success was the formation of fruits that protect and nurture the developing seeds. Moreover, a massive range of diversity in fruit shape arose during a relatively short time, which allowed for the development of ingenious ways of fertilisation as well as strategies for efficient seed dispersal. The Brassicaceae family contains a wealth of diversity in fruit morphologies and includes some of our genetically best characterised model plants and important crop species. Thus, the Brassicaceae family provides an ideal group of plants to study how specific shapes are established. Although many genes controlling fruit patterning in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified, processes leading to specific carpel and fruit morphologies are still poorly understood. To unravel these processes, we need to compare the growth and morphological development of differently-shaped fruits.

In this project, we will study the molecular and genetic mechanisms that underlie the formation of fruit shape within the Brassicaceae. We will use computational modelling combined with developmental biology and genetics to help understand this diversity. We recently found that simple modulations of a computational model based on experimental data can account for the observed variety of certain fruit shapes among Brassicaceae species. We will expand these studies and include non-model plants with highly diverse fruit shapes. Beyond the fundamental understanding of organ growth, results from this project should help identify strategies for how knowledge of shape and growth can be applied to increase yield of oilseed rape. More generally, understanding the mechanisms underlying organ-shape determination has implications for diverse disciplines ranging from medicine to crop improvement.

Technical Summary

It was proposed already in the early days of genetics that common principles underlie the determination of plant organ shape. Our recent work on fruit morphology supports this hypothesis and the proposed project is aimed at identifying and characterising the components involved using Brassicaceae fruit development as a testbed.

Fruits exhibit a vast array of different 3D shapes, from simple spheres and cylinders to more complex curved forms. However, the mechanism by which growth is oriented and coordinated to generate this diversity of forms is unclear. We recently compared the growth patterns and orientations that determine two different fruit shapes in the Brassicaceae family: the heart-shaped Capsella silicle and the near-cylindrical Arabidopsis silique. Our data revealed that different shapes arise through different patterns of anisotropic growth. These experimental data can be accounted for by a tissue-level mathematical model in which specified growth rates vary in space and time and are oriented by a proximo-distal polarity field.

The model allows us to identify specific activities required to obtain the individual shapes and thus raises two central questions that will be addressed in this proposal: 1) what are the key regulators of fruit shape? and 2) how do they control patterns of growth and shape in the Brassicaceae? To answer these questions, we will combine developmental genetics and modelling to reveal the role of key regulators of fruit shape based on known players and additional factors identified in a recent forward genetic screen. Moreover, we will expand this analysis with the aim to understand the formation of a range of fruit shapes from non-model species.

Beyond the fundamental knowledge on organ growth, this project will lead to the elucidation of basic principles of organogenesis that may be generally conserved across biological kingdoms, while facilitating new directions for improving traits in seed and fruit crops.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research and how?
A striking difference between fruits from the model plant Arabidopsis and its close crop relative oilseed rape (OSR) is the length of the apical style. Whereas the Arabidopsis style is short and barely visible with the naked eye, the style of an OSR fruit makes up ~25% of the entire fruit length. In addition to a waste of energy in producing this extended structure, long styles pose a serious problem for seed dispersal (pod shatter) as they often get entangled and rip the pods open under windy conditions. Furthermore, precocious style emergence is a common problem for OSR farmers, when the style elongates prematurely and the stigma is separated from its own anthers. If this occurs during cold and humid conditions when natural pollinators such as insects are absent, flowers will fail to produce seeds. Attempts to reduce style development in oilseed rape therefore have great potential to minimise seed loss and align with UK and EU objectives to reduce crop wastage of OSR. Results from this proposal will point out directions for achieving this through regulation of cell division.

Agricultural industry: Pod shatter leads to an average annual loss of ~15% in seed yield. An increase in oilseed rape yield of 15% would equate to an increase in farm-gate value of £160M in the UK and 2 billion Euro based on 2013 prices if implemented across the EU-28. The industry will benefit from technology development to improve yield and to modify pod shape to minimise seed loss due to unsynchronised seed dispersal (pod shatter). The data obtained here may also point out directions for increasing pod size, seed size and seed number through alteration of hormone levels in specific tissues.

Public: The public would benefit from greater stability in production costs, which would impact on prices in the shops. There are also obvious environmental benefits using the technology described here. OSR has emerged as the second largest oilseed crop with an annual worldwide production of 61 million metric tons of oil (2011) and demand is increasing. For this to be sustainable, seed yield must be dramatically increased through more efficient breeding programmes while at the same time minimising the amount of fertiliser input to protect the environment. We believe the data obtained here will help set out strategies to optimise fertility and reduce dispersal, thus contributing significantly towards such a goal.

What will be done to ensure that they have the opportunity to benefit from this research?

Publications: Results will be published in high-impact scientific journals and the breeding/farming press in a timely fashion. It will also be presented at national and international conferences and trade shows.

Collaborations: The PI has strong connections to the international plant science community. This is reflected in the access to the novel and unique resources described in Case for Support, part 2. We also have strong links to the breeding industry and Brassica crop improvement programmes. The data that we obtain will be of immediate use to these interest groups for example via the BBSRC-funded LoLa project BRAVO (headed by the PI), the Defra-funded Oilseed Rape Genetic Improvement Network (OREGIN) and the UK Brassica Research Community. These networks bring together academic researchers and breeding companies, and the members of OREGIN generate pre-breeding material, and have established a number of populations with the aim to improve traits with relevance to fruit morphology as described in this proposal.

Commercialisation: We are dedicated to promote our results for crop improvement purposes. Informal contacts with industrialists, biotechnologists and related umbrella organisations will be made as soon as any exploitable results are generated. We have tight links with relevant industries and will present results to them either when they visit JIC, at conferences or at visits to the companies.
 
Description In this project, we are developing resources to answer questions about the evolution of organ shape and in particular fruit shape. We are using the Arabidopsis and Capsella plant systems as our genetic models. This has required the establishment of key techniques and resources in Capsella. Currently, we developed a mutant population and TILLING platform, transformation procedure, CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene knock-out technology and a range of reporter lines for gene expression as well as for analysing hormone biosynthesis, transport and signalling.
Based on these tools and resources, we have recently published how formation of the shoulders in the Capsella fruits require the biosynthesis of the hormone auxin specifically at the tips. We show that this is facilitated by the INDEHISCENT (IND) gene, which is expressed ectopically in the valves of Capsella compared to the very specific expression pattern in the valve margin cells of Arabidopsis.
On another part of this project, we have identified a number of mutants in our forward genetic screen with altered fruit shape. We have identified the underlying mutation responsible in several cases and future work will be focussed on understanding the functions of the affected genes and potentially develop genetic networks that play a role in formatting the shape of Capsella fruits. Interestingly, one of these genes encode a protein, which we call HEARTBREAK (HTB) that modifies the IND protein post-translationally and we have now identified the amino acid on IND that is targeted by HTB and established the effect on IND activity towards its downstream targets.
Exploitation Route Based on the work funded by this grant, we were invited to write a Primer for the journal Current Biology where we discussed the evolution of fruit shape (Dong and Østergaard, 2019). It is also thanks to the publication of this Primer as well as the article in Current Biology by Dong et al. (2019) that the grant holder was invited to give a talk at the 24th Evolutionary Biology conference to be held in Marseilles September 2020.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description Understanding the effect of N6A-methylation of mRNA in meristem size control 
Organisation University of Copenhagen
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We performed in situ hybridisation on ECT genes and analysis of fruit shape in eat mutants.
Collaborator Contribution The laboratory of Professor Peter Brodersen have characterised a subclass of the ECT family in Arabidopsis both genetically and molecularly.
Impact A manuscript led by Prof Brodersen was submitted to the journal Development including our contribution.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Article STEMM Champion: Sam Fox 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Cambridge Norwich Tech Corridor article about Sam Fox (Coen Lab) as a STEMM Champion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.techcorridor.co.uk/articles/tech-corridor-women-in-steam-the-scientists/
 
Description Chelsea Flower Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 157 000 attendees at the Chelsea Flower Show had the opportunity to Engage with our research at our Silver Award Winning Exhibition at the Chelsea flower show.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://genetics.org.uk/news/centenary-garden-exhibit-at-chelsea-flower-show-2019/
 
Description Interview article in school science magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Sam Fox was interviewed for an article in a school magazine on the 7th March 2018. The interview was about her job as a plant scientist and the route educationally she took to get into that role.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Norwich Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Engagement activities with Norwich Science Festival on how genetics influences how plants grow and plant form
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Plant Genomics Conference (Nanchang, China) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Plant Genomics Conference (Nanchang, China)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at ETH, Z├╝rich, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact An audience of 40-50 members of staff and students at ETH (and neighbouring university) attended my talk on a novel signalling pathway for the plant hormone auxin.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 40-50 members of the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences attended my presentation on a novel auxin signalling pathway. The audience consisted of professors, postdoc, PhD students and technicians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://english.ib.cas.cn
 
Description Presentation at University of Copenhagen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at University of Copenhagen
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at University of Lausanne 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at University of Lausanne
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at the "Auxin and Cytokinin in Plant Development" conference in Prague 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact As part of the 'Auxin and Cytokinin in Plant Development' conference in Prague I was an invited speaker and gave a presentation on a novel auxin signalling pathway.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.acpd2018.org
 
Description Presentation for university students and faculty at University of Wuhan, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation for university students and faculty at University of Wuhan, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Press release: "How Snapdragons keep their colour: signposting trick reveals evolutionary mechanism" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news/how-snapdragons-keep-their-colour-signposting-trick-reveals-evolutionary-...
 
Description Press release: "How Snapdragons keep their colour: signposting trick reveals evolutionary mechanism" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised. The press release led to the following articles:

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/17/science/snapdragons-colors-genes.html

https://www.edp24.co.uk/news/environment/norwich-scientists-discovery-of-genetic-gymnastics-in-snapdragons-brings-new-insight-into-evolution-1-5294260

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/snapdragons-spanish-pyrenees

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171116142146.htm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news/how-snapdragons-keep-their-colour-signposting-trick-reveals-evolutionary-...
 
Description Press release: "Leap forward in understanding plant organ growth" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/press-release/new-model-is-a-leap-forward-in-understanding-plant-organ-growth/
 
Description Press release: "Leaves possess a molecular compass" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news/leaves-possess-a-molecular-compass/
 
Description Press release: "Snapdragon enters the genomic age" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release was completed on the story and released to the John Innes Centre website with a link to collaborators and the paper. The story was also then promoted via the social media platform including Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. To promote the story further distribution platforms including 'Eurekaalert' (for a science specific audience) and 'Vuelio' (for a more general audience) were used. Own contacts were also followed up including local news reporters to ensure the paper and story was well publicised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/press-release/snapdragon-enters-the-genomic-age/
 
Description Science Cafe Public talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Enrico Coen and Scott Boden gave a joint Science Cafe talk entitled 'Cereals and Snapdragons' to the general public in Oct 2018 as a part of the Norwich Science Festival.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Seventh Symposium on Plant Molecular Genetics (Sao Paolo, Brazil) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Brazilian Plant Genetics Scientific Community is hosting its Seventh Symposium on Plant Molecular Genetics, which will be held in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brazil, from April 29 to May 3, 2019.

This is a joint effort between the Brazilian Genetics Society and the plant genetics scientific community to reinforce the need of Brazil to motivate the establishment of a strong research foundation in plant biology, given the importance of agriculture for the Brazilian economy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sbg.org.br/en/events/vii-simposio-brasileiro-de-genetica-molecular-de-plantas/welcome
 
Description Skype interview with MSc student from Central St Martins University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Discussions and advice on carnivorous plants, our research and scientific thinking for creation of an installation exploring plants in the environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Smithsonian magazine coverage of modelling work on how plants make leaves 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Coverage of our Science publication on understanding how leaf shape evolved through the study of carnivorous plants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/deciphering-how-plant-genes-drive-weird-wonderful-dive...
 
Description Soapbox Science Norwich Science Festival: how plants shape their leaves 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On the 27th October 2018 Beccy Horn in the Coen Lab stood on a raised platform in Norwich City Centre and spoke to the genral public about their research that understands how the different shapes of leaves are formed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at FASEB meeting in Vermont, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on genetic control of fruit-shape establishment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Visit to home educated students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Science discussion with home educated school children
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Women of the Future 2017 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The 3rd Women of the Future Conference took place on Wednesday 29th November 2017. 170 young girls from 17 schools across Norfolk and Suffolk attended the unique event. The event is specifically aimed at Year 10 girls, and aims to raise aspirations, broaden horizons and facilitate engagement with world class scientists and leaders and promote careers in STEMM subjects.

The lack of women in STEMM careers continues to be a real cause for concern for employers.

At the John Innes Centre we are committed to promoting equality and diversity for all our staff and students and in addition recognise the importance of inspiring the next generation of female STEMM professionals.

Having first been launched in 2015, this year's event built on the success of the previous two conferences, giving the participants a great chance to meet and speak with more than 27 female role models and exhibitors from a diverse range of industries.

There was also fascinating line-up of speakers that included science author and presenter Dr Emily Grossman, Senior Advisor for Medical Applications at CERN Dr Manjit Dosanjh, and JIC Research Fellow Dr Philippa Borrill.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/blog/women-of-the-future-2017/
 
Description Women of the Future Conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Women of the Future 2018 event took place with 200 girls from yr 10 (14-15 yr olds)

5 GEN female people involved:
-Speakers Jemima Brinton & Mikhaela Neequaye (Jemima is a researcher in crop genetics, Mikhaela is a Phd student in food nutrition). Science Chat on the Sofa with Speakers (Auditorium) -Chaired by Samantha Fox
-Closing Remarks - Samantha Fox
-Meet a professional session: Mikhaela Neequaye, Natalie Wager, Jess Hughes, Penny Hundleby
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/blog/the-story-of-women-of-the-future-2018/
 
Description Workshop on Flower development in Padova, Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on genetic control of fruit-shape establishment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Year 10 Science Camp 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We introduced year 10 science students to life as a scientist and working in our labs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/training-careers/work-experience/year-10-science-camp/
 
Description YouTube video created: Evolutionary Genetics of Snapdragons 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'A Flying Visit to the Antirrhinum Hybrid Zone in the Pyrenees'
Take a tour through the hybrid zone in the Pyrenees where a population of magenta Antirrhinum pseudomajus on the east meets a yellow Antirrhinum striatum population to the west and form a rainbow of hybrid flowers over a 1km stretch. Read about how our study of this region revealed how small RNA helps maintain diversity in the region. The video creates interest and communicates to the general public the research that takes place in the Coen Lab.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=muP7fSn1eaE&feature=youtu.be
 
Description YouTube video: movie explaining the relationship between growth and division in plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sam Fox (Coen Lab) and Ruby O'grady in our communications team created a video explaining the relationship between growth and division in plants after a new model was published. The video had 1587 views from the JIC tweet alone on 13.03.19 and another 250 on the JIC YouTube Channel.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvXBYL7WUDA
 
Description Youth STEMM Award mid-term conference 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 80 students from 8 schools in Norfolk and Suffolk attended the Youth STEMM award mid-term conference on the 26th February 2019. There were 2 talks from John Innes Centre scientists and 10 interactive stands including the Coen Lab, who displayed a range of plants and research, explaining to the students what they do for their job. Feedback from the event indicated that 95% of those that completed a feedback form (53/80) felt the event was informative as it highlighted a range of different STEMM careers out there. 80% said the event had made them inspired to pursue a STEMM related career, or take a STEMM subject at higher education. ""This exhibit has inspired me to take a higher education level in biology or as a job."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Youth STEMM Mid Term conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact On the 6th March 12 schools with 146 students (aged 13-17) participated in the YSA midterm conference at the JIC Conference Centre. The event had a combination of science talks and interactive activities as a part of the STEMM showcase. The Coen lab exhibited their research on evolution, development of shape and form and genetics at the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018