Sustainable futures for the Costa Rica dairy sector: optimising environmental and economic outcomes

Lead Research Organisation: Bangor University
Department Name: Sch of Natural Sciences

Abstract

Expansion of poor quality and low productivity pasture livestock production in Central and Southern America is a major cause of deforestation, and leads to significant environmental pressures including loss of natural capital, air and water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Trade liberalization is causing major structural changes to livestock sectors in Central American countries, with profound implications for the livelihoods of farmers and rural communities, land use policy objectives, climate change, air and water quality, and for other sectors such as tourism that are reliant on natural resources. In this multi-actor, proof of concept project we will integrate measurement and mined data to model a range of scenarios of potential transitions for the dairy sector in Costa Rica, in order to propose promising pathways of sustainable intensification for the dairy and wider land use sectors that balance socio-economic and environmental outcomes.

In this proposal we bring together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with proven expertise of delivering evidence that supports development of practical and cost-effective strategies for livestock production. The project consortium is complemented by a key industrial collaborator in Costa Rica that dominates the dairy sector, accounting for >80% of the dairy processing, and a stakeholder group comprising policy makers for agriculture and environment, other agriculture industry sector bodies, and farmers. Our joint expertise includes soil science; measurements and mitigation of diffuse pollutants to air and water; carbon footprinting and life cycle assessment; agroforestry and livestock production; socio-economics; agricultural economics and extension, and policy formulation. This unique blend of skills is essential to deliver our objectives and to meet GCRF and ODA goals, and to build the interdisciplinary capacity needed to deliver holistic solutions to promote sustainable land use for future livestock production in Central American LMIC countries.

The main aim of this project is to develop sustainable futures for food production in the tropics, using the Costa Rican dairy sector as a case study. The approach we develop will be an exemplar that can be rolled out to other agricultural sectors, to other Central American countries and beyond. To achieve this, the project team will collate existing data of trends in livestock numbers, sectoral greenhouse gas emissions, and other information on energy, water, tree-pasture-animal relations, genetics, and nutrient inputs and outputs, and determine their robustness and suitability for the models the project will develop. We will adopt the best protocols for measuring greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions to air, and nitrate and phosphorus losses to water, on the CATIE dairy farm, and then apply these protocols to three commercial dairy farms of various scales, along an intensification gradient. To build the legacy of the project, we will train Costa Rican and other Central American researchers in a range of diffuse pollution measurement methodologies, as well as in carbon foot-printing, LCA and farm-scale modelling.

Mined and measured data will be used to calculate environmental and economic balances for the CATIE and three commercial dairy farming systems (and their products), and model sensitivity to specific management practices and technologies that would be representative of trends in intensification, as well as explore more sustainable intensification strategies. The measured and modelled data will then be used to scale up and assess the potential trade-offs and synergies for specific dairy development pathways between environmental and productive/economic goals at the national and global level. These findings will be used to advise key actors (Ministries of Agriculture and Environment & Energy, National Milk Chamber - CNPL), via a final Workshop in Costa Rica at the end of the project.

Technical Summary

The aim of this project is to develop sustainable futures for food production in the tropics, using the Costa Rican dairy sector as a case study. Expansion of poor quality and low productivity pasture livestock production in Central and Southern America is a major cause of deforestation, and leads to significant environmental pressures including loss of natural capital, water and air pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. Trade liberalization is causing major structural changes to livestock sectors in Central American countries, with profound implications for the livelihoods of farmers and rural communities, land use policy objectives, climate change, air and water quality, and for other sectors that are reliant on natural resources (tourism). Hence there is a policy imperative to understand the socio-economic and environmental consequences of alternative sustainable intensification (SI) pathways that will deliver both economic prosperity for the dairy industry (farmers and processors) whilst ensuring environmental targets (e.g. carbon neutrality) can be reached. In this multi-actor, proof of concept project we will integrate measurements and mined data to model a range of scenarios of potential transitions for the dairy sector in Costa Rica, in order to propose promising pathways of sustainable intensification for the dairy and wider land use sectors that balance socio-economic and environmental outcomes. The approach we develop will be an exemplar that can be rolled out to other agricultural sectors, to other Central American LMIC countries and beyond. To build the legacy of the project, we will train Costa Rican and other Central American researchers in a range of diffuse pollution measurement methods, as well as in carbon foot-printing, LCA and farm-scale modelling. Project findings will be used to advise key actors (Ministries of Agriculture and Environment & Energy, National Milk Chamber, and the major Dairy cooperative in Costa Rica), via Workshops.

Planned Impact

Policy beneficiaries: Costa Rican dairy production has a high ecological impact, expressed as carbon, nutrient and water footprints at the product and sectoral level - driving climate change and impacting on air and water quality and human health. The sector is under economic pressure to consolidate following regional trade liberalisation, pressure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions owing to a national carbon neutrality target, and pressure to maintain good air and water quality from the country's important eco-tourism sector. Some of these pressures may pull the sector in different directions, and there is concern about the impact of structural change (e.g. farm technological development) on rural livelihoods. Thus, there is a policy imperative to understand the socio-economic and environmental consequences of alternative sustainable intensification (SI) pathways, and specific "Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions" (NAMA) proposed for the sector. This project will address that imperative through research, outreach and capacity building via a consortium of UK and Costa Rican academic organisations and the main Costa Rican dairy cooperative, and by working with key actors such as the Costa Rican Ministry of Agriculture, Environment & Energy and the National Milk Chamber (CNPL) via workshops. Through training in critical farm measurement and modelling approaches, the project will provide an exemplar of dairy SI evaluation and promotion that can be rolled out to other agricultural sectors and to other Central American countries and beyond, addressing GCRF and ODA objectives of strengthening resilience and response to crises, and promoting global prosperity.

Farmer/industry beneficiaries: The project will provide blueprinte for SI of the Costa Rican dairy sector that balances socio-economic and environmental outcomes, safe guarding rural livelihoods. Through a legacy of ongoing research, development and outreach this will be of benefit to farmers, farm suppliers, processors and cooperatives such as Dos Pinos throughout Latin America, and indeed across tropical livestock systems in other regions. The identification of effective NAMA options will also encourage markets in the associated consumables (e.g. seeds and fertiliser products for improved pastures, saplings for agro-forestry) and equipment (e.g. low-emission manure spreaders, biogas infrastructure). Costa Rica has a lucrative eco-tourism sector dependent on its image as a clean, green destination. By identifying SI development pathways and mitigation options for agriculture that minimise air and water pollution, the project will help safe guard the income and livelihoods that depend on tourism, and other sectors deriving value from natural resources.

Academic beneficiaries: Recent studies have quantified environmental footprints of dairy systems in industrialised countries, but there has been little focus on tropical dairy systems, nor on the evaluation of environmental consequences (vs static footprints) arising from structural changes to sector. The Costa Rican dairy sector represents a convenient microcosm and timely focal point for the application of consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) to evaluate current footprints and environmental consequences associated with alternative SI pathways. The project will synthesise existing data and start to fill key gaps through field measurements, providing an evidence base for future research on tropical dairy (and beef) systems. The modelling approach will generate new data of relevance to a wide academic audience looking at SI, whilst also highlighting key data gaps (e.g. tropical/regional emission factors) that will need to be addressed in future field research to accurately evaluate environmental footprints of tropical livestock production. Similarly, the modelling will highlight key socio-economic data requirements for comprehensive SI evaluation, informing future researchers and proposals.
 
Description The research has determined that there are different perceptions of how dairy farming in Costa Rica will react to the removal of import tarrifs on milk and milk products, by different stakeholder groups. However, there is some concensus on how dairy farmers may need to improve resource use efficiency.

There is a paucity of data on greenhouse gas and ammonia emisison measurements from Costa Rican / Latin American livestock systems.

Measured ammonia emissions appear lower from grazed pastures than data from Western Europe. This may be because of the high rainfall in the tropics washing urea into the soil
Exploitation Route Additional research is needed to generate data to underpin more accurate GHG and ammonia emission inventories, as well as environmental footprints, that reflect the agroclimate conditions, forages and N management,for Latin American agricultural production systems, including dairy and beef farms.

The data bases that we are generating in the SusCoRiDa project, via measurments, modelling and structured reviews will be made available to other researchers..
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

URL http://suscorida.bangor.ac.uk/project.php.en
 
Description Final project workshop with Costa Rican stakeholders. Sustainable futures for the Costa Rica dairy sector: Optimizing environmental and economic outcomes (SusCoRiDa). 9th Oct 2019
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://catie.ac.cr/en/catie-news/4057-results-of-two-years-of-research-on-the-sustainability-of-the...
 
Description Training in LCA and carbon footprinting - 30 participants from the Dairy Industry (Dos Pinos, Sigma Alimentos, Chamber of Milk Production, Dairy Farmers), Beef Industry (CORFOGA), Policy (Ministry of Agriculture), Advisors (INTA, INIA), Research (UNA, CATIE)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Training in ammonia emissions and nutrient leaching measurements
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL http://www.suscorida.bangor.ac.uk/results.php.en
 
Description : Bangor University GCRF funding - International Workshop at CATIE (Costa Rica) on 24-26 April 2019: Tropical pastures in a changing environment: development of an international research collaboration in Latin America and the Carribean
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation Bangor University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 06/2019
 
Description CLIFF-Grads student - Ridha Ibidhi (Tunisia)
Amount $10,000 (USD)
Funding ID CLIFF-GRAD award for a Tunisian student to work across this GCRF project and a UK NRN project: Identifying hotspots of GHG emissions in dairy systems and associated efficiency gains 
Organisation Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country New Zealand
Start 06/2018 
End 12/2018
 
Description Economic implications of greenhouse gas mitigation from dairy and beef systems - Titis Apdini
Amount $10,000 (USD)
Funding ID 2019 CLIFFGRAD 
Organisation Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country New Zealand
Start 06/2019 
End 12/2019
 
Description Measuring ammonia emissions and collecting farm data form Costa Rican dairies - Ricardo González Quintero (Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia)
Amount $10,000 (USD)
Funding ID 2019 CLIFFGRAD 
Organisation Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country New Zealand
Start 02/2019 
End 08/2019
 
Description CATIE 
Organisation Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center
Country Costa Rica 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bangor University are leading the GCRF project that CATIE is working on. We are providing training to researchers and industry in LCA approaches for determining the wider environmental consequences of current and future dairying systems. We are also providing training in nutrient leaching losses from Costa Rican soils.
Collaborator Contribution CATIE are a key project partner in this GCRF project. They recieve a subcontract from Bangor University (costed into the proposal. CATIE have a full time post-doc on the project - responsble for making measurements of ammonia emissions and nutrient leaching from the CATIE and 3 commercial farms. The post-doc is also collating farm-scale economic and activity data for determining C and other environmental footprints of produciton. CATIE provide the link to other Costa Rican researchers (e.g. at UNA, NAtional Universityy of Costa Rica) and Industries (e.g. Dos Pinos - the major dairy processor in Costa Rica; and the National Chamber of Milk Production). CATIE also has links to other Central American countries - so will help provide the wider and longer legacy of this capacity building project. CATIE will host numerous training workshops for researchers and agricultural advisors from Costa Rica and the wider countries in CA.They porvide in-kind contributions to the project through use of their commerical dairy farm for measurements and modelling.
Impact CATIE and Bangor Univ have collaborated via post-graduate programmes in the past. We also completed a UK Science and Innovation Fund project on 'Evidence based decision making: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) for the livestock sector of Costa Rica' in 2016.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Costa Rica University (UNA) 
Organisation University of Costa Rica
Country Costa Rica 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bangor University and RRes will be training researchers in LCA and nutrient loss measurements.
Collaborator Contribution UNA have expertise in pasture and livestock agronomy - and will contribute to discussions about GHG and ammonia mitigation, as well as nutrient us on Costa Rican dairy farms.
Impact none yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Data and model sharing with Wageningen University and CATIE 
Organisation Wageningen University & Research
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Maria Aguilar Dulce is an MSc student registered at Wageningen University. She is supervised by Dr Claudia Sepulveda from CATIE. Her research is to explore the environmental impacts of beef and dairy farm production from different farm typologies in Mexico. Sheis using the Life Cycle Assessment tool that we have developed in the SusCoRiDa project.
Collaborator Contribution Maria is assessing the effects of farm management on the environmental impacts of beef and dairy production in Mexico. We will be able to copmare the results fomr Mexican dairy and beef farms with the data we generate from Costa Rican systems
Impact None yet - but we hope to write joint publications with Maria and her supervisors
Start Year 2018
 
Description Data and moidel sharing with Technilogical Univesity of Costa Rica 
Organisation Technical University of Costa Rica
Country Costa Rica 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The SusCoRida project has collated and processed the Costa Rican Ministry of Agriculture agriculture census data. Laura Brenes (a PhD student from UTN) is using this database for her project, where she is focussing on the environmental and economic outcomes of artisnal milk production. For the evaluating these impacts she is also using the Life Cycle Assessment tool that the SusCoRiDa project has developed.
Collaborator Contribution Laura Bernes (PhD student) is using the database and tool. We will be able to compliment our understanding of the impacts of the formal dairy sector with Laura's kwnoledge of the informal sector.
Impact None yet - but we expect to publish papers with Laura and her supervisors.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Dos Pinos 
Organisation Dos Pinos
Country Costa Rica 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Dos Pinos is the major milk processor in COsta Rica. Bangor University will be collating Dos Pinos farm-level data for generation of farm typologies for future modelling purposes.
Collaborator Contribution Dos Pinos will provide farm-level dairy production data for it's farms. Dos Piunos will also provide important input into the decision about which future dairy produciton pathways that the modelling team will explore.
Impact none yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Instituto Nacional de Innovación y Transferencia en Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) 
Organisation National Institute of Innovation and Transfer in Agricultural Technology
Country Costa Rica 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Bangor University lead the project that INTA are providing in-kind contributions to. Bangor Univ and RRes provide training in nuytrient loss measurements and LCA to INTA researchers.
Collaborator Contribution INTA in an applied research institution with excellent links to farmers, farmer discussion groups and industry - thus helping with porject awareness, knowledge transfer and a group of stakeholders for e.g. discussing a range of future dairy production pathways with.
Impact none
Start Year 2014
 
Description Internship at CATIE - Charlotte Lopez 
Organisation University of Exeter
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Charlotte spent 1 month as an intern at CATIE learning how to conduct ammonia emission measurements with Dr Claudia ARndt (the SusCoRiDa post-doc at CATIE)
Collaborator Contribution CATIE and the SusCoRiDa project provided supervision and training.
Impact Non.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Ministry of Agriculture (Cost Rica) 
Organisation Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Costa Rica
Country Costa Rica 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution BAngor Univesity and CATIE will be modelling MoA dairy farm acitvity datasets
Collaborator Contribution The MoA will provide naitonal datasets for deriving dairy farm typologies for modelling current and future dairy produciton pathways (for economic and environmental outcomes)
Impact none yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Model sharing with CIAT (Cali), colombia 
Organisation CGIAR
Department International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Country Colombia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution In the SusCoRiDa projects, we have developed a Life Cycle Assessment tool to explore the environmental and economic impacts of dairy production systems in Costa Rica
Collaborator Contribution John Gutierrez, Researcher at CIAT Cali is using the Life Cycle Assessment toole we developed in the SusCoRiDa project to assess alternative forage systems in the RCUK-CIAT Newton Fund project "Tropical forage-based diets for Colombian cattle
Impact None yet. But we aim to publish together
Start Year 2018
 
Description Rothamsted Research 
Organisation Rothamsted Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution BAngor University lead the GCRF proposal that RRes are contributing to. Bangor has provided new research links for RRes by introduction to new collaborators in Central America. We are slo providing training in LCA.
Collaborator Contribution RRes provide an essential training element to the project - training post-docs in the GCRF project, as well as researchers in COsta Rica and wider Central America in ammonia emission measurements.
Impact BAngor Univ and RRes have generated many academic outputs in the past - many with policy implications e.g. in terms of quantifying greenhouse gas emissions for inventory purposes.
 
Description Ammonia emission and nutrient leaching training workshop in Costa Rica 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This GCRF project has a capacity building element, and the aim is to train researchers and stduents from different institutions in Costa Rica (and other Central American countries) in environmental measuremetns and modelling. In this 3 day training workshop, Bangor University and Rothamsted Research provided training in ammonia emission measurements and nutrient losses via leaching from fields (following urea fertiliser and digestate applications) 3-5 October 2017. 12 participants from CATIE, the University of Cost Rica (UNA), Dos Pinos (the largets milk processing company in Costa Rica) participated in a theoretical and pracctical (hands-on) training event. Training in ammonia emission measurements involved the use of the micro-meteorological integrated horixzontal flux (IHF) methods using passive ammonia samplers (shuttles), whilst nturient leaching measurement training was in the use of porous teflon cups buried below the rooting depth. The workshop complrised background/contexual presentations, theory, demonstration at the CATIE farm, lab preparation of samples, and data processing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Dairy Intensification Worksop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team (from the UK and Costa Rica, including wider project partners in Costa Rica) participated in the NRN Workshop on 26th Septmber in Birmingham, called " Resolving scale discrepancies in evaluation of sustainable intensification pathways for dairy and beef farms". The workshop was attended by 26 delegates from six countries and 14 institutions including the UN FAO, Wageningen Research, Teagasc, National University of Costa Ricaand AHDB Dairy. The project team discussed methods for calculating GHG emissions and C footprints using different LCA approaches, at different scales. Presentations were made on dairy farm intensification in the UK (Styles, Gibbons), in Costa Rica (Brook, Mazzetto), in Ireland (Shalloo) and in the Netherlands (Vellinga).Following discussions around dairy sector intensification trends in each of these countries, the
workshop was divided into four groups addressing particular aspects of sustainability relating to dairy intensification. A workshop report can be found at http://www.nrn-lcee.ac.uk/documents/RDF_014_SI_Pathways_Dairy-Beef_Farming_26Sep17_RDF_FinalReport.pdf, and a research paper is currently being written.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.nrn-lcee.ac.uk/documents/RDF_014_SI_Pathways_Dairy-Beef_Farming_26Sep17_RDF_FinalReport.p...
 
Description Follow up meeting with CORFOGA (Costa Rica's Beef producer organisation) to discuss future dairy production pathways and konwck on impacts on the beef industry (Jan 2020)) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact In the latter stages of the project, the SusCoRiDa team has focussed on estimating the wider environmental and economic impacts of the reduction in tariffs for imported milk into Costa Rica. It is important to determine the likely future production pathways for milk production as these tariff reductions phase in. To achieve this we have engaged with a nimberof stakeholder groups - including the Corfoga. This meeting was to follow up a previous meeting when we disucssed potential future pathways, and a written request to comment on the subsequent scenarios that we developed. So in this meeting we presented some preliminary results of the LCA outputs using different future pathwas scenarios, and asked for feedback.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Follow up meeting with INTA (Costa Rica's Advisory Service for livestock production) to discuss future dairy production pathways (Jan 2020) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact In the latter stages of the project, the SusCoRiDa team has focussed on estimating the wider environmental and economic impacts of the reduction in tariffs for imported milk into Costa Rica. It is important to determine the likely future production pathways for milk production as these tariff reductions phase in. To achieve this we have engaged with a nimberof stakeholder groups - including INTA. This meeting was to follow up a previous meeting when we disucssed potential future pathways, and a written request to comment on the subsequent scenarios that we developed. So in this meeting we presented some preliminary results of the LCA outputs using different future pathwas scenarios, and asked for feedback.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Future dairy production pathways in Costa Rica (following reductions in import tariffs on milk products) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact During 29th October - 2nd November 2018, the project team met individually with representatives from the Costa Rican dairy industry: Sigma Alimentos and Dos Pinos (Milk processing companies), the CNPL (the National chamber of milk producers), GORFOGA (beef co-operation), INTA (the National Institute of Innovation and Transfer of Technologies in Agrobusiness) and othe commercial agriculture advisors, and 4 commerical dairy farmers. (The team also met with a representative from the Ministry of Agriculture) The meetings were to discuss their perceptions and attitudes to the impending removal of tariffs on dairy products imported into Costa Rica, and specifically how these organisations thought the dairy sector would react. e.g. did they believe that some farm typologies would go out of business whilst others would prevail (and intensify)? What changes in farm management practices would they suggest would occur - as these could have a major influence on the environmental and economic performance of farms, and this is what the SusCoRiDa project is studying. The project team will generate several future pathways for the dairy sector based on these discussions, and then model the economic and environmenal outcomes of these once the stakeholder group has agreed with the detail of the model pathways.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Future dairy production pathways in Costa Rica (following reductions in import tariffs on milk products) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact During 29th October - 2nd November 2018, the project team met individually with representatives from the following universities (not currently formal project partners): NAtional University of Costa Rica, (veterinary and livestock database experts); University of Costa Rica (pasture management and agricultural economics), National Technical University of Costa Rica (environmental experts, including greenhous gas emissions from livestock systems). The meetings were to discuss their perceptions and attitudes to the impending removal of tariffs on dairy products imported into Costa Rica, and specifically how these organisations thought the dairy sector would react. e.g. did they believe that some farm typologies would go out of business whilst others would prevail (and intensify)? What changes in farm management practices would they suggest would occur - as these could have a major influence on the environmental and economic performance of farms, and this is what the SusCoRiDa project is studying. The project team will generate several future pathways for the dairy sector based on these discussions, and then model the economic and environmenal outcomes of these once the stakeholder group has agreed with the detail of the model pathways.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Future dairy production pathways in Costa Rica (following reductions in import tariffs on milk products) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact During 29th October - 2nd November 2018, the project team met individually with representatives from the Costa Rican Ministry of Agriculture (and dairy industry). The meetings were to discuss their perceptions and attitudes to the impending removal of tariffs on dairy products imported into Costa Rica, and specifically how these organisations thought the dairy sector would react. e.g. did they believe that some farm typologies would go out of business whilst others would prevail (and intensify)? What changes in farm management practices would they suggest would occur - as these could have a major influence on the environmental and economic performance of farms, and this is what the SusCoRiDa project is studying. The project team will generate several future pathways for the dairy sector based on these discussions, and then model the economic and environmenal outcomes of these once the Ministry of agriculturue representative has agreed with the detail of the model pathways.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview for web-based article for BBC News Mundo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Andre Mazzetto was interviewed by Alejandra MArtins from BBSC News Mundo in DEcember 2018. The interview focussed on how human dietary change, and particularly a reduction in beef consumption (and hence production) would reduce the effects of climate change. The title of the article that was published on BBC Mundo was: Es Es dejar de comer carne de vaca realmente una solucion para el cambio climatico?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-46554014
 
Description Life Cycle Assessment Lectures for Training Workshop at CIHEAM, Zaragoza 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact David Styles delivered Life Cycle Assessment lectures at CIHEAM IAM Zaragoza, 11-14th February 2019, for an advanced course "Livestock and climate change: Assessment of emissions, mitigation options and adaptation strategies". The SusCoRiDa project was featured in these lectures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Meeting with the Cost Rica Chamber of Milk Production to discuss potential future pathways of dairy production (Jan 2020) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact In the latter stages of the project, the SusCoRiDa team has focussed on estimating the wider environmental and economic impacts of the reduction in tariffs for imported milk into Costa Rica. It is important to determine the likely future production pathways for milk production as these tariff reductions phase in. To achieve this we have engaged with a nimberof stakeholder groups - including the Chambre of Milk Production. This meeting was to follow up a previous meeting when we disucssed potential future pathways, and a written request to comment on the subsequent scenarios that we developed. So in this meeting we presented some preliminary results of the LCA outputs using different future pathwas scenarios, and asked for feedback.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participation on Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Claudia Arndt participated on the Global Research Alliance - Livestock Research Group meeting in Vietnam
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation on Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Andre Mazzetto participated on the Workshop "Sustainable Intensification and Valuing Nature in Dialogue: enabling researchers to work accross environtment".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participation on Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr David Styles and Dr Andre Mazzetto participated on the workshop "Future priorities for UK upland land use"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation on Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Dave Chadwick, Dr Tom Misselbrook and Dr Andre Mazzetto participated on the workshop "Defra SIP Workshop - Meeting UK GHG emission reduction targets for the livestock (red meat) sector: identifying on-farm challenges and priorities"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participation on Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Claudia Arndt and Dr Andre Mazzetto participated on the workshop "Farm typologies in Latin America"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster at a National Conference in Costa Rica 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Claudia Arndt presented a poster at the CAmbio Climatico y dessarollo de ganaderia con bajas emissiones en America LAtina y el Caribe: Conocimientos, politicas y requisitos para la formulacion de proyectos de inversion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at a CORFOGA Workshop on Farm Typologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presnetations and participation by Andre Mazzetto, Andres Vega and Claudia Arndt at a FONTAGRO Workshop on Farm Typologies in Latin America
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the University of Costa Rica 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Andre Mazzetto gave a seminar at the Univerity of cOsta Rica, on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy and Beef Production
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to Central American researchers and researchers from the Carribean 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The SusCoRiDa post-doc based in CATIE (Costa Rica), Dr Claudia Arndt, presented to visitors from Central America from the Carribean - raising awareness of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to the Colwyn Bay Civic Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Andre Mazzetto presented to the Colwyn Bay Civic Society on, The main sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food PRoduction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentations at the NRN Workshop: Resolving Scale Discrepencies in evaluation of sustainable intensification pathways for dairy and beef farmers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dave Styes organised the workshop
Rob brook presented; An Introduction to the Aims and Objetcives of the SusCoRiDa project
Andre Mazzetto presented: Dairy and BEef Produciton in Costa Rica
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presnetation to PITTA (Progam of Reseach and Transfer of Livestock and Cropping Technology) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact CLaudia Arndt made a presentation about the aims and objectives of the SusCoRiDa project to the PITTA, and presented some preliminary results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Structure survey of 28 dairy farmers in Costa Rica 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact From 17th September to 26th September we conducted farm visits to interview 28 dairy farmers in the San Carlos region of Costa Rica. This is the most important dairy producing regions in Costa Rica. The survey was conducted to generate information to be used in the Life Cycle Assessment (and Future Pathways assessment) for evaluating enviornmental ipacts of dairy farming. The survey complrised questions about: farm size, numbers of livestock, feed management, pasture management, nutrient and soil management, labour, future plans for the business.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Student Lectures to Silvo Pastoral Systems MSC students 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Andre Mazzetto presented to MSc students on: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Soil and Life Cycle Assessments.
Claudia Arndt presented to MSc students on: Ammonia emissions and nutrient leachign field measurements
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop with >50 Costa Rican Dairy farmers to discuss the Carbon Footprints that the project team had produced using their farm activity data 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The SusCoRiDa project team engaged with dairy farmers from different typologies in Costa Rica trhoughout the project, to explore the impact of current farm practices on environmental burdens, including carbon footprints of production. We had obtained farm 'activity' data from Industry databases and from structured interviews. We ran the carbon footprinting tool that we had optimised during the SusCoRiDa project on these farms and provided written reports to each of the farmers in advance of this workshop where we discussed the information, and importantly messages about how to reduce GHG emissions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020