Reducing the Economic and Zoonotic Impact of Avian Influenza (REZIAI): delivering novel vaccines and diagnostics from laboratory to the field.

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: Avian Influenza

Abstract

Safe and disease-free poultry production systems are crucial for maintaining global food supplies and improving the livelihoods of smallholder farming communities. However, emergence, re-emergence, and continued prevalence of a diverse range of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in recent years threaten the sustainable growth of the poultry sector. Furthermore, continued circulation of these viruses in birds remains a credible threat for zoonotic infection and pandemic emergence. This is specifically impacting the socio-economic well-being of low-income farmers in the low and middle-income countries (LMIC) such as Vietnam and Pakistan, where a high proportion of the farming workforce are women and young people, and poultry farming is one of the main sources of their livelihood. Control of these viruses presents formidable challenges to public health and veterinary infrastructures. Despite implementing disease control approaches including culling of infected and contact flocks, movement restrictions, and vaccination, viruses continue to cause devastating damage to poultry production in Pakistan and Vietnam. Continuous prevalence of these viruses in birds increases the opportunity for world-wide dissemination through trade and migratory birds. Specific and accurate detection of circulating viruses and vaccination is the key control measure employed to reduce disease impact. However, these viruses evolve over time acquiring antigenic changes resulting in vaccine and diagnostics failure. Therefore, improved disease control is critical for breaking the endemic cycle of these viruses within farming systems.

The work under ZELS programme developed knowledge in how AIVs evade vaccine induced immunity in poultry. The project also developed new vaccine technologies and used avian viruses as vaccine vectors to protect chickens and ducks from avian influenza together with Marek's disease and duck plague respectively. Additionally, we developed diagnostic assays that can be used for rapid detection and differentiation of different AIVs subtypes near the flock-side. We also estimated the zoonotic risks of AIV to farming communities in Vietnam and cost of disease impacting poultry rearing systems in Pakistan.

This project will utilise these data sets, resources and technologies to further improve vaccines and diagnostics and transfer them to the collaborating laboratories in Vietnam and Pakistan. This will increase their capacity and capability to produce in country next generation innovative disease control tools. Estimating losses in the poultry value chain due to AIV infection and the potential benefits of new improved disease control systems will increase the confidence of farmers to new technical solutions protecting animals along with themselves from infectious viral diseases.

Altogether, increasing capacity and capability for local production of improved disease control tools will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare, whilst also reducing possible zoonotic transmission to humans. Thus, the proposed research partnership will provide direct benefits to farming communities and substantial indirect economic, public health, environmental and social benefits on a global scale.

Technical Summary

Avian influenza viruses are causing devastating economic losses to the poultry industry in Vietnam and Pakistan. Vietnam has experienced worse zoonotic transmission of AIV H5N1 resulting in over 127 human infections with 64 deaths. Pakistan poultry have been suffering from H9N2 since late 1990s. To reduce the impact of these viruses multiple doses of vaccines are being used, however, in many cases the effectiveness remains suboptimal due to rapid viral evolution. The work undertaken under ZELS programme identified large antigenic diversity among the H5 and H9 viruses isolated from poultry outbreaks in Vietnam and Pakistan respectively. These antigenic variants have the ability to evade vaccine immunity and continue to circulate in vaccinated flocks. Our analysis also observed that the available diagnostics fail to optimally diagnose these emergent variant strains. To address these challenges, we developed novel viral vectors (herpes virus of turkey (HVT) and duck enteritis virus (DEV)-based recombinant vaccines that afford complete protection from a single subtype of viruses. We also developed novel dual recognition element lateral flow assay (DRELFA) device which pairs a nucleic acid aptamer with an antibody for use as a point-of-care platform that can detect and differentiate variant strains of influenza viruses. However, in the field multiple subtypes and multiple antigenic variants persists. Therefore, there is a need to develop tailor-made vaccines and diagnostics that target field variants. This project will utilize the resources generated through ZELS project and implement these technologies at the collaborating laboratories to produce in-country novel vaccines and diagnostics that target emergent variants infecting poultry in a target region. In addition, the project will investigate the disease impact on farmers; realise the socio-economic benefits for the optimal use of different control strategies to protect livelihoods, public health, and food security.

Planned Impact

Endemic prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in many countries in Asia continues to threaten the sustainability of poultry production systems and the livelihoods in rural communities of Low and Middle- income countries including Vietnam and Pakistan. Although new and improved technologies are most certainly required for better disease control in poultry, the development and deployment of technical solutions will require a multidisciplinary approach, and in-depth understanding of the socio-economic and behavioural factors that drive AIV disease (re)emergence. Many AIV subtypes are 'silent' or of low pathogenicity in poultry yet have the potential to cause significant public health risks. Therefore, the control of AIV can result in conflict between stakeholder communities, where risk mitigation must be balanced with preserving economic livelihoods. Our proposed research will provide integrated and innovative approaches by harnessing expertise in the UK, Pakistan and Vietnam. The research will improve and deliver approaches for prevention and control of AIV. The availability of cost-effective, improved and locally produced disease control tools will contribute to the sustainability of poultry production and improvement of animal welfare, livelihoods and food security. Thus, the strategic objectives of this partnership are aligned with the long-term goals of many stakeholders with an interest in animal health, public health and food security such as Department for International Development (DFID), World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), World Health Organisation (WHO), partner institutions, and their national government agencies (BBSRC, MRC, DEFRA).

The outcomes of this research will be communicated to stakeholders via multiple mechanisms. Adoption of the DFID Research Open and Enhanced Access Policy will ensure use of public databases and information sharing. Data and reagents will be shared promptly via peer-reviewed open access journals, through multilingual websites and presentations at conferences and workshops. Public engagement aspects of the project are being facilitated through community forums with farmers groups, and through local TV and radio coverage.

The PIs have experience collaborating with potential beneficiaries outside the immediate academic community, including governmental and non-governmental organizations and the corporate sector.
Knowledge exchange and commercialisation activities will be managed through Business Development Officers who will lead on any detailed identification of and discussions with potential business partners. Socio-economic issues involved in uptake of veterinary vaccines and diagnostics will be evaluated by community-based participatory research activities in farming communities. We are committed to performing high calibre research and to training the next generation of scientists for multi-disciplinary research that addresses priority concerns of global health, infectious disease epidemiology, vaccinology and diagnostics.
 
Description We used a combination of emerging molecular virology, immunology and vaccinology techniques to provide an enhanced understanding of the molecular determinants in the haemagglutinin (HA) proteins of H9 viruses that drive antigenic variability and vaccine failure. We identified amino acid substitutions essential for the ability of mutant viruses to escape immune pressure and alter antigenicity compared with the wild type H9N2 viruses.

. We find evidence for the importance of other mechanisms of immune escape, with substitutions increasing glycosylation or receptor-binding avidity exhibiting the largest impacts on chicken antisera binding. Of these, meta-analysis indicates avidity regulation to be more relevant to the evolution of circulating viruses, suggesting that a specific focus on avidity regulation is required to fully understand the molecular basis of influenza virus antigenicity, immune escape and vaccine failure. These results will guide surveillance efforts against arising antigenic variants as well as evidence-based vaccine seed selection and vaccine design.
Exploitation Route The work has been published and presented in scientific meetings. We and researchers around the world are using our findings and methods to improve control systems against influenza viruses.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Our antigen targeting vaccine (ATV) systems specifically target antigen to chickens' immune cells enhancing uptake and presentation of HA antigens eliciting rapid, strong and durable immunity in vaccinated chickens. In addition, our novel passive immunization approaches induce immediate protection, overcoming maternally derived antibodies and protecting immunocompromised birds. We have also developed lateral flow assays for the detection and differentiation of different subtypes of AIV infecting poultry. We are currently transferring these highly protective and cost-effective disease control tools and strategies from laboratory to the field for an effective management of AIV infections in poultry.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Cultural,Economic

 
Description Commonwealth Scholarship. Molecular determinants impacting avian influenza H9N2 virus evolution, replication fitness and virulence
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID LKCS-2019- 665 
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 10/2022
 
Description Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells
Amount £98,212 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R50595X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Pirbright Institute Flexible Talent Mobility Account
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S507945/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description BBSRC - Oxford University iCASE Studentship (October 2019- September 2023). Production and assessment of antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry production 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration between The Pirbright Institute (UK), Oxford University (UK) and industrial partners in Italy. This project will conceived and developed bu MI. The PhD student (Holly Everest) in my group is investigating the antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry production.
Collaborator Contribution The partners in Italy will produce and purify natural antiviral molecules effective against avian influenza and other poultry viruses.
Impact This project started in January 2020.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Commonwealth Scholarship. Molecular determinants impacting avian influenza H9N2 virus evolution, replication fitness and virulence 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I develop a research project proposal in which we are investigating how evolutionary changes in the H9N2 avian influenza virus modulate virus fitness and virulence in chickens. This PhD studentship project was funded by Commonwealth scholarship commission for 3 years.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating Partner Dr Nicola Lewis at Royal Veterinary College is a co-supervisor of the PhD student Thusitha Karunarathna. she provide necessary guidance to achieve prescribed objectives of this project.
Impact The project is at its initial stage.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We developed research programme to characterise diversity of antigenic epitopes induce protective immunity in chickens against H5 subtypes of avian influenza viruses.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborating partner Dr Nicola Lewis at Royal Veterinary College provide advise to on cartography programme to visualize the antigenic similarity or difference among different strains of influenza viruses.
Impact The work under this collaborative determined the antigenic differences among different clades of H5 avian influenza viruses circulating in birds. This project is multi-disciplinary. our laboratory mainly work on virology and immunology part of the project and we seek help on computer modeling part from the collaborating partner Dr Nicola Lewis.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Rapid acquisition of mammalian characteristics by avian influenza virus in single host infections. 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided reagents and day to day technical help for undertaking this project and supervising postdoctoral researcher working on this project. Reagents include influenza reverse genetic plasmids and H9N2 and H7N9-specific antibodies.
Collaborator Contribution this project will aim to understand AIV genetics that facilitate the rapid acquisition of mammalian adaptation characteristics in a single host infection. The partners with our collaborations determined adaptive genetic changes in the H9N2 avian influenza virus following infection in mice (mammalian hosts). Different strains of avian influenza Viruses generated by reverse gentic techniques were inoculated into mice and lungs sampled daily. RNA recovered from lung homogenates were deep sequenced and mutations arising were characterised for adaptation. Relative viral fitness and the rapidity of the accumulation of mutations was measured and compared amongst the viral strains.
Impact The results of the our experimental studies showed the avian-origin viruses rapidly acquired mutations that increase virus fitness in mammalian species. Therefore, these viruses pose zoonotic and pandemic threat to public health.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Rapid acquisition of mammalian characteristics by avian influenza virus in single host infections. 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided reagents and day to day technical help for undertaking this project and supervising postdoctoral researcher working on this project. Reagents include influenza reverse genetic plasmids and H9N2 and H7N9-specific antibodies.
Collaborator Contribution this project will aim to understand AIV genetics that facilitate the rapid acquisition of mammalian adaptation characteristics in a single host infection. The partners with our collaborations determined adaptive genetic changes in the H9N2 avian influenza virus following infection in mice (mammalian hosts). Different strains of avian influenza Viruses generated by reverse gentic techniques were inoculated into mice and lungs sampled daily. RNA recovered from lung homogenates were deep sequenced and mutations arising were characterised for adaptation. Relative viral fitness and the rapidity of the accumulation of mutations was measured and compared amongst the viral strains.
Impact The results of the our experimental studies showed the avian-origin viruses rapidly acquired mutations that increase virus fitness in mammalian species. Therefore, these viruses pose zoonotic and pandemic threat to public health.
Start Year 2018
 
Description The Pirbright "Livestock Antibody Hub" funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Me and my team established collaboration in the "Livestock Antibody Hub" funded ($5.5 million) by the from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Focus of our partnership is to develop techniques and capacity to analyse immune cells (B cells) of cattle, poultry and pigs that produce virus neutralizing antibodies. This research will support rational development of next generation of vaccines and to explore antibody-based passive immunization approaches for treatment and prophylaxis of infectious viral diseases affecting livestock and humans. Our initial focus is to target major animal viral pathogens that cause severe losses within Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) animal production systems including avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).
Collaborator Contribution This is a collaborative project and partners are providing help in provision of reagents and techniques for analysis of diversity of B cells repertoire that produce infleunza virus-specific antibodies, single cell sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. This project will further strengthen our on-going research collaborations with many research groups in academia as well as with animal health industry (Zoetis, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Merck, CEVA, Jovac, YeBio, ILRI, Galvmed, The Roslin Institute, HuMabs, AbCellera and Distributed Bio) to take the research outputs from laboratory to the field. The outputs of research will be improved vaccines and diagnostics enabling to reduce the impact of infectious diseases on farm animals, which offer substantial direct and indirect economic, public health, environmental and social benefits to the UK and rest of the world.
Impact Development of passive immunization approaches against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry (project incited in January 2020).
Start Year 2020
 
Description BBSRC Partnering Seminar, University of Liverpool, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Science University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk presented entitled " Molecular determinants of antigenicity of H7 and H9 avian Influenza viruses". The research data shared with the colleagues working to reduce the impact of avian infectious diseases on poultry production. The discussion led to more collaboration and work together, acquiring reagents and protocols for further research and development activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Deimante Lukosaityte: Microbiology Society conference 2019. Poster presentation: Chicken protection against H9N2 virus by passive immunization 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Described techniques for development of next generation of vaccines against viral diseases affecting animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Determinants of antigenicity of H9 Avian Influenza Viruses. UK-China Swine and Poultry Workshop.17-18 June 2019, The Pirbright Institute, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Identification of antigenic epitopes to broaden and enhance the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines. Presented at 6th Animal Vaccines and immune Adjuvant Technologies Salon & Advanced seminar, Shandong-Binzhou Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Academy, China, 18-20 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Improving vaccines and diagnostics for Avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Presented at the International Poultry Expo "Poultry Science Conference", Lahore, Pakistan, 13-15 September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Innovate Guildford (Angita Shrestha): 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact GENERAL SCIENCE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Lorin Adams (Gordon's School Careers Fair) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Describe the research that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Molecular Determinants for Antigenicity and Vaccine Efficacy of H9 and H7 Avian Influenza Viruses. Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop: Novel vaccines and diagnostics technologies against Emerging and re-emerging veterinary Pathogens. 4-7 February 2019 at Rizal Pak Hotel, Manila, Philippines. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Molecular determinants modulating avian influenza H7N9 virus antigenicity. Presented at The Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2019, 8-11 April ICC Belfast, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Molecular determinants of antigenicity of H7 and H9 avian Influenza viruses. Presented as invited speaker at BBSRC UK-India Partnering Award seminar: University of Liverpool. 2 May 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Munir Iqbal: Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Describe the research that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pengxiang Chang: Talk presentation:The application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in the generation of viral vectored avian influenza vaccines at Microbiology Society conference, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of vaccines to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://microbiologysociety.org/event/annual-conference/annual-conference.html
 
Description Pengxiang Chang: UK-China Newton Fund (Poultry and swine) workshop at The Pirbright Institute.Oral presentation:Avian Influenza H7N9 Antigenic markers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pengxiang Chang:Influenza update meeting. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 in the development of vaccines against avian influenza virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Described techniques to improve and produce new effective vaccines against viral diseases of animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting hosted by Al Dousari Veterinary Services and Agriculture Co (Qatar ) in Qatar, 15 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The focus of talk was best practices for prevention and control of Avian influenza disease outbreaks in poultry

Vaccines and diagnostics for the control of avian influenza in poultry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting hosted by Almarai, 15 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engagement with Almarai Poultry. The focus of the meeting with Almarai Poultry disease control team was to share knowledge on improved vaccination and diagnostic techniques against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting in Kuwait city 16 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prevention and control of avian influenza outbreaks in poultry.
Described new vaccination and diagnostic technologies that provide more robust cross-protective immunity in emerging antigenic divergent strains of avian influenza viruses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Protecting poultry from avian influenza through passive immunisation. Presented at Foreign Experts Seminar "New strategies and new tools for the prevention and control of major poultry diseases. Shandong-Binzhou Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Academy, China, 20-22 September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Rebecca Daines: Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Described the research undertaken at the Pirbright Institute that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody protects chickens from avian influenza. Presented at Systems Immunology Workshop: Adaptive immune repertoires and beyond. 16th-17th January 2020. University of Surrey, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk entitled "Recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody protects chickens from avian influenza" was presented at the workshop exploring new technical advances for analysis and production of antibodies for prophylaxes and treatment of animal and humans diseases. Both academics and staff linked with animal and public health industry attended this workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Sushant Bhat:Pirbright Dragon Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Described the research undertaken at the Pirbright Institute that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The co-Circulation of Low and High-path-AIV in the same country with sub-optimal bio-security: Virus evolution and impact on vaccine efficacy. Presented at the 11th Scientific conference of Egyptian Veterinary Poultry Association, Conference "Towards a National strategy to control poultry industry problems in Egypt". 20-23 April 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The global Situation and pathobiology of Avian Influenza in different Avian Species. Presented at the 11th Scientific conference of Egyptian Veterinary Poultry Association, Conference "Towards a National strategy to control poultry industry problems in Egypt". 20-23 April 2019.. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Presented at UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative: Interim Project Workshop 13th-15th January 2020 Hilton Hotel, Bracknell, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Outcomes of the research project entitled "Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry" were presented to colleagues working on prevention and control of infectious diseases affecting animals and humans. the work led to incite further research collaborations with different groups from UK, China, Thailand and Philippine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Understanding avian influenza virus evolution and development of next generation vaccines. Presented at 459th Scientific Meeting of The Veterinary Research Club at The Farmers Club, 3 Whitehall Court London Friday 14th February 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk presented entitled"Understanding avian influenza virus evolution and development of next generation vaccines". The discussion with senior staff from DEFRA and UKRI- BBSRC, researchers and veterinary professional like with control and prevention of animal diseases in United kingdom
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Understanding avian influenza virus evolution, antigenic diversity and vaccine failure. Presented at the 2019 Symposium on techniques for healthy breading and disease prevention & control of livestock and poultry, Golden Harbor Hotel, Beijing, 21-23 August 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk and discussion on the control of infectious animal diseases including avian influenza.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019