Pig Feed Efficiency: A systems integrative biology approach

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Sch of Biosciences

Abstract

An unprecedented increase in the global demand for food is predicted between now and 2050. Without major advances in production, food shortages will become more frequent across the globe, including developed parts of the world. It is therefore essential that we ensure sufficient food is available, in other words to establish "global food security". The world population currently stands at 7 billion but is predicted to increase to 9 billion by 2050. This is a major threat to food security, but there are also other exacerbating pressures. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to reduce global warming and climate change, while land and crops are being increasingly used to produce alternative energy sources to fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil). This leads to competition for land, water, energy and the sources of food themselves. To produce more food requires either more land (which isn't available) or an improvement in the efficiency of production. Increases in personal wealth in developing countries is predicted to increase the demand for meat and animal products, which consumers associate with a higher quality diet and social status. However, meat requires significantly more resource to produce than other foods. Meat producing animals, such as pigs and poultry, commonly require grain-based feeds which will become an increasingly limited resource, due to competition from human diets and the biofuels industry. These pressures make it important to reduce the quantity of feed required per unit meat produced, thereby improving "feed efficiency". To do this, use of technologies will be required including those not currently deemed acceptable to the consumer (in the EU at least), although threats to food security may change consumers values and ethical stances.

For efficient production of meat, the goal is to maximize the deposition of nutrients (particularly protein) into skeletal muscle and repartition nutrients (particularly those for energy) away from fat. The liver is critical as it processes nutrients and plays a major role in coordinating whole body protein and energy metabolism. Animal growth promoters are used legally in some countries (Australia, Brazil and USA), but not the EU, and have the effect of increasing lean while decreasing body fat. The objective of this project is to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which these agents affect these tissues. Pigs will be given either a beta agonist (BA) or growth hormone (GH), and compared to a control group over a time course (28 days) during which these agents are known to increase feed efficiency. Skeletal muscle, liver and fat tissues will be collected at 5 fixed time points (1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days). Three of these time points will be subsequently selected for more "in-depth" measurements, based on the growth data and expression of some key genes. Using a technique called "deep sequencing" all the genes expressed in these 3 tissues at these 3 timepoints will be identified along with other genetic material called microRNA, which is involved in determining which proteins are produced. Deep sequencing produces a large quantity of information, which will identify the genes and microRNAs produced by these pig tissues; information which by itself will enhance our understanding. Secondly, by comparison between the treatment groups, those genes and microRNAs influenced by the growth promoters will be identified. Finally, the relationships and interactions (so called networks) between the expressed genes and tissues will be identified, to determine common processes influenced by these growth promoters. The expectation is that specific "key" genes and processes (i.e. networks) will be identified in these tissues, which could be manipulated in the future to enhance the efficiency of animal growth.

Technical Summary

Global Food Security is becoming an increasingly important issue. The increasing competition for land and crops for human consumption with their use for animal feed and biofuels industries, mean strategies to improve animal feed efficiency are urgently needed. This will require use of new or existing technologies, including those currently deemed unacceptable by consumers (in the EU at least). Animal growth promoters (beta-agonists (BA) and growth hormone (GH)), currently used commercially in some countries (Australia, Brazil and USA), improve feed efficiency, increase lean and decrease fat deposition. This project will determine the time course (1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days) for the effects of Ractopamine (BA) and Reporcin (GH) on finisher pigs, including their effects on muscle, fat and liver transcriptomes using deep sequencing (HiSeq Illumina sequencing platform) and subsequent pathway and network analysis (e.g. IPA, SolCyc, ANN). This will generate a large quantity of sequence information, which will be used to identify the genes and microRNAs expressed in these pig tissues. Then, by comparison between the treatment groups, those genes and microRNAs involved in the growth response, together with the key pathways, gene networks and interactions between genes and tissues will be identified. Verification of key mRNA and microRNAs will be carried out by qRT-PCR (Roche Lightcycler 480), using SYBR green and Taqman small RNA detection probes (Applied Biosystems). The expectation is that specific "key" nodes within the networks will be identified, which could be manipulated in the future to enhance the efficiency of animal growth.

Planned Impact

The proposed pig time course trial will be the most comprehensive study ever performed to investigate the mechanisms for how these growth promoters work. It is extremely costly and therefore very unlikely to be repeated anywhere else in the world. The fact Pfizer have chosen to fund this work at Nottingham is testimony to the calibre of the staff and facilities available. The results and subsequent publications are therefore likely to have a high impact and to be highly cited in years to come, thereby benefiting both academic and industry scientists. Ultimately, the main benefit will be an academic one with the studies leading to a comprehensive understanding of how tissues interact to regulate growth and metabolism, information which may then be developed into a better understanding of other species, including man.

In addition, the deep sequencing data will be made freely available via online databases, which will be accessible by other researchers and therefore provide a complementary resource to the pig genome project which is still on-going. Hence a wide variety of pig researchers will benefit in terms of both published information and tissue transcriptome sequence data, but the information may also be translated for the benefit of human medicine (e.g. use of pigs as models for human health).

The overall aim is that this comprehensive in-depth study into the changes in tissue transcriptome at different times following administration of these potent growth promoters, will identify key networks and nodes that can then be targeted for drug development to enhance pig growth and feed efficiency. Our industrial partners, Pfizer, will benefit from this important step in the drug discovery process, but will then need to invest further in terms of patents and further studies before any resulting product would reach the market and be commercially available for use. However, were this to eventually reach fruition, we would all benefit via a small but significant improvement in food security.

Publications

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publication icon
Brameld JM (2016) Improving efficiency in meat production. in The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

 
Description The overall objective of this proposal was to determine the mechanisms by which anabolic agents enhance feed efficiency and lean tissue deposition in pigs, through an examination of their effects on coordinated changes in gene expression across skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver. This information was to be utilized to identify the potential novel mechanisms by which the efficiency of lean tissue growth can be enhanced.
A pig trial examined the effects of anabolic agents (the growth promoters beta=adrenergic agonists or growth hormone) over a 27 day time course. An examination of gene expression involved a variety of gene expression assessment methodologies. In addition we have applied a variety of data analysis techniques which has included the use of novel mathematics to make an adaptation of computer programs which examine time course data . This approach is distinctly different to the commonly used data analysis procedures, as it is a data-centered time series analysis which identifies and clusters them in groups which have statistically the same profiles. The gene expression data has also informed the design of a mathematical model for the changes in energy related metabolites during stimulated muscle growth thereby allowing the potential prediction effects of manipulating individual metabolites on muscle growth. These approaches have allowed us to identify that induction of muscle hypertrophy by these anabolic agents is associated in some very early co-ordinated changes in gene expression of specific metabolic pathways in muscle but not liver or fat. We have clearly identified that the more effective anabolic agents at causing changes in muscle growth, such as beta-adrenergic agonists, mediate there effects directly at the level of the muscle rather than large systemic or preipheral tissue changes. Less effective anabolic agents such as growth hormone have a more systemic effect causing greater effects on liver gene expression than beta-adrenergic agonists. We have identified that these anabolic agents give clear and co-ordinated changes in mRNA transcriptome but have no consistent effect on microRNAs. A novel aspect of our findings is that the anabolic agents cause an induced capacity for muscle to synthesize specific amino acids, the predominant amino acid being the serine, which is normal considered to not be limiting in normal growth. This activated amino acid synthesis appears to be related to changes in metabolic pathways which are involved in metabolism required for energy production, which is normally associated with muscle contraction. Uniquely we have identified significant increased expression of an isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is normally involved in the regeneration of glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis), which is not expected to occur in muscle. In addition we have identified that anabolic agents which mediate the greatest muscle growth (beta-adrenergic agonists) cause gene expression changes which are associated with activation of processes response to abormal protein synthesis, so called "unfolded protein" stress response. This is a novel finding and suggests that muscle growth utilises un-expected process to allow excentuated growth. The products of these identified genes are currently being investigated in a BBSRC LINK project (BB/MM001385/1) to determine the whether these gene products directly influence muscle growth, as well as our pharmaceutical industry collaborators utilizing this information to identify potential targets for manipulation to increase the efficiency of pig growth.
Exploitation Route Although this project is identifying the mechanisms by which muscle growth can be increased in production animals, the findings can be translated to inform healthcare research. The reduction of muscle mass, particulalry in aging (sarcopenia), has significant health implications. It is very likley that the genes we identify that are involved in muscle growth are important in processes which could maintain muscle mass in humans, and thereby maintain health.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description The overall objective of this proposal was to determine the mechanisms by which anabolic agents enhance feed efficiency and lean tissue deposition in pigs, through an examination of their effects on coordinated changes in gene expression across skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver. Our work has identified specific genes some of which are associated signaling pathways that appear to be an integral part of the growth response to the anabolic agents, whilst others are novel genes which have not been previous reported as being associated with muscle growth. This latter category includes gene products that are involved in intermediate energy metabolism. From this research we have identified a number of gene products are which are associated in enhanced muscle growth in pigs. Our pharmaceutical industry collaborators (Zoetis) are currently investigating these gene products as potential targets that could be manipulated to enhance efficient pig growth. Our industry partners have further extending their research funding which has enabled us to successfully gain a BBSRC-Zoetis LINK grant (BB/M001385/1) which is currently carrying out "proof-of-principle" analysis of gene products. This will then enable those specific gene products that directly affect muscle growth to be identified, which then could subsequently be developed as so-called "drugable" targets. In addition our research work has discovering some of the fundamental molecular mechanisms that appear to be responsible for muscle hypertrophy. Through presentation and publication of our findings we are currently disseminating our research to the general scientific community, especially those involved the health implications of the loss of muscle mass.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description BBSRC FLexible Interchange Programme (FLIP)
Amount £98,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M017524/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 10/2017
 
Description BBSRC-LINK project
Amount £803,630 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M001385/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2017
 
Description Direct award from Zoetis (industry award)
Amount £36,000 (GBP)
Organisation Zoetis 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 04/2016 
End 11/2018
 
Title RNA-Seeker 
Description A web-app has been created allowing users to access RNA-seq data sets by species, tissue and experiment and then interrogate expression levels for groups of genes, by name/ID or gene ontology term. This allows expression data for orthologous genes of interest, from different tissues/experiments/species to be explored and compared. Although in some respect crude this simple comparison is potentially a way to quickly build and refute hypotheses concerning fundamental patterns in gene expression within and between species. The construction of "RNA-Seeker" web-app has, in part, been facilitated by utilizing the RNA-seq data sets from pig skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue generated from the research carried out in the project BB/J005320/1. This facility allows the exploration of orthologous genes in pigs across these three metabolically important tissues a resource which will be of value to the pig research community. Please note the http://Final address is pending server/firewall configuration 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This data base is awaiting final validation but will be available in externally to the University of Nottingham in 2016. Although genomic database are available for pig this RNAseq generated database allows researchers to validate transcript expression in the three metabolic important tissues skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue in pig from "real" transcript expression profiles rather than those generated in silico. 
URL http://adac-genomics1.nottingham.ac.uk/RNA-Seeker/
 
Title maSigPro-clusteropt 
Description By adding to the previously developed package maSigPro (https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/maSigPro.html), we have improved the robustness of a statistical microarray analysis technique. This selects differentially expressed transcripts from a dataset, incorporating both time and treatment effects, and then sorts these into similarly profiled groups. The additions to previously published material provide a method to objectively select the number of groups into which the transcripts are partitioned. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The data analysis carried out with this improved maSigPro package has helped to identify pathways and genes which had not been picked up using alternative techniques and software. This information has fed into experimental work. Results have also informed the mathematical modelling of metabolic behaviour. Current a manuscript is being prepared describing this modification to maSigPro and then the software associated with "maSigPro-clusteropt" will be made freely available. 
 
Description Zoetis (Pfizer) Swine Nexus Partnership with Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China 
Organisation Huazhong Agricultural University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Academic collaboration between 2011-2014 as part of the Zoetis (Pfizer) Swine Nexus Partnership. We were involved in making an academic collaborative contribution to the pig production research being carried out as part of this Nexus through a series of meetings organised by Zoetis (Pfizer). This resulted in a co-authored paper
Collaborator Contribution Academic collaboration. This included visits by academic staff and post-graduate students to the University of Nottingham to work in labs to gain expertise related to pig production. This areas were on practical techniques pig primary muscle cell production for cell culture and pig embryonic stem cell production.
Impact Jing, L. , Hou, Y., Wu, H., Miao, Y., Li, X., Cao, J., Brameld J., Parr, T., and Zhao, S. (2015) Transcriptome analysis of mRNA and miRNA in skeletal muscle indicates an important network for differential Residual Feed Intake in pigs. Scientific Reports doi: 10.1038/srep11953.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Zoetis collaborative partnership 
Organisation Zoetis
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Identification of genes which are involved in muscle growth which are being investigated by a our collaboator as potential drug targets
Collaborator Contribution Costs for pig trial Costs for additional RNA seq (32 samples) Costs for transcriptome microarray analysis of liver and muscle samples (163 biological replicates for each tissue) Cost for plasma metabolome analysis (163 biological replicates)
Impact Our work has identified specific genes and associated signalling pathways which appear to be an integral part of the growth response to the anabolic agents. From this research we have identified an number of gene products that are currently being investigated by our pharmaceutical industry collaborators (Zoetis) as potential targets for manipulation. The initial approach is a proof-of-principle analysis of gene products which will then enable more specific gene products to be identified which could be developed as so-called drugable targets. Our work is still ongoing and it is hoped that other gene targets will be identified which are direct involved in enhanced muscle growth and improved feed utilisation efficiency.
Start Year 2009
 
Description BSAS invited talk 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk entitled "Use of transcriptomics to identify mechanisms of improved growth and feed efficiency" presented at British Society for Animal Science conference in Chester, April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Delegation from Huazhong Agricultural University, China to University of Nottingham, Nov 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Huazhong Agricultural University, China partners (Shuhong Zhao, Xinyun Li) visited Nottingham University in November 2012.
Meeting incorporated a delegation from the Swine Performance Optimization Nexus, Zoetis Ltd. Zoetis contributed to the costs incurred for this meeting.
Collaborative discussions were conducted and recent results discussed focused around feed utilisation efficiency, this included research outcomes from the Zoetis BBSRC-LINK project, Feed Efficiency: A systems integrative biology, BB/J005320/1 (Sept 2012-Aug 2015) and work being undertaken at Huazhong Agricultural University

Through collaborative discussion a application was submitted for a British Council Sino-UK partnership award which was successfully funded in Dec 2012. This award was to allow exchange of research students and staff (predominantly PhD and career researchers) between Huazhong Agricultural University, China and Nottingham University to try to establish links between the two Universities that would support the exchange of post-graduate students on joint MRes or MSc programmes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Invited Speaker International Meat Science and Technology conference, Bangkok, Thailand 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk entitled "Stimulated muscle growth: the potential implications for meat quality"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://icomst2016.com/
 
Description Invited Speaker at Nutrition Society Winter Conference (Dec 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact oral presentation of abstract and discussion with professional from UK Nutrition community

Increased awareness of the mechanisms involved in muscle growth in livestock and potential translation of these observations to areas associated with human health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited speaker Nutrition Society Student Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk entitled "Sustainability in animal nutrition"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited speaker at Nutrition Society Summer Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Selected as the Theme Leader's prize in Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, Nutrition Society Summer Conference for abstract - Skeletal muscle hypertrophy in pigs is associated with an increased expression of serine biosynthetic pathway genes along with genes associated with an endoplasmic reticulum stress. Oral presentation of abstract and discussions with professional from UK Nutrition community.

Increased awareness of the mechanisms involved in muscle growth in livestock and potential translation of these observations to areas associated with human health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited speaker at Nutrition Society Summer Conference 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk entitled "Improving efficiency in meat production"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited speaker at the Physiology Society meeting Biomedical Basis of Elite Performance 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar given by Dr David Brown (post-doctoral researcher on BB/MM001385/1) on the some of the key findings associated with projects BB/J005320/1 and PI BB/MM001385/1 which can be translated to human physiological science. This activity sparked discussions on our pig based research and its potential impact on human muscle physiology particularly related to exercise and muscle health with practitioners and academics involved in this human related research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.physoc.org/bbep2016
 
Description Invited speaker the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar given by Dr John Brameld (CoI BB/J005320/1 and PI BB/MM001385/1) followed by questions and discussion with representatives of the animal production industry

Increased awareness within the animal production industry of the molecular mechanisms involved in promoting lean tissue growth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://m.jtmtg.org/abs/t/63802
 
Description Poster presentations at FASEB conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of research findings to other researchers and postgraduate students working in the area of Nutrient Sensing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at Abcam Cancer and Metabolism conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of research findings to other researchers and postgraduate students working in the area of cancer and metabolism
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description University of Nottingham and Huazhong Agricultural University partners visit to Zoetis, USA. August 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Drs Parr and Brameld from the University of Nottingham along with our representatives from China partners (Prof Shuhong Zhao and Prof Mei Yu) from Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, visited the Swine Performance Optimization Nexus, at Zoetis Ltd, Kalamazoo, USA.
Zoetis covered the costs incurred for this meeting for both Universities.
Collaborative discussions were conducted and recent results discussed focused around feed utilisation efficiency, this included research outcomes from the Zoetis BBSRC-LINK project, Feed Efficiency: A systems integrative biology BB/J005320/1 (Sept 2012-Aug 2015) and work being undertaken at Huazhong Agricultural University

As part of the meeting funding for to support the PhD studentship for Haixin Zhang was secured from Zoetis (£30,000) which would be additional to the funding for this PhD position from the University of Nottingham and China scholarship Council and funding (Oct 2012 - Sept 2016). The Objective of this studentship project was to isolation and generation of STEM cells from germ cells isolated from pigs (supervised by Dr Ramiro Alberio (PI), Drs Brameld and Parr (Co-Is).
A commitment from Zoetis was obtained to support a BBSRC LINK application submission for research work to the current extend the BBSRC-LINK project; Pig Feed Efficiency: A systems integrative biology, BB/J005320/1 (Sept 2012-2013). This originally was to include a collaborative input from Huazhong Agricultural University through funding from the China Scholarship Council. However subsequent to this meeting a change Zoetis corporate research funding strategy met that they no longer wished to support collaborative projects between China and Western universities. However Zoetis did still support a BBSRC LINK proposal which was successfully funded in June 2014, BB/M001385/1: Novel targets for increased muscle growth or feed efficiency.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Workshop: From Stem cells and systems biology to pig production (Huazhong Agricultural University, China, July 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a workshop was a jointly run between Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China and the University of Nottingham. It took place at Huazhong Agricultural University 30th June to 4th July 2014. The workshop contained approximately 50 delegates both postgraduates and academic from across China. Also in attendance were over 10 post-graduate (PhD) and academic s form University of Nottingham who gave a number of seminars on their current research and ran workshops demonstrating a number of research techniques. The seminars covered fundamental aspects of pig production (principally pig nutrition) but also the application of research in stem cell technologies and bioinformatics/systems biology in understanding pig development and growth., Within the workshop some of the work being carried on our BBSRC LINK project (BB/J005320/1) was described along with instruction on the techniques and approaches that our labs utilise to carry out research on this project (gene expression techniques and analysis). .
This workshop was jointly funded by Huazhong Agricultural University, a BBSRC China Partnering award along with "British Council Sino-UK Higher Education Research Partnership for PhD Studies" The practical workshop gave instruction in the appropriate techniques for carrying out assessment of muscle protein and gene expression as well as the appropriate associated data analysis. Presentations and laboratory manuals were made available to the delegates.


On going discussions to sign a Memorandum of Understanding between Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan , China and University of Nottingham, United Kingdom and develop collaborative research links
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Workshop: Sustainable Pig Production: knowledge and technology exchange between UK and Thailand. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a Newton Fund Researchers Workshop 2015/16 (Thailand Research Fund (TRF) and British Council). workshop was a jointly run between Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China and the University of Nottingham. It took place at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok.1-4th march 2016. The workshop contained over 50 delegates both from across Thailand and UK. The seminars covered fundamental aspects of pig production (principally pig nutrition), along with areas associated with breeding, disease control, welfare, waste management and meat quality. Within the workshop some of the work being carried on our BBSRC LINK projects (BB/J005320/1 and BB/M001385/1) was described.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.agri.kmitl.ac.th/SPPW/
 
Description Workshop: Sustainable Pig Production: knowledge and technology exchange between UK and Thailand. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a Newton Fund Researchers Workshop 2015/16 (Thailand Research Fund (TRF) and British Council). workshop was a jointly run between Hing Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok Thailand, the University of Nottingham and the Scotland Rural College, Roslin, Scotland . It took place at the Scotland Rural College, Roslin, Scotland.1-4th March 2016. The workshop contained over over 10 delegates both from various research institutes and universities from across Thailand and UK. The workshop focused on devising research grant applications for submission to various research councils based on the work of the attending academics. Within the workshop some of the work being carried on our BBSRC LINK projects (BB/J005320/1 and BB/M001385/1) was described and information and data from these grants was used as the background data for the subsequent research grant applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016