Natural Pest Regulation on Orphan Crop Legumes in Africa (NaPROCLA)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Greenwich
Department Name: Natural Resources Institute, FES

Abstract

Population growth and associated rising food demands places increasing pressure on global food production, and by 2050 the world will need 60% more food than is available today with pressure on limited land area to produce adequate food sustainably while reducing chemical inputs. Severe pest damage of crops is one of the major challenges to food and nutritional security and disproportionately affects poor farmers and low-input orphan crop grain legumes such as beans, pigeon pea, cowpea and lablab. Pest control is often overlooked on orphan crop legumes, but any management of the pests is dependent on high agrochemical inputs which have negative impacts from exposure of users and consumers and where pesticides severely impact non-target invertebrates that can be beneficial to food production through pollination or natural pest regulation. Agricultural systems are ecologically complex and must function with natural habitats rather than deplete them. More resilient agriculture and focussed investments for smallholder farmers can deliver transformative change and enhance prospects and livelihoods of the world's poorest while safeguarding against future risks.

In Tanzania, Kenya and Malawi, legumes are grown and consumed by millions of farmers and their families providing protein, micronutrients and vitamins so represent one of the most important means to enhance nutritional security. East African poverty reduction strategy papers highlight that food poverty exceeds 18% in these countries and agriculture is central to reducing this livelihood gap. Yields of key legumes such as beans and cowpea are presently very low (500-700 kg/ha) but potential yields are >3000 kg/ha. Consequently, millions of farmers, particularly women (the primary growers of orphan legume crops in Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania), and their households have great potential to increase nutritional and food insecurity by improving production of legumes.

Biodiversity underpins agricultural ecosystem services and food security, livelihoods and economic development by provisioning natural enemies of crop pests. Natural enemies reduce populations of pest insects thereby reducing reliance on synthetic insecticide application. Through this saving their contribution in the US alone is reported to be $13.6 billion annually so the benefits of natural pest regulation can be measured in environmental and economic terms. Non-crop habitats such as field margins provide the environment with diverse food resources required to support arthropod predators and parasitoids. Management or manipulation of this non-crop habitat can help to support natural pest regulation and can even be augmented and sustained in better managed natural or manipulated agro-ecosystems. The occurrence, density and impacts of most beneficial insects in smallholder ecosystems, however, are poorly understood, particularly in Africa.

The research proposed here will take forward recent findings by our partnership and identify the key taxa that support and deliver natural pest regulation. We will develop approaches that support and augment natural pest regulation through improved agroecosystems management with reduced pesticide use. The proposed research will provide key evidence for benefits of natural pest regulation and establish how this can be optimised through better landscape management or manipulation and how natural pest regulation can function alongside other management practises including natural pest resistance, botanical insecticides and intercropping.

Technical Summary

Natural pest regulation provided by wild invertebrates in agriculture is dependent on flowering plants in field margins because these plants provide food as nectar or pollen or alternative insect hosts. There is surprisingly little information on the role of natural enemies in controlling pests on orphan legume species. We will evaluate how the diversity of beneficial insects for orphan crop legumes in East Africa (beans, cowpea, pigeon pea and lablab) is influenced by different management strategies (natural and biodiverse field margins, or engineered with key plant taxa). By manipulating field margins and implementing field trials of single and combined pest management strategies, we will build an evidence base for optimisation of natural pest regulation services. We will evaluate how they can integrate with other pest management approaches including host plant resistance and application of botanical insecticides.
Using field, station and laboratory experiments we will:
1. Identify the key natural enemy taxa specifically to black bean aphids (Aphis fabae) and legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata) using field surveys, cage trials and metabarcoding.
2. Evaluate impact of field margin management on abundance and diversity of natural enemies of the black bean aphid and legume pod borer and measure relationships between beneficial insect populations and crop damage/yield.
3. Map relationships between natural enemies and wild plants.
4. Evaluate the impact of integrating ecological engineering for natural enemies with other environmentally benign pest management (resistance/plant based pesticides) and yield boosting (e.g., inter-cropping legumes) management practices.
Evaluate whether these approaches differ in their efficacy when implemented in plant diverse versus depauperate landscapes.

Planned Impact

The project outcomes will benefit smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa growing orphan crop legumes, extension services, policy makers and scientists worldwide, and ultimately the wider public. Specifically, smallholder farmers in East Africa will benefit from i) a greater understanding of the value of agricultural ecosystems and knowledge about why reducing reliance on chemical inputs can benefit their farming system through lower impacts on beneficial insects; ii) novel and low-input low-cost approaches to manage pests sustainably; iii) greater nutritional and food security and iv) higher quality food products that will be healthier for consumers and potentially of higher market value. Extension services including government and non-government organisations will benefit from new and locally relevant knowledge that will inform extension and outreach programmes to better support farmers to grow food sustainably and reliably. Through training programmes and training tools we will provide extension services with all the information they require to disseminate information and evidence about the value of field margins for sustainable food security. We will engage with policy makers to ensure that they participate and are informed of progress from the project outset. We will provide the evidence and robust data required to be able to make informed decisions about government support for and investment in extension that supports sustainable intensification of agriculture by augmenting and managing agricultural ecosystems to deliver natural pest regulation. Through current interactions including engagement with IPBES and Defra's National Pollinator Strategy under PASG, NRI has experience producing publications tailored to impact policy at the international level: Gill et al. (2015) Adv Ecol Res, Vanbergen et al. (2013) Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. NRI produces a regular newsletter, the Resource, with global subscription from a range of academic, NGO and governmental sectors, disseminating details about the ongoing research work. NRI has a member of staff permanently seconded to the office of the APPG for Agriculture and Food for Development, allowing greater access to policymakers. The scientific community will benefit from the agricultural innovations and research outputs from this project that will include new information about ecosystem services of wider relevance to the field. All NRI project staff regularly attend and speak at conferences, and give invited lectures at other institutions; we will use these opportunities to share findings from this project with interested parties. The public will learn about the work on this project through outreach events both in the UK and in East Africa including through agricultural fairs. NRI staff regularly engage with the public in a variety of contexts as do our partners in East Africa to help improve awareness among farmers and the wider UK and African public about the importance of beneficial insects in sustainable food production and the global nature of food production and the importance of environmental issues regardless of origin. Project team members will inspire and influence young people through various outreach vehicles including the Inspiring the Future and Future First schemes connecting STEMM and business professionals with young people, and will speak to students in local schools about the results of this project and their importance as part of wider events to increase students' understanding of science careers. Research students at NRI and at our partner institutes will benefit from research-led teaching, including use of case studies in their course delivery. Findings from this project will serve as engaging examples for courses such as Integrated Pest Management and Ecology and Ecosystems. More sustainable management of farms in eastern Africa will support improved biodiversity in human influenced landscapes making agriculture more sustainable.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We report how important field margins are to support natural enemies of pests and provide the plants required to make botanical extract for more environmentally benign control of pests in Legume cropping systems in East Africa.
Exploitation Route Inform how farmers manage farmland that is considerate of the needs of polliantors and natural enemies of pests - promote flower strips and mainainng field margins at least until the crop is harvested.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://agriculturalecosystems.org/projects/41-naprocla
 
Description Advisory Board for the All Party Parliamentary Group on Bees and Pollinators
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.parallelparliament.co.uk/APPG/bees-and-pollinators
 
Description Meeting with the All Party parliamentary Group on Bees
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Pollinator Advisory Steering Group - Defra
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Changes to land management and influencing implementation of UK gov ies to address land use change.
 
Description Africa AgriFood Knowledge Transfer Partnership between University of Greenwich, Egerton University and Eco Fuels Kenya Limited
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID KTP1245 
Organisation Knowledge Transfer Partnerships 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2022 
End 06/2023
 
Description McKnight Foundation Collaborative Crop Research Programme
Amount $520,000 (USD)
Funding ID 20-034 
Organisation McKnight Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 08/2020 
End 08/2024
 
Description Pyrethrum in Bloom: Bringing Back the Power of Pyrethrum to Enhance Livelihoods of Small Holders in Kenya
Amount £661,082 (GBP)
Funding ID 49480 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2020 
End 07/2023
 
Description UK-China Agritech Challenge: Environmentally Benign Combination Biopesticides - Transforming Pest Control in Chinese and UK Agriculture
Amount £417,222 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S02087X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2022
 
Description Cocoa pollination patnership to prepare CAOBISCO bid 
Organisation Durham University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leading bid-writing for an application for CAOBISCO funds on cocoa pollination. This application uses findings and methods developed as part of UKRI projects NaPROCLA and Environmentally Benign Combination Pesticides, as well as industry contacts from the latter, and involves Stevenson, Fernandez-Grandon and Arnold as participants.
Collaborator Contribution Durham is leading a work package and KNUST is instrumental in implementation. All partners are involved in WP design and planning, and the writing process. If funded (likely), collaboration will result in €660,000 approx. income for the partnership from CAOBISCO.
Impact Funding bid anticipated to be submitted in late February 2022.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Cocoa pollination patnership to prepare CAOBISCO bid 
Organisation Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)
Country Ghana 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leading bid-writing for an application for CAOBISCO funds on cocoa pollination. This application uses findings and methods developed as part of UKRI projects NaPROCLA and Environmentally Benign Combination Pesticides, as well as industry contacts from the latter, and involves Stevenson, Fernandez-Grandon and Arnold as participants.
Collaborator Contribution Durham is leading a work package and KNUST is instrumental in implementation. All partners are involved in WP design and planning, and the writing process. If funded (likely), collaboration will result in €660,000 approx. income for the partnership from CAOBISCO.
Impact Funding bid anticipated to be submitted in late February 2022.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaboration between Egerton and Swedish Uni Agricultural Sciences 
Organisation Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of NaPROCLA research findings and approaches I was invited to join a consortium with SLU and organisations in Togo, Sierra Leone and Benin to create a research network on beneficial insects on smallholder cacao farms in West Africa. I brought experience with experimental and fieldwork approaches and wider knowledge of tropical smallholder systems. I will also provide staff training and mentoring subject to COVID impacts on travel.
Collaborator Contribution NaPROCLA collaborators: data collection, fieldwork and sharing at virtual conference experience fed into the existing team has helped to shape my approach to WACRIN New South collaborators in WACRIN: bringing local knowledge and expertise of the system, regulatory environment, personnel, access to facilities and access to wider networks of researchers and practitioners. New North collaborators in WACRIN: eligibility to lead applications for VR and Form as Swedish research council grant money, knowledge of ecology-social interface and agronomy.
Impact Jan 2020: Initial scoping meeting and plan for a workshop
Start Year 2020
 
Description Harnessing Agricultural Ecosystem Biodiversity for improved bean production in Africa 
Organisation University of Greenwich
Department Natural Resources Institute Greenwich
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Botanical, plant chemical and insect surveys
Collaborator Contribution Entomological Surveys and field experiments.
Impact Amoabeng, B., Stevenson, P.C., Mochiah, B., Asare, K.P., Gurr, G.M. (2020) Scope for non-crop plants to promote conservation biological control of crop pests and serve as sources of botanical insecticides. Scientific Reports, (accepted) Gemmill-Herren, B., Mtambanengw, F., Mapfumo, P., Herren, G.L., Masehela, T.S., Stevenson, P.C., Herren, J.K. (2020). Harnessing ecosystem services in transforming agriculture in Southern Africa (Book chapter) Mkenda, P.A. Ndakidemi, P.A., Stevenson, P.C., Arnold. SEJ, Darbyshire, I., Belmain, S.R., Priebe, J., Xie, G. Johnson, A.C., Tumbo, J., Gurr, G.M. 2020. Knowledge gaps among smallholder farmers hinder adoption of conservation biological control. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 30 (3), 256-277. Rioba N., and Stevenson, P.C. 2020. Opportunities and Scope for Botanical Extracts and Products for the Management of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) for Smallholders in Africa. Plants. Phambala, K. Tembo, Y., Kasambala, T., Kabambe, VH, Stevenson P.C., Belmain, S.R. 2020 Bioactivity of common pesticidal plants on fall armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda) Plants 9, e112. Mkindi. AG., Tembo, YLB, Mbega, ER, Smith AK, Farrell IW, Ndakidemi, PA, Stevenson, PC, and Belmain, SR 2020. Extracts of Common Pesticidal Plants Increase Plant Growth and Yield in Common Bean Plants, Plants, 9, e149. Mkindi,A., Tembo, Y., Mbega, E, Kendall-Smith. A., Farrell, I.W., Ndakidemi, P., Belmain, S.R. and Stevenson, P.C. 2019 Phytochemical Analysis of Tephrosia vogelii across East Africa Reveals Three Chemotypes that Influence Its Use as a Pesticidal Plant, Plants 8, 597 Mkenda, P.A., Ndakidemi, P.A., Mbega, E., Stevenson, P.C., Arnold, S.E.J., Gurr G.M., and Belmain, S.R. 2019. Multiple ecosystem services from field margin and non-crop vegetation for ecological sustainability in agriculture. A meta-analysis. Peer J, 7: e8091 Mkenda, P.A., Ndakidemi, P.A., Stevenson, P.C., Arnold, SEJ, Xie, G., Belmain, S.R., Chidege, M., Gurr, G.M. 2019 Field margin vegetation is donor habitat for natural enemies of bean pests but field size mediates the extent of benefit. Sustainability, 11, 6399 Mkenda, PA, Ndakidemi, PA, Stevenson, PC, Arnold, SEJ, Belmain, SR, Chidege, M., Gurr, GM, Woolley, VC (2019) Characterization of Hymenopteran Parasitoids of Aphis fabae in an African Smallholder Bean Farming System through Sequencing of COI 'Mini-Barcodes' Insects, 10, 331. Elisante, F. Ndakidemi, P.A., Arnold, S.E.J., Belmain, S.R., Gurr, G.M., Darbyshire, I., Xie, G., Tumbo, J., and Stevenson, P.C. (2019) Knowledge Gaps on The Role Of Pollinators And Value Of Field Margins Among Smallholders In Bean Agri-Systems, Journal or Rural Studies, 70, 75-86 Tembo, Y., Mkindi, A., Mkenda, P., Mpumi, Mwanauta, R., Stevenson P.C., Ndakidemi, P. Belmain S.R, 2018) Pesticidal Plant Extracts Improve Yield and Reduce Insect Pests on Legume Crops without Harming Beneficial Arthropods. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 1425. Amoabeng, B.W., Stevenson, P.C., Pandey, S., Mochiah, M.B. & Gurr, G.M. (2018). Insecticidal activity of a native Australian tobacco, Nicotiana megalosiphon Van Heurck & Muell. Arg. (Solanales: Solanaceae) against key insect pests of brassicas. Crop Protection 106: 6-12.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Improved soft fruit pollination by bumblebees with caffeine BB/P007589/1 IPA Grant Awarded December 2016 Starts April 1st 2017 
Organisation National Institute of Agronomy and Botany (NIAB)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI with Natural Resources Institute University of Greenwich. Leading on laboratory behaviour assessment of the role of caffeine in the behaviour of commercial bumblebees
Collaborator Contribution Co-I (co authors and research collaborators). Undertaking field based work evaluating nest box adaptations on bees infield.
Impact None yet from the specific collaboration around improving pollination in strawberry but these are in preparation for submission.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Improved soft fruit pollination by bumblebees with caffeine BB/P007589/1 IPA Grant Awarded December 2016 Starts April 1st 2017 
Organisation University of Greenwich
Department Department of Pharmaceutical, Chemical & Environmental Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI with Natural Resources Institute University of Greenwich. Leading on laboratory behaviour assessment of the role of caffeine in the behaviour of commercial bumblebees
Collaborator Contribution Co-I (co authors and research collaborators). Undertaking field based work evaluating nest box adaptations on bees infield.
Impact None yet from the specific collaboration around improving pollination in strawberry but these are in preparation for submission.
Start Year 2017
 
Description McKnight Foundation grant 
Organisation Lilongwe University of Agriculture & Natural Resources
Country Malawi 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI of grant from the charitable Foundation, The McKnight Foundation involving research in Tanzania and Malawi on conservation biological control, agroecology and optimisation of botanical pesticides.
Collaborator Contribution Co-Pis
Impact disciplines include botany, entomology, ecology, social anthropology, natural product chemistry, chemical ecology, agroecology
Start Year 2020
 
Description McKnight Foundation grant 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI of grant from the charitable Foundation, The McKnight Foundation involving research in Tanzania and Malawi on conservation biological control, agroecology and optimisation of botanical pesticides.
Collaborator Contribution Co-Pis
Impact disciplines include botany, entomology, ecology, social anthropology, natural product chemistry, chemical ecology, agroecology
Start Year 2020
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation Institute of Development Research (IRD)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation Kenya Agriculture & Livestock Research Organization (KALRO)
Country Kenya 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation Kenyatta University
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation Sokoine University of Agriculture
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation University Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar
Country Senegal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation University of Antananarivo
Country Madagascar 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description OptimAs network developing an agroecology Horizon Europe application 
Organisation University of Hohenheim
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Arnold and Stevenson were part of the NRI team who led the writing of this grant application, with Arnold as the co-coordinator formulating work package design and experimental approaches and writing significant parts of the application text. The application was submitted on time and is awaiting review.
Collaborator Contribution Partners NRI (Arnold, Stevenson), NM-AIST (Mkindi, Mbega) and SUA (Mkenda, who has also had some involvement with NaPROCLA) were all full partners on the large Horizon Europe consortium application led by NRI on agroecology. NaPROCLA and its outputs have spurred NRI's positioning to lead this and the other partners' involvement. NM-AIST is a work-package co-lead and coordinates several tasks locally and transnationally.
Impact Grant application submitted
Start Year 2021
 
Description Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization (TIRDO) ECOFRIENDLY MANAGEMENT OPTIONS AGAINST KEY INSECT PESTS 
Organisation Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have involved smallholder farmers in field trials, and we are organizing meetings with extension officers, village/ ward leaders and smallholder farmers of Hai District and experts from TIRDO to disseminate knowledge on conserving beneficial insects (parasitoids and predators of bean pests) and their activities in managing bean pests in Moshi, Kilimanjaro in May/June 2021.
Collaborator Contribution Organising the contacts and arranging the permissions and licences and delivering the outreach activities. Research and funds for PhD study, pursued by Baltazar Ndakidemi. PhD in Life Sciences (Sustainable Agriculture) -Supervision by professors from KEW and University of Greenwich
Impact No publications as such but the collaboration has built a network of farmers partnerships for delivering outreach about supporting natural pest regulation
Start Year 2019
 
Description West African Cocoa Research and Innovation Network 
Organisation Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute
Country Sierra Leone 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution As a result of NaPROCLA research findings and approaches I was invited to join a consortium with SLU and organisations in Togo, Sierra Leone and Benin to create a research network on beneficial insects on smallholder cacao farms in West Africa. I brought experience with experimental and fieldwork approaches and wider knowledge of tropical smallholder systems. I will also provide staff training and mentoring subject to COVID impacts on travel.
Collaborator Contribution NaPROCLA collaborators: data collection and fieldwork experience fed into the existing team has helped to shape my approach to WACRIN New South collaborators in WACRIN: bringing local knowledge and expertise of the system, regulatory environment, personnel, access to facilities and access to wider networks of researchers and practitioners. New North collaborators in WACRIN: eligibility to lead applications for VR and Formas Swedish research council grant money, knowledge of ecology-social interface and agronomy.
Impact Jan 2020: Initial scoping meeting and plan for a workshop
Start Year 2020
 
Description West African Cocoa Research and Innovation Network 
Organisation Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of NaPROCLA research findings and approaches I was invited to join a consortium with SLU and organisations in Togo, Sierra Leone and Benin to create a research network on beneficial insects on smallholder cacao farms in West Africa. I brought experience with experimental and fieldwork approaches and wider knowledge of tropical smallholder systems. I will also provide staff training and mentoring subject to COVID impacts on travel.
Collaborator Contribution NaPROCLA collaborators: data collection and fieldwork experience fed into the existing team has helped to shape my approach to WACRIN New South collaborators in WACRIN: bringing local knowledge and expertise of the system, regulatory environment, personnel, access to facilities and access to wider networks of researchers and practitioners. New North collaborators in WACRIN: eligibility to lead applications for VR and Formas Swedish research council grant money, knowledge of ecology-social interface and agronomy.
Impact Jan 2020: Initial scoping meeting and plan for a workshop
Start Year 2020
 
Description West African Cocoa Research and Innovation Network 
Organisation University of Lomé
Country Togo 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of NaPROCLA research findings and approaches I was invited to join a consortium with SLU and organisations in Togo, Sierra Leone and Benin to create a research network on beneficial insects on smallholder cacao farms in West Africa. I brought experience with experimental and fieldwork approaches and wider knowledge of tropical smallholder systems. I will also provide staff training and mentoring subject to COVID impacts on travel.
Collaborator Contribution NaPROCLA collaborators: data collection and fieldwork experience fed into the existing team has helped to shape my approach to WACRIN New South collaborators in WACRIN: bringing local knowledge and expertise of the system, regulatory environment, personnel, access to facilities and access to wider networks of researchers and practitioners. New North collaborators in WACRIN: eligibility to lead applications for VR and Formas Swedish research council grant money, knowledge of ecology-social interface and agronomy.
Impact Jan 2020: Initial scoping meeting and plan for a workshop
Start Year 2020
 
Description 13th Egerton University Virtual conference 24-26 November 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Egerton team presented at virtual conference that had over 100 participants from Kenya, Africa and USA. Certificates of participation were issued to the four lead presenters (graduate students) and proceedings being processed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 19th International Plant Protection Congress. IPPC2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary Talk at 19th International Plant Protection Congress 11-14th November 2019 Hyderabad India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Appearance on BBC All Over The Place CBBC TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Participated in a programme for CBBC and talked about Kew's and NRIs work on pollinators and bee diversity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Bees Needs Week outreach event in Carnaby Street with Defra 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Outreach activity for Defras bees needs week showcasing UKRI funded work on nectar and pollen chemistry and pollaintor health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Bell House Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Around 11 attendees came to this Zoom public lecture, including beekeepers, gardeners and general public. It prompted wide-ranging discussion on the ethics of honeybee keeping and management of habitats. The talk covered pollination, commercial applications of pollination including new science, and wider aspects around habitat management for ecosystem services such as field margins on smallholder farms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.bellhouse.co.uk/events/2021/10/19/fantastic-flowers-and-the-creatures-that-pollinate-the...
 
Description European Research Night at Natural History Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Controbution to NHM european research night talking about UKRI funded work on nectar chemistry and pollaintor health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Guest lecture for Canterbury Christ Church University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A guest lecture on "Precision pollination", describing emerging advances in the science around crop pollination, on BBCollaborate, with around 15-20 attendees who were highly engaged. The attendees asked wide-ranging questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description HRH Prince CHarles patron of Kew visit and engagement. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I met with Prince Charles to discuss Kew's work on pollinators and discuss rewilding schemes and the importance of pollinator diversity for food security covering all UKRI projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description I'm a Scientist get me out of here- online discussion with school students for National Insect Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School children participated in an online discussion with scientists for National Insect Week. They asked questions related to insects and we discussed aspects of the NaPROCLA project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://imascientist.org.uk/
 
Description Invited lecture - Canterbury Christ Church University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Around 30-40 students and CCCU staff attended an invited lecture associated with an undergraduate applied biology/ecology module. Dr Arnold presented work around the NaPROCLA project and previous/related actions, preliminary data, and the wider context/application of the project to demonstrate how ecological and biological theories can support work with real livelihood impacts. There was extensive discussion afterwards around the decolonialisation of development, the ecology of smallholder farms and the role of multiple ecosystem services in supporting smallholder crops.

There may be follow-up lectures/visits and reciprocal exchanges planned and there were discussions about presenting the work to a wider audience at a CCCU Ecology Research Group meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited lecture to Imperial College London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk to Imperial College London (Silwood Park)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited talk: Royal Entomological Society Postgraduate Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Around 35 postgraduate students from across the UK attended the meeting, which was about sharing experiences and science. Dr Arnold was one of the keynote speakers and the talk reflected on issues and opportunities around the current areas of research taking place. There was plenty of informal discussion and networking over the following day related to some of the key issues and potential new research directions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Kew Science Festival 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kew science festival using various engagement tools to inform the public about the project and the conservation of pollinators for food security.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.kew.org/about-us/press-media/kew-science-festival-returns-for-2019
 
Description Kew Science festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open day with display of pollinator oriented research and activities from Kew Gardens to draw attention to the challenges facing pollinators and the research being undertaken by Kew to address pollinator declines. Also drawing attention to pollaintor diversity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.kew.org/about-our-organisation/press-media/press-releases/press-release-kew-science-fest...
 
Description NIAB-CropScienceCentre-Cambirdge and RBG Kew minor crops research workshop 20-21 Mat 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop to identify synergies and opportunities in current and future research around minor and orphan crops for NIAB-CSC Cambridge University and Kew.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description New Scientist Live with Royal Entomological Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I had a stand with the Royal Entomological Society at New Scientist Live that was focused on some of the findings from the NaROICLA project. I engaged with school students and the general public about insects and discussed my work. I recieved positive feedback from the event organisers and those that attended found the stand/discussions interesting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participatory identification of field margin plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Involving farmers and extension officers in evaluating margins and their potential for pollination and parasitism effects
Farers enabled to distinguish and identify species of plants that harbour or provide food and shelter for important beneficial insects for ecosystems services provision
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Public lecture to the Somerset Beekeepers association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation via Zoom to an International audience of beekeepers around the world hosted buy the Somerset Beekeepers Association. Primarily presenting our work on pollinators and the new work on NERC grant and BBSRC grants investigating lipids in pollen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description School Minibeast Hunt (Newington C of E Primary School) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 52 pupils (age 6-8), 2 teachers and 3 TAs attended a Bioblitz/Minibeast Safari in a wildlife area at the local recreation ground which SEJA had been involved in creating/managing, and community woodland. There was discussion around the role of plant diversity in providing food and habitat for beneficial insects, and several pupils collected a range of natural enemies including parasitoid wasps, Tachinidae and ground beetles. One pupil reported wanting to become a scientist as a result; two described it as the "Best Day Ever", and the teachers mentioned they were delighted to have this type of activity taking place locally and engaging the children in entomology/ecology type issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description School Visit: Camden School for Girls 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Visited Camden School for Girls to discuss studying biodiversity and ecological subjects at university level, and presented a snapshot of research including UKRI funded projects NaPROCLA and Caffeine/Bees. Engaged the students in a decision-making exercise around stakeholders and landscape management for ecosystem services. Students asked for slides afterwards and reported enjoyment of the session and issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Talk at Maidstone Horticultural Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk to a group of horticultural enthusiasts affiliated with RHS. Despite twin challenges of COVID-19 and appalling weather, around 30 people from a range of ages came to the talk, which covered general pollination issues but also presented the research carried out by project team on UKRI projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.maidstonehorticulturalsociety.org/programme/
 
Description Talk for South London Botanical Institute 18th March 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 66 audience members signed up for Arnold's talk on "Bees' needs" about plant-pollinator interactions, habitat management for pollinators and plant-pollinator conflict. Touched on areas related to smallholder farm management, nectar phytochemistry, caffeine and commercial bees, threats to pollinators. The talk stimulated extensive discussion about pollinator diversity, habitat management and bee learning processes, with audience members mentioning a new interest in the importance of soil in bees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Talk for South London Botanical Institute 9th November 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An online Zoom talk to the South London Botanical Institute, a mixture of people with an interest in botany from professional taxonomists through to experienced field naturalists through to broadly interested individuals. Around 16 people attended and the talk presented work from NaPROCLA in the context of sustainable agriculture and climate change, with discussion and reflection at the end.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.slbi.org.uk/event/plants-farms-climate-and-the-biodiversity-crisis-an-online-talk/
 
Description Twilight Lecture (virtual online lecture) 16th March 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 10 16-19 year olds attended a university "Twilight Lecture". These are intended to provide a taster of university learning and teaching, enthuse and inspire. The Twilight Lecture "Fantastic Flowers" included elements related to Arnold's research on UKRI projects (management of landscape on African smallholder farms; pollinator learning and factors affecting it; plant-pollinator interactions). There were questions and discussion around pollinators, the environment and sustainability.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://docs.gre.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0014/216032/Virtual-Twilight-Lecture-Schedule-2020-202...
 
Description Workshop in insect DNA barcoding (NMAIST and Egerton Univesrity) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshops were led at NMAIST (Tanzania) and Egerton University (Kenya) to teach students and staff moleular biology techniques. Approximately 20 students and staff attended each workshop. Follwing this, students reported that they were more confident in using moleulcar biology techniques in their research and some remain in touch to discuss how best to use these techniques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019