Protecting yield potential of wheat

Lead Research Organisation: Rothamsted Research
Department Name: Unlisted

Abstract

Biotic stresses lower crop productivity. In the UK, when the wheat crop is infected by pathogens, the ensuing diseases reduce grain yield and quality, and sometimes compromise grain safety. Also, when wheat crops experience biotic stress the plants fail to use all the fertilizer applied and these residues may cause environmental pollution. In this project following careful consideration, only two fungal pathogens of the highest importance to European agriculture and the UK economy will be studied. The diseases caused are Septoria tritici blotch (STB) and Fusarium ear blight (FEB, also known as head scab disease). Fusarium infections contaminate the grain with several trichothecene mycotoxins and often making the harvest unsafe for human food, animal feed and fermentation. Strict legislation is now in place to minimise these mycotoxin risks.

In this project we will determine the mechanisms which permit successful Septoria and Fusarium infections and disease formation. We envisage a cornerstone to these studies will be the exploration of detailed infection time courses in wheat leaves and specific floral tissues by next generation RNA sequencing. To investigate fungal gene function we will deploy forward and reverse genetic techniques that we have optimised for both pathogens. In addition, a virus vector system will be developed and refined for the transient over-expression of small fungal proteins and for virus induced gene silencing of candidate wheat gene sequences of interest.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title A collection of postcards 
Description A collection of postcard highlighting the importance of Fusarium and the research on-going at Rothamsted were prepared for the Fusarium one-day event held at Rothamsted in July 2016. These postcards were disseminated to the wider public and key stakeholders through this event and follow-on activities. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact These postcards have made the Fusarium disease problems on crop plants and the subsequent detrimental affects on food and feed industries farm far more accessible to the general public, potiticians and the Agri-Industry. 
 
Title Fusarium and cereal cartoons 
Description A Fusarium cartoon was produced that portrayed the risk of Fusarium-borne diseases to cereals and the problems associated with current control strategies. The cartoon progresses to explain new GM and non-GM mediated approaches to stop Fusarium. In addition, the cartoon depicts the mechanism behind how host-induced gene silencing can be used to combat fungal disease, in a simplified manner assessable to the general public. This cartoon has now been translated into Portuguese and is to be used by Embrapa-Trigo at a national agricultural show in March 2017. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The cartoon was used at the Fusarium event for the general public in 2016 and at the Cereals 2016 event. It has helped the general public and the Agri-Industry understand the huge Fusarium disease problem globally and the potential for using Host induced gene silencing (HIGS) for disease control. 
URL http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/system/files/How%20to%20sustainably%20control%20Fusarium.pdf
 
Title Fusarium science cartoons and infographics text 
Description An eight page infographic text with ten cartoons was devised to explain the Fusarium disease risk in cereal production, how 10 years of related Fusarium - Arabidopsis research had lead to several major scientific breakthroughs as well as identify new ways to control this serious disease problem 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact The cartoons and other images devised have been used in various scientific outreach events including Cereal in 2016 and the Fusarium event in 2016. 
 
Description We have
1. Isolated the first wheat disease resistance gene to the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, namely Stb6
2. We have identify and characterised two chitin receptors in wheat
3. We have defined the in planta expression of the fungal genes for the wheat infecting pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Zymoseptoria tritici
4. We have completed the genome of the pathogen Fusarium graminearum from telomere to telomere, including the centromeric regions and placed this in the public domain for other to use.
5. We have completed and published the draft genome of the related pathogen Fusarium culmorum.
6. We have successfully established the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus - Virus overexpression system (BSMV-VOX) to over express systemically in wheat leaves and floral tissues various small secreted effector proteins predicted to be produced in planta by different plant pathogenic fungi. BSMV-VOX is now used routinely to evaluate the role of secreted effectors in plant defence suppression and/or activation and to rigorously test our working models on the fungal infection process. 7. In collaboration with scientists at INRA and JIC, Rothamsted lead on the isolation of the wheat gene Stb6 that confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, produced, has been published in a high-ranking journal (Saintenac et al 2018 Nature Genetics). Cloning Stb6 opened an opportunity for new research to gain deeper understanding of disease resistance mechanisms operating in wheat against this important pathogen, which in the long term should help to develop new successful disease control strategies. 8. In collaboration with scientists in the non-vertebrate team at EMBL-EBI, Rothamsted lead the further refinement of the gene predictions and annotation of the Fusarium graminearum (PH-1) genome. Version 5.0 was released via ENSEMBL in June 2017 (version 36) 9. Rothamsted has demonstrated that a previously uncharacterised fungal Type 2 glycosyltransferase plays a critical role in wheat disease caused by both Zymoseptoria tritici and Fusarium graminearum, by enabling hyphal extension on solid (i.e. plant) surfaces (King et al. 2017 PLoS Pathogens).
10. Rothamsted have developed a new Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV)-derived vector for transient overexpression of proteins, including small fungal secreted effector proteins as well as large up to 600 amino acids long proteins, in wheat and maize leaves. This opens a wide range of applications where an easy and rapid method of heterologous protein expression in monocots is needed. For example, the new vector may be used in screens for cell-death activity of secreted or cytosolic candidate pathogen effectors in wheat, maize or other monocot crops or model species, or in screens for proteins with putative insecticide or antifungal activities.
11. Rothamsted identified through a detailed temporal and spatial F. graminearum transcriptomics analysis, the specific secondary metabolite clusters and effector genes expressed during the early symptomless phase of wheat spike infection (Brown et al. 2017 Molecular Plant Pathology).
Exploitation Route Devising novel ways to control fungal diseases in wheat
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment

 
Description Several of the findings from this project have been taken up by the Agri-industry and the wheat breeding community. This has resulted in several funded joint projects
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Environment
Impact Types Economic

 
Description BBSRC - CASE studentship with Syngenta (Shaoli)
Amount £128,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description BBSRC - DTP Studentship (Walker)
Amount £108,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description BBSRC - DTP studentship (Osborne)
Amount £108,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description BBSRC - DTP with University of Exeter ( Baggaley)
Amount £128,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2020
 
Description BBSRC Future Leaders Fellowship ( Neil Brown)
Amount £372,256 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2019
 
Description BBSRC Future leaders Fellowship - Rothamsted contribution
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rothamsted Research 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2018
 
Description BBSRC Pathfinder Follow-on Fund
Amount £13,989 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012393/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description BBSRC- Quota (Elzbieta)
Amount £108,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2009 
End 12/2015
 
Description BBSRC-EMBRAPA Pump priming award
Amount £68,188 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N004493/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description BBSRC-Industrial CASE studentship with Syngenta (Derbyshire)
Amount £128,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2010 
End 09/2014
 
Description Bilateral BBSRC-EMBRAPA - Disease risk forecasting, NGS and HIGS
Amount £500,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N018095/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 06/2019
 
Description Bioinformatics and Biological Resources - PhytoPath 2
Amount £650,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K020056/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 05/2017
 
Description CAPES, Science Without Borders
Amount £108,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Brazil 
Department Coordination of Higher Education Personnel Training (CAPES)
Sector Public
Country Brazil
Start 11/2013 
End 10/2016
 
Description CASE - studentship ( Osborne)
Amount £16,500 (GBP)
Organisation Agrii 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2017
 
Description CASE - studentship (Osborne)
Amount £16,500 (GBP)
Organisation Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2017
 
Description Crop Genetic Improvement Network
Amount £1,950,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2008 
End 10/2014
 
Description Defra - Genetic improvement networks for UK crops ( WGIN) CH0106
Amount £1,004,907 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Description Defra - Genetic improvement networks for UK crops (WGIN 3) CH0106
Amount £1,004,907 (GBP)
Funding ID CH0106 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Description Defra Genetic Improvement Networks - WGIN phase 4 (CH0109) Improving the resilience of the wheat crop through genetics and targeted traits analysis
Amount £1,700,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2023
 
Description EMBRAPA Brazil, Common Interest project (Amaral)
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation 
Sector Public
Country Brazil
Start 02/2010 
End 02/2014
 
Description EMBRAPA Brazil, Common Interest project (Martins)
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation 
Sector Public
Country Brazil
Start 08/2012 
End 08/2013
 
Description EMBRAPA personal fellowship (Gilvan)
Amount £16,000 (GBP)
Organisation Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation 
Sector Public
Country Brazil
Start 07/2015 
End 07/2016
 
Description Food Security joint PhD project between Rothamsted Research, University of Notingham and University of Reading
Amount £106,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rothamsted Research 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2011 
End 09/2014
 
Description GRDC Australia with Australia National University, Camberra
Amount £144,000 (GBP)
Organisation Grains Research and Development Corporation 
Sector Public
Country Unknown
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Industry (Clement)
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Syngenta International AG 
Department Syngenta Seeds
Sector Private
Country Switzerland
Start 02/2015 
End 02/2017
 
Description Industry (Hoffinger)
Amount £210,000 (GBP)
Organisation Syngenta International AG 
Department Syngenta Seeds
Sector Private
Country Switzerland
Start 08/2013 
End 11/2014
 
Description Industry (Moughan)
Amount £246,000 (GBP)
Organisation Syngenta International AG 
Department Syngenta Crop Protection
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2017
 
Description Industry -Syngenta
Amount £588,887 (GBP)
Organisation Syngenta International AG 
Sector Public
Country Global
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2020
 
Description Innovation Centres UK (CHAP)
Amount £2,469,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2018
 
Description National Capability PHI-base
Amount £275,024 (GBP)
Funding ID BBS/E/C/00005192 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2012 
End 03/2017
 
Description Rothamsted Research BBSRC quota studentship (Brewer)
Amount £108,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2010 
End 12/2014
 
Description Rothamsted Research Fellowship
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rothamsted Research 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2016
 
Description Rothamsted Research Technology Innovation Project
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rothamsted Research 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2013 
End 12/2014
 
Description Rothamsted-Syngenta alliance
Amount £305,000 (GBP)
Organisation Syngenta International AG 
Sector Public
Country Global
Start 02/2015 
End 02/2017
 
Description The Crop Improvement Research Club (CIRC)
Amount £256,408 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/J019518/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2012 
End 12/2015
 
Description The Crop Improvement Research Club (CIRC)
Amount £555,165 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/J019666/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2012 
End 09/2016
 
Description Wheat Genetic Improvement Network ( WGIN) - phase 2
Amount £1,949,153 (GBP)
Funding ID IF0146 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2008 
End 11/2013
 
Description Wheat Genetic Improvement Network (WGIN)
Amount £1,850,539 (GBP)
Funding ID AR0709 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2003 
End 11/2008
 
Title Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus induced gene silencing ( BSMV-VIGS) 
Description The BSMV-VIGS system is used to assess gene function in hexaploid wheat of individual plant genes or plant gene families by transient silencing delivered as the recombinant virus is transmitted through the non-transgenic wheat plant. The plants can be tested at any stage of growth or development. In a proportion of the plants the silencing phenomenon is transmitted to the next generate and subsequent generations. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Increased number of UK, European and International collaborations. Increased funding from overseas, for example Australia where the BSMV virus is not present. Increased funding from Industry. Increased number of publications and invited reviews 
 
Title Foxtail mosaic virus: A New Viral Vector for Protein Expression in Wheat and Maize 
Description A new vector based on a monopartite single-stranded positive sense RNA virus, Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV, genus Potexvirus), have been developed. The gene of interest is inserted downstream of a duplicated sub-genomic promoter of the viral coat protein gene and the corresponding protein is expressed in its free form. This new vector, PV101, allowed expression of a 239 aa-long green fluorescent protein (GFP) in both virus inoculated and upper uninoculated (systemic) leaves of wheat and maize, and directed systemic expression of a larger ca. 600 aa protein GUSPlus in maize. Moreover, we demonstrated that PV101 can be used for in planta expression and functional analysis of apoplastic pathogen effector proteins such as host-specific toxin ToxA of a fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This new plant virus-based vector opens new possibilities for functional genomics studies in two of the most important cereal crops. 
 
Title Method for expression of fungal effector proteins in planta 
Description The method involves expression of apoplastic fungal small secreted proteins (so called, effectors) in barley and wheat using the Barley stripe mosaic virus vector (BSMV). This method has been coined BSMV-VOX (Virus-mediated Over-eXpression). BSMV-VOX for example allows rapid identification of necrosis or cell death inducing fungal effectors in medium throughput screens. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact To our knowledge there are currently no other tools available in the public domain that allow expression and functional analysis of apoplastic fungal effectors directly in planta, specifically in wheat and barley plants. Many academic researchers studying this type of effector proteins in pathogens and pests of cereal crops will benefit from availability of the BSMV-VOX tool. 
 
Title T-DNA reporter constructs for transformation into fungi 
Description Four T-DNA reporter constructs were developed for transformation into Pathogenic Fungi. These are described in the reference , Eckert, M., Maguire, K., Urban, M, Foster, S., Fitt, B., Lucas, J., Hammond-Kosack, K.E. (2005) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Leptosphaeria spp. and Oculimacula spp. with the reef coral gene DsRed and the jellyfish gene GFP. FEMS Microbiological Letters 253, 67-74. The DsRed and GFP T-DNA constructs have been requested by > 30 research groups globally over the past 12 years and have been supplied with an appropriate MTA to all requesting groups. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2007 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact For several pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi species DsRed and/ or GFP reporter strains have been generated by other research groups globally. These are the papers citing our original publication Eckert et al (2005) FEMS Microbiological Letters 253, 67-74. Many of these fungi had not previously been transformed and the use of these constructs assisted in the identification of primary transformants and improving the transformation procedures. 
 
Title FgMutantDB 
Description FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Through the use of FgMutantDB missing annotations were feedback into larger multispecies fungal genomic databases including, FungiDB, Ensembl and PHI-base. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1087184518300021
 
Title Pathogen-Host Interactions Database 
Description PHI-base database contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions. Information is also given on the target sites of some anti-infective chemistries 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact PHI-base has since 2012 been awarded by the BBSRC National Capability status Over 130 peer reviewed publications have cited PHI-base use as part of their in silico analysis of pathogen host interactions, these are all cited on the website. The database is accessed by researchers located in 91 countries. Version 4.2 of the database was launched in September 2016 and allows all the curated information to be displayed and searched from within PHI-base. 90% of the plant pathogen entries in PHI-base can also be identified / searched for in another BBSRC sponsored resource called Phytopathdb run by the EBI Cambridge. PHI-base has been invited to write an 'Expression of Interest' to join the ELIXIR project in 2016 
URL http://www.phi-base.org
 
Title Wheat Genetic Improvement Network (WGIN) 
Description The WGIN website and database contains all the data from a large research network project started in July 2003 to improve wheat through the discovery of new traits and development of new resources. Although the main funder is defra, a lot of funds from the BBSRC have been combined with the WGIN funds to complete long series experiments and run the various stakeholder events which occur on an annual basis. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A lot - to add more 
URL http://www.wgin.org.uk/
 
Description Comparative transcriptome analyses F. graminearum infection of wheat in floral and coleoptile tissues 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A very detailed F. graminearum (Fg) transcriptome analysis has been undertaken in wheat floral tissue over the past 3 years which was published in 2017. Brown, NA, Evans, J., Mead, A and. Hammond-Kosack, K.E. (2017) A spatial temporal analysis of the Fusarium graminearum transcriptome during symptomless and symptomatic wheat infection. Molecular Plant Pathology 18, 1295-1312 (e-12564) . We have used this Rothamsted Research generated transcriptomics data set to compare with a comparable transcriptome data set generated at SIPPE on the Fg- wheat coleoptile interaction. This coleoptile data set is being inter-compared with the wheat floral data set to identify the tissue specific similarities and differences.
Collaborator Contribution A very detailed F. graminearum (Fg) transcriptome analysis has been undertaken in wheat coleoptile tissue over the past 3 years which was published in 2012. Xiao-Wei Zhang, Lei-Jie Jia,Yan Zhang,Gang Jiang, Xuan Li,c Dong Zhang, and Wei-Hua Tang (2012) In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles. Plant Cell 24: 5159-5176l. This coleoptile data set is being inter-compared with the wheat floral data set to identify the tissue specific similarities and differences.
Impact Kim Hammond-Kosack was invited to visit SIPPE in 2016 ,to give an institute seminar in 2017 and to attend and present at an international Fusarium genomics workshop in 2017. Professor Tang visited Rothamsted Research in 2017 and gave a departmeantl seminar. Several unpublished data sets have been exchanged and joint analyses are underway.
Start Year 2016
 
Description ELIXIR - Data for Life project 
Organisation ELIXIR
Department ELIXIR UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Pathogen Host Interactions Database (PHI-base) is an Agrigenomics data resource provider into the ELIXIR project via the UK node of ELIXIR
Collaborator Contribution The UK Node of ELIXIR. ELIXIR-UK aims to incorporate and represent the widest possible range of UK activities in bioinformatics in ELIXIR. Three areas of focus: Enhancing training capacity and capability via the ELIXIR Training Platform Playing a leading role in the ELIXIR Interoperability Platform Providing the link between UK bioinformatics Tools and Data Resources and the wider ELIXIR ecosystem In 2016, ELIXIR-UK added the following resources to its portfolio, as a first step towards incorporating a wider range of the UK's bioinformatics activities into ELIXIR. The tools and data resources are classified under four strategic themes: 1. Protein Structure & Function Phyre2 CATH-Gene3D Jalview, and the Dundee Resource for Sequence Analysis and Structure Prediction 2. Imaging and Atlases Biomedical Atlas Centre 3. Human Health and Disease IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 4. Agri-science Pathogen Host Interactions Database (PHI-base) ENSEMBL Farmed and Domesticated Animals ELIXIR-UK will continue it add new resources to its portfolio over time. As part of this process, it has identified and road-mapped resources for future inclusion: EuPathDB, Ionomics Hub, SignaLink, BioCatalogue and Collaborative Open Plant Omics.
Impact PHI-base has been invited to apply for ELIXIR Core funding as a data resource provider. Outcome of application will be known Q2 2017.
Start Year 2016
 
Description EMBRAPA Brazil - Bioinformatics Laboratory, Cenargen Brasilia 
Organisation Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
Country Brazil 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The genomes of 16 well-characterised Fusarium graminearum (Fg) (15-ADON) isolates, eight each from Parana and Rio Grande du Sul states, were sequenced by Illumina paired end reads. The highly virulent isolate CML3066, with the best sequence coverage (x180), was nominated as the Brazilian reference isolate. We have subsequently created the pan genome for Fg using this data and an additional six global Fg stains including the global reference strain PH-1 originally from the USA. The focus at Rothamsted was then the characterisation of genes predicted to code for small secreted proteins or predicted to reside with discrete secondary metabolite clusters. The sequence variation in the known Fg pathogenicity and virulence genes documented in the PHI-base database has also been explored. To complement these comparative genome analyses, the relative disease causing ability of the 16 Brazilian isolates compared to the global reference strain has been explored in detail.
Collaborator Contribution The EMBRAPA bioinformatics team have applied their expertise in transmembrane spanning proteins to explore the predicted G-protein coupled receptor, 7 transmembrane spanning protein superfamiliy. This superfamiliy contains > 100 genes and some of there are now know to be required for the disease causing ability of Fg.
Impact Three publications have already arisen from the initial joint genome data analysis on the Fg PH-1 genome, which was done in preparation for the main project.. Bresso, E., Leroux, V., Urban, M., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Maigret, B.. and Martins, N.F. (2016) Structure-based virtual screening of hypothetical inhibitors of the enzyme longiborneol synthase, a possible target to reduce Fusarium head blight disease. Journal of Molecular Modeling 22, 1-13. Martins, N.F., Bresso, E., Togawa, R. C., Urban, M., Antoniw, J., Maigret, B. and Hammond-Kosack, K.E. (2016) Searching for novel targets to control wheat head blight disease. I- Protein identification, 3D modeling and virtual screening. Advances in Microbiology 6 (11), 811-830. Doi 10.4236/aim.2016.611079. Bresso, E., Togawa, R. C., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Urban, M., Maigret, B. and Martins, N.F (2016). GPCRs from Fusarium graminearum, detection, modeling and virtual screening - the search for new routes to control head blight disease. BMC Bioinformatics 17 (18), 39. PMID: 28105916. These joint studies were multi-disciplinary and involved bioinformatics and protein modelling.
Start Year 2013
 
Description EMBRAPA Brazil - Passo fundo - Trigo (wheat) team 
Organisation Embrapa Trigo
Country Brazil 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Rothamsted Team has sequenced the genomes of 16 Brazilian strains of the Fusarium head blight disease causing strain F. graminearum (Fg) and has now created a pan -genome for this species by comparing with the available Fg genomes for 6 six additional global isolates including the reference isolate PH-I. This has indicated that the Fg pan genome is relatively closed. The Rothamsted Team has stably transformed the Brazilian commercial wheat cultivar Guaramin for the first time
Collaborator Contribution The EMBRAPA Trigo team have generated various transgenic Arabidopsis harboring different Fg HIGS constructs. The EMBRAPA Team have also screened and identified lettuce cultivars that are fully susceptible to the nominated reference Brazilian strain.
Impact A major display at the annual Cereals event held in Cambridgeshire in June 2016 on the new HIGS and SIGS technologies for the control of FHB disease in wheat . A open evening public event entitled @ Healthy Crops- Healthy Food done at Rothamsted Research in July 2016.
Start Year 2014
 
Description EMBRAPA Fusarium graminearum pangenome 
Organisation Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
Country Brazil 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Almost all bioinformatics: Construction of a Pangenome of Fusarium graminearum. SNP calling and presence/absence of multiple isolates to the pangenome. Annotation of and identification of novel and core gene sets. Submission to a public repository of the raw and processed data. RNA-seq of public data set to add annotation.
Collaborator Contribution Supply the sequencing data, writing the paper, some other analyses.
Impact Pangenome and individual genomes/annotation resources. Presence/absence/ and snp calling data for each gene across the isolates sampled, and definition of core and accessory genes.
Start Year 2015
 
Description EMBRAPA LabEx Common Interest Project 
Organisation Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
Country Brazil 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Different members of the Rothamsted Research team trained the visiting senior EMBRAPA LabEx scientists in bioinformatics and molecular genetics skills relating to fungal pathogens which infect wheat. The Rothamsted team and especially Professor John Lucas advised on European research labs and companies to visit to obtain relevant new knowledge and techniques and initiate new collaborations for EMBRAPA.
Collaborator Contribution EMBRAPA Brazil established a Common Interest project and an office at Rothamsted. In addition to conducting and publishing original research the visiting Senior Fellow, Dr Alex Amaral established an extensive collaborative network at Rothamsted, throughout the UK and Europe.
Impact Visiting senior fellow Dr Amaral whilst at Rothamsted helped to facilitate the joint BBSRC -EMBRAPA wheat workshop held in Londrinas Brazil in May 2011 which subsequently lead to the joint wheat research pump priming call in 2014/2015 and the subsequent main call
Start Year 2010
 
Description Isolation of wheat Stb genes for resisatnce to Septoria 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in fungal (Zymoseptoria tritici) biology, wheat functional genomics, wheat-fungal interactions, disease resistance, bioinformatics
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in wheat genetics and genomics
Impact The first wheat gene for resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici (Septoria tritici) has been cloned, published in Nature Genetics, and the corresponding applications patented.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Isolation of wheat Stb genes for resisatnce to Septoria 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Department Department of Crop Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in fungal (Zymoseptoria tritici) biology, wheat functional genomics, wheat-fungal interactions, disease resistance, bioinformatics
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in wheat genetics and genomics
Impact The first wheat gene for resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici (Septoria tritici) has been cloned, published in Nature Genetics, and the corresponding applications patented.
Start Year 2013
 
Description John Jones 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Department Cell and Molecular Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The cyst nematode group at James Hutton Institute are particularly interested in predicting and characterising putative secreted effectors and their first host targets. With this in mind the Rothamsted team within the BBSRC funded PhytoPath project has started to curate this literature and to modify the PHI-base database schema to hold information on the 1st targets of effects in plants.
Collaborator Contribution Bioinformatics analyses of the sequenced nematode genome to predict the repertoire of secreted effectors
Impact One verified cyst nematode effector successfully entered into the PHI-base database namely Gr-VAP1
Start Year 2014
 
Description Molecular and biological characterisation of Fusarium species and isolates collected from infected wheat fields in Southern Brazil 
Organisation Federal University of Viçosa
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Rothamsted team has used a next generation sequencing approach to explore the genomes of the five Fusarium Head Blight causing species in Southern Brazil, namely F. graminearum, F. meridionale, F.cortaderiae, F. austroamericanum and F. asiaticum.. The Rothamsted team are currently focussing on investigating and defining the core and variable parts of the pan genome of F. graminearum. The Rothamsted team also assembled and annotated the F. meridionale genome and has given this data to the University team for further analysis.
Collaborator Contribution The University team had collected field isolates during 2009 - 2012 and provided the 24 Fusarium isolates covering the five required species. The University team had also characterised the disease causing ability of each isolate on the floral spikes of various Brazilian wheat genotypes. Currently, the University team is exploring the genomes of the various F. meridionale,
Impact The two main output delivered so far has been (1) the biological characterisation of the 24 / 5 species collection for disease causing ability on both Brazilian and non-Brazilian wheat genotypes and (2) the 24 newly assembled and annotated genomes covering the five most important FHB causing species in Southern Brazil.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Plasmodesmata function in Arabidopsis and Wheat 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Devising and supervising of a SWBIo -DTP PhD student
Collaborator Contribution Devising and co-supervising of a SWBIo -DTP PhD student
Impact Unpublished Arabidopsis lines and constructs have been transferred from John Innes Centre to Rothamsted Research to explore plasmodesmata function during the F graminearum - floral infection process. A collaborative agreement is under development.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Rothamsted - Syngenta Alliance - RoSy 
Organisation Syngenta International AG
Country Global 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution An industry:academia collaboration turning excellence in wheat science into cutting edge technology for UK and global farmers Recognising the strength and quality of wheat research available at Rothamsted Research, Syngenta is making a multi-million pound collaborative investment into a set of projects aimed at translating our excellence in wheat science into cutting edge technology for farmers. The capacity at Rothamsted was built following years of funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), and Rothamsted has been developing new knowledge and tools to increase UK wheat yield potential to 20 tonnes per hectare. Currently the average farm yield of wheat in the UK is 8.4 tonnes per hectare, dropping to just 3 tonnes per hectare world-wide. Additionally, the rate of yearly increase in wheat yields has declined since 1980. Wheat provides a fifth of human calories. The BBSRC-funded research is improving our understanding of how best to maximise and protect yield potential, determine soil resource interactions and use modelling approaches to support crop improvement. This strategic alliance with Syngenta enables Rothamsted to apply its scientific knowledge and skills to develop outputs that can be used by the company to develop new solutions for farmers in the UK and beyond. Altogether, across the 10 projects funded under this alliance, we have 27 scientists, (from 9 global Syngenta sites), with backgrounds in breeding and crop protection, interacting with 29 scientists from Rothamsted, from molecular biologists to modellers. For Dr Malcolm Hawkesford, 20:20 Wheat® Programme Lead, the level of knowledge exchange enabled by this alliance will lead to not only new products and better advice being developed for farmers, but also contribute to even more relevant science being undertaken at Rothamsted. Specifically the wheat pathogenomics research team at Rothamsted Research has been involved in four collaborative projects with Syngenta at three of their research sites exploring wheat, specific fungal pathogens and /or the development of novel functional genomics tools.
Collaborator Contribution "The objectives of this alliance are totally aligned with those of the Syngenta Cereals Strategy and provide integrated solutions to help growers maximise the yields they can get from their crop in a sustainable way", said Dr James Melichar, Head Product Selection Cereals EAME - Seeds Product Development in Syngenta. "Furthermore, although most of the activities funded under the alliance are focused on wheat, the breakthroughs from projects may be applicable to each of the cereal crops that Syngenta breeds". Syngenta are contributing into the four pathology projects, technical expertise, new knowledge and specific plant genotypes and fungal pathogens for detailed analysis.
Impact Peer reviewed publications, a submitted patent and fully funding the training of a PhD student.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Wheat Genetic Improvement Networks (WGIN) funded by defra 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Department Department of Crop Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Kim Hammond-Kosack and Peter Shewry at Rothamsted Research co-founded the defra funded Wheat Genetic Improvement Network in 2003. This network is about to enter its 4th phase. Kim Hammond-Kosack is the project leader and Peter Shewry chairs all the meetings. WGIN ensures the wheat genetic, genotyping and phenotyping pre-breeding research ongoing within the project is focussed on improving the sustainability and resilience of the UK wheat crop. A very wide range of wheat traits have been investigated in WGIN over the years, numerous new genetic resources for wheat have been generated and distributed. An integral part of WGIN is the regular connections with the nine wheat breeding companies based in the UK. An annual stakeholder meeting is held each November to connect this project with the needs of the wider UK wheat industry.
Collaborator Contribution John Snape at The John Innes Centre co-founded WGIN in 2003. John Snape was trhe project leader up until 2008 and then this transferred to Simon Griffiths. The John Innes is involved in generating new genetic resources and in genotyping and phenotyping specific mapping populations as well as maintaining and distributing key germplasm.
Impact Over 60 peer reviewed publications, including many involving multiple teams based at different academic organisations and industry. 45 joint meetings with the wheat breeding industry. 15 stakeholder meeting. Annual or biannual community newsletters, Well maintained database contain all the project information, key data sets and the resources available. Training the next generation of wheat scientists, through summer placements funded by learned society summer bursary schemes and involving PhD students in specific large and long term experiments. Considerable new funding obtained for wheat research. Still need to add in the final numbers.
 
Description Wheat plasma membrane 
Organisation University of Exeter
Department Biosciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Devising and then supervising a SWBio DTP PhD student
Collaborator Contribution Devising and then co-supervising a SWBio DTP PhD student
Impact Appointed the PhD student, Laura Baggaley. Initial 6 month student placement at University of Exeter. We have jointly started to devise a multi-disciplinary aspect to this project, where the images generated via confocal microscopy with then be converted into a mathematical model of growth of the Fusarium graminearum wild type and GT2 mutant strains. A formal agreement for this joint project is under development.
Start Year 2015
 
Description mlo- mediated plant defense in wheat 
Organisation RWTH Aachen University
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaboration involving Andy Phillips and Kim Hammond-Kosack at Rothamsted Research and Professor Ralph Panstruga at RWTH Aachen University. Rothamsted generated and provided an EMS mutagenised population of the wheat cultivar Cadenza. Andy Phillips lab hosted the visiting post-doc. The following breeding strategy was devised during a joint meeting at Rothamsted. Both Andy Phillips and Kim Hammond-Kosack contributed to the joint writing of the manuscript, dealing with reviewers comments and checking the final proofs, Kim Hammond-Kosack was awarded in 2018 a new 5 year defra funded projercted called the Wheat Genetic Improvement Network - phase 4 (WGIN 4). Within WGIN 4 the best double and triple mlo lines will be evaluated under field conditions for their resisatnce to powdery mildew and plant growth and plant stature.
Collaborator Contribution A Post doc funded in the Panstruga lab came to Rothamsted Resarch and screened DNA samples from the EMS mutagenised population and identified a series of the required mlo mutant alleles for the A B and D genomes. The Panstriuga lab then completed the required sexual crosses to combine various combinations of mutant mlo A B and D homoeologues. The single, double, and triple mutant lines were tested for the control of wheat powdery mildew under glasshouse conditions. The writing of the joint manuscript was led by the Panstruga Lab. The joint publication appeared in 2017 and was featured on the front cover.
Impact Acevedo-Garcia, J., Spencer, D., Thieron, H., Reinstädler, A., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Phillips A.L. and Panstruga, R. (2017) mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach. Plant Biotechnology Journal 15, 367-378 plus new funding and field research activities within the defra funded WGIN 4 project
Start Year 2013
 
Description siRNA oligo-mediated silencing of genes in plant pathogenic fungi and their cereal hosts - Royal Holloway - Dr Laurence Bindschedler 
Organisation Royal Holloway, University of London
Department School of Biological Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Rothamsted Research team has designed and generated single gene deletion mutants for a conserved effector in two wheat infecting fungal species, namely Fusarium graminearum and Zymoseptoria tritici. The conserved effector was selected because this small secreted protein is required for pathogenicity by the wheat and the barley attacking species of powdery mildew, respectively Blumeria graminis f sp tritici and Bg fsp hordei . Characterisation of the two sets of mutants both in vitro and in planta has also been carried out at Rothamsted Research. Our collaboartors at Royal Holloway have neither the facilities nor required government licences to carry out these types of experiments. The PhD student visits Rothamsted for a few days each month to complete specific experiments.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborator has been silencing the same effector in trhe wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f sp tritici, using synthetic oligos. Thus confirming that this effector which is predicted to encode a specialist zinc metal protease is required for the infection of both the wheat and the barley infecting powdery mildew species. The Royal Holloway team are also exploring how the expression of this effector is regulated.
Impact So far only joint conference posters , eg BSPP Warwick Dec 2018, MBPP Norwich March 2019 and IS-MPMI Glasgow July 2019
Start Year 2016
 
Title Plant fungal resistance gene 
Description The present invention relates generally to the fields of genetic engineering and plant molecular biology. Specifically, the invention concerns nucleic acids and polypeptides which confer fungal disease resistance in plants, in particular, resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease. Accordingly, the invention relates to isolated nucleic acids and polypeptides which are capable of conferring resistance to the STB disease and the use thereof in generating and identifying STB resistant plants. The invention also encompasses expression vectors comprising said polynucleotides and plants exhibiting resistance to STB disease. The nucleic acids, polypeptides, expression vectors, plants and methods of the present invention may usefully find application in agricultural biotechnology. 
IP Reference WO2017103582 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact None
 
Title VECTORS AND METHODS FOR GENE EXPRESSION IN MONOCOTS 
Description The invention relates to the field of genetic engineering tools for gene expression in plants. Specifically, the invention concerns modified Foxtail Mosaic Virus (FoMV) vectors comprising polynucleotide sequences which are capable of driving expression of a gene of interest in a plant host. Accordingly, the invention concerns FoMV-based expression vectors comprising said polynucleotides, compositions comprising modified FoMV vectors, methods of generating gene expression in plants infected with the modified FoMV vectors. The expression vectors, compositions, plants and methods of the present invention find application in many fields of biotechnology, including, for example, gene characterization, protein production and agricultural biotechnology. 
IP Reference WO2018065785 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed No
Impact Increased international visibility of our research. New links with biotechnology companies.
 
Description A metabolic gene cluster mediating ß-diketone biosynthesis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We prepared and published a press release covering our recently study: Hen-Avivi et al. (2016) Plant Cell 28, 1440-1460; http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.16.00197. This stimulated increased interest in our research and our story has been picked up by 2 news outlets, and twitted by 23.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://resources.rothamsted.ac.uk/news-views/surface-genes-identified-give-wheat-and-barley-their-ma...
 
Description BBSRC website press release - Major pathogen of barley decoded: new avenues for control 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release based on Publication McGrann et al., BMC Genomics. First genome sequence for an important UK barley pathogen
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/food-security/2016/160811-pr-major-pathogen-of-barley-decoded
 
Description Cereal Show 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Cereals
A Fusarium Head Blight exhibit was situated at the Rothamsted Research stand (Cereals 2016). This exhibit portrayed the impact of Fusarium on wheat production and the associated risk of mycotoxin contamination. It highlighted the need for new approaches to tackle this hazardous fungal disease. During the two day event, knowledge of the approaches taken at Rothamsted, including those within the associated fellowship, were described to farmers, agronomists, the press and industry. This exhibit commonly promoted the discussion of the use of GM and non-GM mediated approaches to control fungal diseases.

This two day event is attended by > 25,000 visitors (approximately 10% from overseas) from the AgIndustries, AgriFood and Farming sectors, as well as the media, politicians and NGOs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Cereals 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Demonstration plots, posters, and live exhibits
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cereals 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Demonstration plots and posters
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/events/2016/1506-cereals/
 
Description FoMV vector 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We prepared and published a press release covering our recently study: Clément Bouton et al. Foxtail mosaic virus: A viral vector for protein expression in cereals, Plant Physiology (2018). DOI: 10.1104/pp.17.01679. This stimulated increased interest in our research and our story has been picked up by 3 news outlets, twitted by 23, and blogged by 1..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/vox-pops-cereal-challenge
 
Description Fusarium event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This one day Fusarium event was hosted at the Rothamsted Research (July 2016) educated the general public and interested stakeholders in the impact of Fusarium-borne diseases and the associated risk of mycotoxin contamination. It highlighted deficiencies is current approaches to prevent Fusarium-borne diseases and the need for new approaches to tackle this hazardous fungal disease. During this event, knowledge of the approaches taken at Rothamsted, including those within the associated fellowship, were described to the general public, farmers and agronomists. This exhibit commonly promoted the discussion of the use of GM and non-GM mediated approaches to control fungal diseases, and also described the background behind the use of host-induced gene silencing as a GM approach to fight fungal disease.

This event was from 4 to 8 pm and included a wheat and soybean field tour to visit and discuss three experiments, the running of a virtual laboratory for fungal pathogen transformation and analysis, a bioinformatics display and game to analyse sequenced fungal genomes, poster and live exhibits on the effect of fungal pathogens on various crops plant species and post harvest fruits and a poster display and talk on using GM and non-GM approaches to fight fungal diseases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description General Review on the top 10 Fungal Pathogens globally 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The following review arose following an online debate and vote debate by the global molecular plant pathology community.

Dean, R., van Kan, J. , Pretorius; Z., Hammond-Kosack, K. E., Di Pietro, A., Spanu, P., Rudd, J. J., Dickman, M., Kahmann, R., Ellis , J., and Foster, G.D. (2012) The Top 10 Fungal Pathogens in Molecular Plant Pathology. Molecular Plant Pathology 13: 414-430.

This review is now used routinely in under-graduate and graduate teaching.

The review has already been cited extensively by the global scientific community, the Agindustry and the media.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description Rothamsted Festival of Ideas 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact It was our Institute's (Rothamsted Research) 175th birthday and we were celebrating with a Festival of Ideas. The event was free and open to all with something for everyone, from young to old. Our Festival brought together activities, exhibitions and demonstrations to immerse general public in the science of feeding the world. Numerous live plant displays and demonstration have been organised, as well as posters, interactive displays, tractor rides, talks, games and a trove of other astonishing exhibits describing our proud history of ground-breaking discoveries, from crop treatment to crop protection, from statistical interpretation to soils management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/events/rothamsted-festival-ideas
 
Description Rothamsted Press release accompanying a global press release entitled ' One Giant Leap for Wheat' 16th August 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This press release accompanied a peer reviewed publication in Science entitled ' Shifting the limits in wheat research and breeding using a fully annotated reference genome' . More than 200 scientists from 73 research institutes in 20 countries over 13 years have produced the most comprehensive map of a wheat genome, paving the way for more resilient and nutritious varieties of a staple crop that feeds more than a third of the global human population.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/one-giant-leap-wheat
 
Description Rothamsted Press release accompanying a global press release by CSIRO and USA collaborators - Entitled 'Rust Stemmed for Wheat' - 22nd Dec 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A press release entitles entitled 'Rust Stemmed for Wheat' - 22nd Dec 2017 attracted considerable follow-up media attention.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/rust-stemmed-wheat
 
Description Rothamsted Press release also involving the project sponsor Syngenta entitled ' VOX POPS Cereal Challenge' 13th August 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The VOX POPS Cereal Challenge accompanied the publication of a Plant Physiology article entitled ' Foxtail mosaic virus: A Viral Vector for Protein Expression in Cereals'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/vox-pops-cereal-challenge
 
Description Rothamsted Press release accompanying a regional and national press release entitled ' The good, the bad and their fortuitous differences' 20th April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This press release accompanied a publication in in journal BMC Genomics entitled ' Inter-genome comparison of the Quorn fungus Fusarium venenatum and the closely related plant infecting pathogen Fusarium graminearum. This was folowed by an interview with the local BBC radio station covering the St Albans / North London regions, namely Radio Verulamium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/good-bad-and-their-fortuitous-differences
 
Description Rothamsted Press release joint with JIC and INRA France accompanying a global press release entitled ' Another blow to fungal infection' - 12th February 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release accompanying a Nature Genetics publication entitled 'Wheat receptor-kinase-like protein Stb6 controls gene-for-gene resistance to fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici'. This publication has raised considerable interest in the global wheat breeding industry and with CIMMYT.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/another-blow-fungal-infection
 
Description Rothamsted Press release with follow up national and international press releases entitled ' Crop immunisation can root out take-all infections' 22nd May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This press release accompanied the paper published in the Journal of Experimental Botany entitled ' Elite UK winter wheat cultivars differ in their ability to support the colonization of beneficial root-infecting fungi' . There has been considerable interest for the international wheat breeding community in this new trait.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/crop-immunisation-can-root-out-take-all-fungus
 
Description Rothamsted Press release with follow up national and international press releases entitled ' First step to lasting wheat health', 22nd June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This press release accompanied the peer reviewed publication in the Journal Nature Scientific Reports entitled ' Exploring the resilience of wheat crops grown in short rotations through minimising the build-up of an important soil-borne fungal pathogen'.

This project was primarily support by the long running defra funded Wheat Genetic Improvement Network ( http://www.wgin.org.uk/) but required additional BBSRC funding in the ISPs 'Protection Yield Potential of Wheat' and 'Designing Future Wheat' o complete. Various agronomist companies and AHDB are interesting in applying this new knowledge into the arable crop rotation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/first-step-lasting-wheat-health
 
Description Rothamsted Research Annual Review book 2015/2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An article was written for the Institute's annual report entitled ' Healthy Crops - Healthy Food'. This was used to focus attention on the 15% annual loss of crop productivity and harvested food due to plant disease problems. In the article we described the novel results that had been published on the Zymoseptoria tritici-wheat leaf interaction, via a combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis and virus induced gene silencing(VIGS). These are providing leads for the development of novel disease control options in wheat. The article also explained about the continuous updating of an open access internet resource called PHI-base which is being used increasingly to provide new insights for agricultural, biomedical, and ecological research.

.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.PHI-base.org
 
Description Septoria effectors 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Demonstration of research aimed at improving wheat genetic resistance to pathogens
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Take-all - wheat plots and poster demonstrations at Cereals in 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Take-all - wheat plots and poster demonstrations in 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 were used to communicate our research results and their implications for the control of root diseases to farmers and industry at the annual Cereals event. In 2012 and 2014 we focussed on communicating our research on identifying root resistance to take-all disease in wheat landraces, the wheat D genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii and the ancient einkorn wheat Triticum monococcum. We included small plots of these different species and take-all infected root samples to show visitors. In 2015 and 2016 we focussed on genetic control of take-all using the low take-all inoculum building trait in elite wheat varieties. In 2015 Sarah-Jane Osborne (Take-all PhD student, BBSRC+AHDB+Agrii funding), aligned to this and other related project, manned an additional poster display on the AHDB stand on her PhD work characterising the potential biocontrol Phialophora fungal species. In 2016 Joseph Moughan (Take-all PhD student, fully Syngenta funded) also had a separate poster display on the RRes stand in the Rothamsted Syngenta 20:20 wheat collaboration (RoSy) area illustrating his progress on combining genetics and chemistry for integrated take-all disease management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014,2015,2016
 
Description Take-all entry into CropProtect website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Provided a detailed entry for Take-all disease to the CropProtect website. This provides information to farmers/growers and specialists agricultural advisors on take-all root disease diagnosis and the various ways to minimise the disease in cereal crops.

Smart growers and farmers use Croprotect to find out about pest, weed and disease management, especially in situations where effective pesticides are not available and alternative approaches are required.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL https://croprotect.com/
 
Description US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative - FHB forum 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to give a seminar to the US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative - FHB forum 2017, which consisted of around 200 academics and industrial partners, primarily from the USA and Canada, but also Europe. The purpose of the visit was to interact with the International Fusarium research community. This highlighted our published research on Fusarium transcriptomics, while advertising our on-going research on Fusarium G-protein coupled receptors. Interactions with a researcher at the USDA resulted in a joint publication on the development of a new bioinformatics resource for the Fusarium research community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://scabusa.org/pdfs/nfhbf17_program_web.pdf
 
Description Wheat Stb6 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We prepared and published a press release covering our recently study: Saintenac et al. (2018) Wheat receptor kinase-like protein Stb6 controls gene-for-gene resistance to fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Nature Genetics, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0051-x.. This stimulated increased interest in our research and our story has been picked up by 7 news outlets, and twitted by 85.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/another-blow-fungal-infection