DFW - Designing Future Wheat - Work package 2 (WP2) - Added value and resilience

Lead Research Organisation: Rothamsted Research
Department Name: Unlisted

Abstract

Food and nutrition security requires safe access to affordable and nutritious food supplies. WP2 aims to enhance grain quality for human health, combat non-communicable diet-related diseases and improve the resilience of wheat production systems to biotic stresses. It addresses two topics, with shared objectives across DFW and other RRes, JIC, EI, Quadram and NIAB programmes. Both exploit previous BBSRC investments in germplasm resources and the latest genomic developments, to understand and manipulate the genes and pathways defining wheat grain composition and host resistance/susceptibility to pathogens/pests. WP2 researchers will dissect a range of traits exploiting the germplasm and other resources developed within DFW. These traits include resistance to a range of pathogens and pests (including rusts, Zymoseptoria, Fusarium, take-all, mildew, eyespot and aphids) and finally the quantity and quality of starch, dietary fibre and minerals in grain

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description 2018 entry

• DFW WP2 researchers have generated one cross-institutional publication which has been published in Nature Genetics
• During the year, we have provided BBSRC Swindon office with a google.doc site, which lists all our DFW outputs (including data access sites, germplasm generated, datasets generated, publications, and public engagement activities as they occur). This document is updated by us on a regular basis.
• All the objectives during the DFW reporting period have been met, and many exceeded.
• All the committees within DFW are up and running including the key data coordination task force (DCTF) and Breeder's toolkit committees, both with WP2 representation.
• Breeders toolkit committee recently at Bayer with eight other breeders to agree germplasm exchange between DFW researchers and the private
• Rothamsted have shown that mutant lines developed by QBI/JIC with increased resistant starch also have higher contents of dietary fibre components: these could also contribute to reduced glycaemic load (obj. 2.1.4 and obj 2.1.5).
• In collaboration with Rothamsted, QBI have measured arabinoxylan and ß-glucan fibre in durum wheat TILLING mutants to determine pleiotropic effects of SBEII mutations conferring enhanced resistant starch (obj. 2.1.4 and obj 2.1.5). We are now working with Rothamsted to measure fibre components in samples of semolina pudding made with SBEII mutants from our human intervention study focused on glycemic response.
• In collaboration with JIC, Rothamsted have identified a major QTL for high arabinoxylan fibre in the high fibre Chinese wheat cultivar Yumai 34, and identified tightly linked SNP markers which have been validated using high fibre lines developed in a Hungarian breeding programme. We have also shown that even higher levels of fibre can be obtained by combining this QTL with a second QTL from the French wheat Valoris (obj2.1.4).
• In collaboration with the JIC, Rothamsted have screened the population of sequenced EMS mutants and a collection of Ae. tauschii accessions for resistance against two aphid species. In both cases we have identified potentially novel sources of resistance and we are now performing the genetics to identify causal genes underlying these resistance responses. (obj 2.2.1 and 2.2.2).
• In collaboration with scientists at INRA and JIC, Rothamsted lead on the isolation of the wheat gene Stb6 that confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, produced, has been published in a high-ranking journal (Saintenac et al 2018 Nature Genetics). Cloning Stb6 opened an opportunity for new research to gain deeper understanding of disease resistance mechanisms operating in wheat against this important pathogen, which in the long term should help to develop new successful disease control strategies. (obj 2.2.2)
• In collaboration with scientists in the non-vertebrate team at EMBL-EBI, Rothamsted lead the further refinement of the gene predictions and annotation of the Fusarium graminearum (PH-1) genome. Version 5.0 was released via ENSEMBL in June 2017 (version 36) (obj 2.2.6).
• Comparative analyses of historic wheats (dating back over 200 years) done at Rothamsted have shown that intensive plant breeding has not resulted in reduced levels of dietary fibre in wheat flour.
• The expression patterns of zinc transporters in developing grain have been characterised and comparative studies of their expression in high zinc lines from CIMMYT and control wheat lines have been initiated.
• The role of volatile organic compounds on aphid attraction to susceptible and resistant ancestral wheat lines (Triticum monococcum) with and without prior aphid infestation have been tested in bioassays, showing differing behaviour and avoidance of the resistant lines. We are now working to identify the underlying chemistry responsible for the aphid responses (obj 2.5j-k)
• A collaborative project between Rothamsted, the innovation centre CHAP based at Rothamsted and Leo Crespo at CIMMYT (done within the DFW, but with additional funding from a BBSRC Impact Accelerator Award) has used multispectral imaging in an effort to develop an image based phenotyping method. Initial results show that aphids and the virus being transmit can be detected using imaging (obj 2.8g).
• Preliminary investigations have been done at Rothamsted to study the role of leaf morphology on aphid settling and feeding behaviour, this data is awaiting analysis (obj 2.5l)
• Rothamsted has demonstrated that a previously uncharacterised fungal Type 2 glycosyltransferase plays a critical role in wheat disease caused by both Zymoseptoria tritici and Fusarium graminearum, by enabling hyphal extension on solid (i.e. plant) surfaces (King et al. 2017 PLoS Pathogens) (obj 2.2.3).
• Rothamsted have developed a new Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV)-derived vector for transient overexpression of proteins, including small fungal secreted effector proteins as well as large up to 600 amino acids long proteins, in wheat and maize leaves. This opens a wide range of applications where an easy and rapid method of heterologous protein expression in monocots is needed. For example, the new vector may be used in screens for cell-death activity of secreted or cytosolic candidate pathogen effectors in wheat, maize or other monocot crops or model species, or in screens for proteins with putative insecticide or antifungal activities (obj 2.2.2 and 2.2.8).
• Rothamsted identified through a detailed temporal and spatial F. graminearum transcriptomics analysis, the specific secondary metabolite clusters and effector genes expressed during the early symptomless phase of wheat spike infection (Brown et al. 2017 Molecular Plant Pathology) (obj2.2.2).

2019 entry

During the year, we have provided BBSRC Swindon office with a google.doc site, which lists all our DFW outputs (including data access sites, germplasm generated, datasets generated, publications, and public engagement activities as they occur). This document is updated by us on a regular basis. All the objectives during the DFW reporting period have been met, and many exceeded. All the committees within DFW are running well including the key data coordination task force (DCTF) and Breeder's toolkit committees, both with WP2 representation. Within WP2.1 there was one joint publication with the Quadram Institute on improving wheat as a source of iron and zinc for global nutrition. The is an ongoing collaboration Simon Griffiths at JIC (WP3) investigating the Watkins x Paragon RILS and for QTL analysis for various quality / health promoting traits. Within WP2.2 one joint Nature article was published involving JIC / Rothamsted scientists as part of a multinational collaboration on the fully sequenced wheat genome, three new JIC / Rothamsted collaborative projects were initiated, and one collaboration started in 2017 has continued. A new collaboration between the Earlham Institute and Rothamsted commenced in 2018.

WP2.1

• Analyses of four populations (2 DH and 2 RIL) from crosses of cultivars with the high fibre wheat cultivar Yumai 34 have been analysed for viscosity of aqueous extracts of wholemeal flour (as a proxy for water-soluble arabinoxylan) and three of these for total arabinoxylan in white flour. This identified a major QTL for high fibre on chromosome 1B, and the establishment of a marker for this. The marker was validated by analysis of advanced high fibre breeding lines selected by conventional biochemical screening. The second parent of one of the populations (Valoris) also had high fibre and analysis of the progeny showed transgressive segregation for fibre content with a second major QTL from Valoris on chromosome 6B. In the Yumai x Valoris: RNA seq has been used to identify possible candidate genes for the high fibre trait and exome capture to prioritise candidates. TILLING lines will be selected to determine whether the selected candidates do causally effect the high fibre trait.

• In order to determine whether the grain fibre content has been affected by wheat breeding a series of 39 "heritage" wheat cultivars dating back over 250 years has been grown in replicated field trials for 3 years. Analysis of white flour for total arabinoxylan showed no relationship between the date of release and fibre content. The heritage wheat cultivars, from the 3-year replicated field trial have now been analysed for polar metabolites and mineral content.

• Continuing collaborations with QIB: As with the semolina samples from QBI/JIC mutant starch lines, the pudding samples developed for the pilot intervention trial (with ICL) have also been shown to have increased levels of arabinoxylan and ?-glucan at Rothamsted

• High fibre Watkins lines (identified at RRES) have been developed into Watkins x Paragon populations (by the JIC, WP3) to identify novel high fibre QTL ( supported by "FIBRAXFUN").


• Additionally, and working towards combining QTL (collaboration with WP3) using the high fibre and high iron traits identified in the Watkins collection.

WP2.2

Septoria resistance
• Rothamsted have screened a portion of the wheat Paragon gamma-irradiated population developed at JIC (Paul Nicholson/Robert Koebner) and identified a number of lines showing noticeably reduced susceptibility to Septoria leaf blotch (STB). As this mutant population has been skim sequenced this will allow rapid identification of chromosomal regions contributing to this important trait.
• Rothamsted have developed a new EMS mutagenised population in the background of wheat Taichung 29, genotype that is most highly susceptible to STB. Screening of a portion of this population have already identified a number of mutant families displaying substantially reduced susceptibility to STB. We are now working to characterise these genetically.
• Our recent isolation of the wheat Stb6 gene for resistance to STB along with results from recent studies by others in maize and rice identified Wall Associated Kinases (WAKs) as emerging important players in plant immunity. To follow on this lead, Rothamsted carried out genome wide analysis of the WAK gene family in wheat (Chinese Spring), which identified, annotated and manually curated 601 gene family members and revealed clustered organisation and sub-telomeric location of WAKs in the wheat genome. These features are shared between WAKs and the already well recognised and investigated NLR class of intracellular disease resistance genes. This data has been published in the highest ranking journal as part of the multinational collaborative wheat genome study led by IWGSC (doi: 10.1126/science.aar7191) with associated press releases globally. The bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of this very large WAK family is now continuing in a new collaboration between Rothamsted and JIC (Kanyuka and Uauy).
• In collaboration with INRA, Rothamsted leads on the study that has determined the physical intervals in the wheat genome hosting 22 major genes and QTLs for resistance to STB that were previously defined genetically, and identified that 18 of these intervals contained WAK genes. Some of these WAKs, are now considered to be candidate STB resistance genes. These will be functionally analysed in a follow-on study using a combination of VIGS and classic genetic approaches.
• Rothamsted have generated mutant wheat (Cadenza) lines carrying CRISPR/Cas-induced indels in the STB6 and BAK1-2 loci. Both stb6 and bak1 lines will now be phenotyped for resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici and other fungal wheat pathogens. Once the loss-of-function phenotype of stb6 lines is confirmed, they will be used for transcriptome studies.

Pathogen virulence
• Rothamsted have identified a key requirement for the synthesis of the amino acid Lysine to enable the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici to cause Septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease on wheat leaves. Mutated forms of the fungus which are unable to make this amino acid cannot cause infections, which also suggests that the plant does not offer sufficient Lysine to the fungus, to enable its pathogenic growth in leaves (Derbyshire et al., 2018 Sci Reports).
• Rothamsted have developed a rapid screening system which allows identification of mutant forms of the wheat pathogenic fungus, Z. tritici, which have defects in the cell wall which surrounds its infectious spores. Importantly these cell wall mutants are also unable to cause Septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease on leaves. We are in the process of finding which mutated genes are responsible for this failure, through sequencing the entire genomes of the first batch of mutant fungi (15 strains), and comparing them to the genome of the normal pathogenic form.
• Rothamsted previously demonstrated a critical role for a previously uncharacterised fungal Type 2 glycosyltransferase played in both Zymoseptoria tritici and Fusarium graminearum, in hyphal extension on solid (i.e. plant) surfaces (obj 2.2.3). UV treatment of the GT2 mutant in F. graminearum led to the recovery of several faster growing revertants. These mutants have been purified and nominated for full genome sequencing at the Earlham Institute to compare their genomes with the original WT strain.
• A new collaboration between Rothamsted and JIC (Paul Nicholson group) started in 2018 has led to the deletion of a F. graminearum candidate gene implicated in the production of signalling compound ethylene.
• A new JIC-Rothamsted collaboration (Uauy and Kanyuka) started in 2018 is using the FoMV protein expression vector system to explore the function of predicted yellow rust effectors.
• Two Pathogen-Host-Interaction database releases in May and Nov 2018 (www.phi-base.org). An additional 431 research papers were curated and made available online that described an additional 1308 genes and their phenotypes. In 2018, PHI-base was accessed online by 13,836 users. The database was downloaded 636 times for bioinformatics studies. The resource was used and cited in 25 new peer reviewed publications. All the new PHI-base data entries were included in annotated genome releases of both the ENSEMBL and FungalDB (https://fungidb.org/fungidb/) databases, thereby continuing to maintain the extended global reach of PHI-base.

Plant root heath
• Rothamsted have identified several chromosomal regions conferring resistance to take-all disease in the Paragon x Watkins 777 mapping population. We are exploring their consistency across multiple field seasons and have nominated them for inclusion in the DFW Breeders toolkit.
• New long term continuous wheat cultivar field trials started at Rothamsted in 2014 provide evidence that there is a significant effect of wheat cultivar on take-all epidemic development, root function and yield resilience. Take-all isolates have been collected from the field experiments to allow a spatio-temporal analysis of take-all populations in collaboration with Mark McMullan from the Earlham Institute.
• A collaborative project between Rothamsted and the Innovate UK funded centre for Crop Health and Protection (CHAP), has evaluated the use of imaging technologies for quantifying fungal wheat root colonisation and disease symptoms. Initial results were very positive and this is being future investigated within a new UoN -DTP studentship project (T. Chancellor).

Pathogen adaption and genome evolution
• Isolated and confirmed (by ITS) take-all from Rothamsted long term grassland experiments for genomic comparison to agricultural take-all collected from long term field experiments (Mark McMullen (EI) in collaboration with Vanessa McMillan at RRes- New collaboration)
• The genome of the saprophytic Quorn fungus (Fusarium venenatum) was fully sequenced, assembled, annotated and compared to the genome of its close plant pathogenic relative Fusarium graminearum (King et al (2018) BMC Genomics). The two genomes are remarkably syntenic. The most striking differences were found to be in their respective repertoire of predicted small secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMC) and secreted proteins /effectors. Fifteen putative secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMC); 109 secreted proteins and 38 candidate effectors were identified that are present in F. graminearum but not F. venenatum. Many of the F. graminearum specific SMCs and predicted secreted proteins were found to be in planta induced and are therefore implicated in virulence.
• At Rothamsted, the F. graminearum pangenome was completed using data from 24 sequence isolates predominately from Brazil and North America. The pangenome is predicted to contain 14,798 genes, whilst the core genome contains 13,000 genes, i.e. genes found in all isolates. In total, 653 genes were found in one or more strains but not in the global reference PH-1 genome. The secretome is predicted to be encoded by 902 genes, of which 784 genes represent the core. Within the predicted effector subset, 161 genes were assigned to the core and 35 to the variable. Also predicted in the pan-genome was the presence of 9 new secondary metabolites cluster not found in the PH-1 genome.
• At Rothamsted, the assembly and annotation of the sequenced Fusarium culmorum genome was completed for the historic isolate UK99 (DON/3-ADON chemotype). The four chromosome genome is highly syntenic with that of F. graminearum. However, UK99 contains a 5th small chromosome ~ 1.91 Mb in length, with a lower gene density and higher percentage of transposons / repeat elements. Full or partial genome sequence information available for two other historic UK isolates, a Korean isolate and an Australian isolate of F. culmorum indicate that some of these other isolates could contain a different 5th chromosome. To explore the similarities and differences in pathogenicity requirements between F. graminearum and F. culmorum, six genes coding for different transcription factor previously shown to be specifically required by F. graminearum for virulence toward wheat heads (and no other phenotype assayed) have also been deleted singly in the F. culmorum isolate UK99. The phenotyping of each of the single gene deleted lines is ongoing using a range of in planta and in vitro bioassays. These functional analyses should reveal whether the two most important two Fusarium species globally, that cause wheat head blight disease in hotter (Fg) and cooler (Fc) climatic conditions regulate in similar or dissimilar ways the required virulence pathways and networks.

Aphid - wheat interactions
• We have discovered a resistance trait to a cereal aphid in a line from the Cadenza TILLING population via phenotyping. We have created a mapping population and are working with JIC and Bristol to identify the mutations conferring the resistance.
• Results from laboratory bioassays and from three years of field trials have identified wheat landraces that show resistance against cereal aphids. These results have been presented to breeders and two lines have been accepted for inclusion in the DFW breeder's toolkit in February 2019.
• Within DFW and with uplift grants, including a new collaboration between Rothamsted and the Innovate UK funded centre for Crop Health and Protection (CHAP), we are working on a novel technology for remote detection of aphids. Laboratory experiments with wheat and two cereal aphid species have provided the first evidence that spectral signatures can be used to rapidly and cheaply detect aphid damage in crops, as well as resulting viral infections. These results demonstrate that the effect is systemic, increasing the likelihood that the same approach can be used in the field, either tractor mounted or via a drone.

2020 entry
• DFW researchers across multiple WPs including WP2 have generated one cross-institutional publication which is soon to be published in eLIFE
• During the year, we have provided BBSRC Swindon office with a google.doc site, which lists all our DFW outputs (including data access sites, germplasm generated, datasets generated, publications, and public engagement activities as they occur). This document is updated by us on a regular basis.
• All the objectives during the DFW reporting period have been met, and many exceeded.
• All the committees within DFW are up and running including the key data coordination task force (DCTF) and Breeder's toolkit committees, both with WP2 representation.
• A DFW wheat early career training course for women has been developed and run by JIC and has included participation by male and female scientists across multiple WPs including WP2 and Rothamsted Research
• Breeders toolkit committee meeting with nine breeder companies to continue germplasm exchange between DFW researchers and the private sector and the trialling at multiple sites

WP 2.1 specific updates from Rothamsted Research

• In collaboration with Rothamsted, QBI have measured arabinoxylan and ß-glucan fibre in durum wheat TILLING mutants to determine pleiotropic effects of SBEII mutations conferring enhanced resistant starch (obj. 2.1.4 and obj 2.1.5). We are now working with Rothamsted to measure fibre components in samples of semolina pudding made with SBEII mutants from our human intervention study focused on glycemic response. This work has now been completed and published (Corrado et al 2019 Food and Function).
• In collaboration with JIC, Rothamsted have identified a major QTL for high arabinoxylan fibre in the high fibre Chinese wheat cultivar Yumai 34 and identified tightly linked SNP markers which have been validated using high fibre lines developed in a Hungarian breeding programme. We have also shown that even higher levels of fibre can be obtained by combining this QTL with a second QTL from the French wheat Valoris (obj2.1.4). This work has also been published (Lovegrove et al 2020. PLoS ONE) and generated a great deal of positive press coverage.
• Comparative analyses of historic wheats (dating back over 200 years) done at Rothamsted have shown that intensive plant breeding has not resulted in reduced levels of dietary fibre in wheat flour. This work is under revision following submission for publication (Lovegrove et al Scientific Reports).
• High fibre lines have to offered to the DFW Breeders Toolkit for assessment. In 2020
• In order to determine whether the grain fibre content has been affected by wheat breeding a series of 39 "heritage" wheat cultivars dating back over 250 years has been grown in replicated field trials for 3 years. Analysis of white flour for total arabinoxylan showed no relationship between the date of release and fibre content. The heritage wheat cultivars, from the 3-year replicated field trial have now been analysed for polar metabolites and mineral content. This work is under revision following submission to Scientific Reports, this is a joint publication involving Rothamsted and Bristol.
• Continuing collaborations with QIB: As with the semolina samples from QBI/JIC mutant starch lines, the pudding samples developed for the pilot intervention trial (with ICL) have also been shown to have increased levels of arabinoxylan and ?-glucan at Rothamsted. This work is now published and we continue our collaborations with QIB, providing analysis of fibre components in newly developed mutant starch lines.
• Joint publication, Rothamsted, JIC, QIB, NIAB specifically around WP2.1 activities (Improving Starch and Fibre in Wheat Flour and Bread) submitted to Nature Foods, Hazzard et al. 2020.
• High fibre Watkins lines (identified at RRES) have been developed into Watkins x Paragon populations (by the JIC, WP3) to identify novel high fibre QTL (supported by "FIBRAXFUN"). These lines are being phenotyped using HP-SEC-MALS and relative viscosity measurements.

WP 2.2 specific updates from Rothamsted Research
Obj2.2.1
Zymoseptoria tritici
• Progeny from 19 most promising M3 individuals (selected following screening of 160 M3 families or ~ 13,000 plants) displaying markedly lower Septoria disease and fungal sporulation levels have been re-tested. This beneficial phenotype has been confirmed for the M4 progeny from four M3 plants. Work is in progress to screen the remaining M3 and M4 families for reduced susceptibility to Septoria.

• Reduced susceptibility to Septoria has also been confirmed in progeny from the two out of four previously identified M5 Paragon ?-irradiation induced chromosome deletion mutants.

• Screening of a collection of >20 exotic and synthetic wheat genotypes each carrying one or more genetically defined Septoria tritici blotch (Stb) resistance genes for response to 100 recent UK field isolates of Septoria is well underway in a UoN iCASE PhD studentship project (Henry Tidd). To date, we tested a total of 971 wheat - Z. tritici interactions and the screening revealed that exotic germplasm including synthetic wheat lines (particularly Synthetic 6X and M3) and an Australian wheat cv. Lorikeet carrying the recently identified resistance gene Stb19 as well as genotypes containing multiple major STB resistance genes (e.g. Kavkaz-K4500 L.6.A.4) provide considerably broader and more complete resistance to recent UK isolates of Septoria than other available resistance sources. This suggests that the pathogen has little pre-existing virulence against lines with more novel STB resistance genes and that breeding for STB resistance would benefit from pyramiding major Stb genes with different isolate specificities. Further work is in progress to identify the most desirable combination of Stb genes for broad spectrum control of Septoria.

• A new field trial for wheat resistance to Septoria has been established in Devon (North Wyke), a region with high incidence of Septoria. A range of materials including previously reported exotic wheats representing different Septoria disease resistance sources as well as synthetic wheats developed at UoN, and the most promising Watkins lines and CIMMYT wheat are being assessed during 2019-2020 season.

Take-all
• The composite Watkins populations W487, W488, W489 x Paragon mapping populations have been evaluated under field conditions for take-all disease (Year 1). This field seasons was conducive to good levels of take-all disease in a 3rd wheat position.
Due to extreme wet weather conditions the Year 2 trial was not drilled in autumn 2019. This seed has been returned to the seed store for potential drilling in autumn 2020.

• The seedling pot bioassay was repeated on the unexpected take-all susceptible wild-rye. This time the ITS confirmed wild rye S. vavilovii P208/144 was used as the seed source. Again, moderately susceptible to take-all was obtained, thereby reconfirming the original result. Enough seed is now available to evaluate this rye line under 3rd wheat field conditions to determine if the genotype is susceptible to take-all disease at the adult plant stage and if this accession exhibits a re-rooting phenotype in response to take-all damage. For comparison, three highly resistant wild ryes accessions (S. vavilovii 573649, S. anatolicum P208/141 and S. iranicum P208/141) and S. cereale will also be included in this autumn drilled trial (Jess Spong, UoNotts, DTP). Crossing in the glasshouse has started in Feb 2020 between the take-all susceptible S. vavilovii and a take-all resistant S. vavilovii and F1 seeds are developing.
Again, due to extreme weather conditions, this rye trial was not drilled in autumn 2019 to evaluate take-all susceptibility. This experiment will now be drilled in autumn 2020 under 3rd wheat field conditions.

Obj2.2.2
Zymoseptoria tritici
• Candidate WAK genes co-localised with the Septoria resistance loci Stb14 and Stb19 on 3B and 1D have been identified and prioritised as candidate resistance genes for functional testing through VIGS in combination with other approaches in collaboration with INRA (France) and ANU/ NSW DPI (Australia).

• In a joint UoN/RRes PhD studentship project (Dimitra Angelopoulou) focused on understanding the role of chloroplastic defence in the resistance response of wheat against Septoria the physiological and molecular mechanism/s by which the wheat resistance gene Stb6 operates during early host-pathogen interactions has been investigated. New findings suggest that pathogen recognition as early as 6 hours post infection by the resistant genotypes carrying Stb6 is associated with photoprotective mechanisms in the chloroplast including dynamic photoinhibition initiated to balance the redox state in the photosynthetic machinery to avoid permanent damage to photosystems and mount defence response. Further work will investigate the molecular and biochemical mechanism of these photoprotective responses.

• Homoeologues of TaBAK1-2, a gene potentially involved in disease resistance to Z. tritici based on the VIGS data, were targeted using CRISPR/Cas and a number of homozygous/biallelic mutant lines were generated. The mutant lines are currently being phenotyped vs Z. tritici.

• In another PhD project (Chris Stephens) we identified that expression of the wheat Stb6 gene in a model tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana induces a defence response ultimately leading to plant cell death. Importantly, this study revealed that the hypersensitive response depends on the protein kinase activity of the Stb6 protein. This provides an avenue for exploring the downstream defence signalling pathway activated by Stb6. We were also able to demonstrate that although Stb6 resembles wall associated kinase this receptor protein is in fact plant cellular membrane bound rather than cell wall bound. Moreover, an additional yeast-based protein-protein interaction study reconfirmed our previous data suggesting a lack of direct physical interaction between Stb6 and the matching Z. tritici effector AvrStb6.

Fusarium
Silencing Min7 in hexaploid wheat leads to enhanced FHB disease susceptibility
Following on from an enhanced susceptibility Arabidopsis gene lead identified in the BBSRC-EMBRAPA bilateral project reported in ResearchFish in 2019 (BB/N018095/1), the wheat homologue of AtMin7 was identified and BSMV-VIGS constructs were produced and tested to silence A, B and D genome MIN7 homoeologues in wheat. Very efficient silencing of TaMIN7 was observed in wheat spikes, where a decrease of MIN7 transcript abundance by 77 % was detected compared to the control BSMV-mcs4d. When point inoculated with F. graminearum, these TaMIN7 silenced spikes displayed significantly more Fusarium head blight disease than the comparable control plants. Overall these results indicate that disruption of MIN7 function in both the model species Arabidopsis and wheat compromises the vesicular trafficking system of innate immunity signals or products resulting in hyper-susceptibility to disease. A manuscript has been prepared and will soon be submitted for publication.
• In a UoN DTP PhD project on small secreted Fg effectors, final year student Catherine Walker has used the transient expression of effectors in the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus-mediated overexpression (BSMV-VOX) system to identify several effectors contributing towards disease establishment in the wheat ear. Effectors were also transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and two effectors, FgSSP32 and FgSSP33, were found to induce vascular-associated cell necrosis, production of the jasmonic acid precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and the formation of apoplastic occlusions. Gene deletion of either FgSSP32 or FgSSP33 did not alter Fusarium pathogenicity towards wheat. These results highlight the importance of using the BSMV-VOX system to over-come the generic redundancy issues associated with exploring fungal effector function via traditional reverse genetics approaches (i.e. single gene deletions in the pathogen).
• As part of a 2nd UoN DTP PhD project on small secreted Fg effectors that commenced in April 2019 at RRes (Claire Kanja), a new bioinformatic pipeline comprising of transcriptomic, genomic and proteomic analysis of the Fg pan-genome has led to the identification of 25 candidate effectors, which were further refined to three candidates for functional analysis using BSMV-VOX and heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Expression of two of the candidate Fg effectors, up-regulated in the symptomless infection phase, in Nicotiana benthamiana has led to a visible phenotype with cuticle thinning necrosis of the infiltrated tissue. Further work will be done to investigate cell death suppression in this heterologous system. One candidate Fg effector FgSSP53, induces plant defences when expressed in wheat (BSMV-VOX) and in N. benthamiana causes a visible cuticle thinning and widespread necrosis the infiltrated tissue. DAB staining has indicated this cuticle thinning is linked to an accumulation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) at these sites. Further work is being done to generate knock-out mutants of Fg candidate effectors and to visualise these phenotypes using various microscopy techniques.

Obj2.2.3
• All CRISPR/Cas9 mutant lines carrying a range of deletions and small insertions in the Stb6 gene have now being phenotyped and all show loss of resistance to Septoria isolates carrying avirulence alleles of the matching effector AvrStb6 demonstrating successful application of gene editing for studying wheat-fungal interactions.

Obj2.2.4
Zymoseptoria tritici
• We have generated multiple Z. tritici strains stably transformed with a 3LysM effector promoter - GFP reporter construct. This is facilitating screens to identify the signals which pathogenic fungi use to know when to switch on their major virulence effectors.
Take-all
• Co-inoculation and split-pot bioassays have been done to investigate the role of local and systemic plant induced resistance in the protection against the pathogenic Gaeumannomyces tritici (Gt) by the beneficial endophyte Gaeumannomyces hyphopodioides (Gh). Protection against Gt by Gh has been confirmed in the co-inoculation experiment. In addition, a novel system has been designed to collect below-ground volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced in the Gaeumannomyces-wheat interaction. The presence of novel volatiles and non-volatiles have been identified in the Gh-wheat interaction. (Tania Chancellor, UoNotts, DTP)

Obj2.2.5
• PHI-base: Two new releases of PHI-base were made available online in May 27th and Sep 16th 2019 (www.phi-base.org). To achieve these two releases an additional 443 research papers were curated and made available that described an additional 875 pathogen genes and their phenotypes. The molecular interactions described in the database records for pathogens and crop plants and other hosts were described in two articles Howe et al. and Urban et al. (Nucleic Acid Research, Database issue 2020. PHI-base's continuation as an Agrigenomics resource provider for the UK node of the ELIXIR (European Life science infrastructure) project was re-confirmed in 25th Oct 2019.
• Computational network analysis approach based on predicted protein-protein interactions and various types of network analyses using the new PHI-base data identified new 35 candidate virulence genes in F. graminearum. A SWBio DTP project on this topic will start in October 2020 in collaboration with Dr Neil Brown at the University of Bath and Dr Ryan Ames at the University of Exeter.
• Four F. culmorum transcription factor single gene deletion mutants (Fcul C, D, E, F) were tested on wheat plants and shown to be reduced in virulence. Transcriptional networks are now being explored to identify the downstream targets of these regulatory genes. Additional single gene deletion experimental controls have been successfully made for the transcription factors Fcul tri6 and Fcul tri10. The Fg virulence bioassay on wheat spikes has been modified to save both CE space and costs. The new in planta bioassay uses the dwarf space wheat Apogee and point inoculation of the basal spikelets. The virulence data obtained using this new bioassay is comparable to that previously obtained with wheat cv Bobwhite and point inoculation of spikelets in the upper third of the spike.
• A follow-on SWBio DTP project on the role of plasmodesmatal connections in the wheat-Fusarium interaction will start in October 2020 in collaboration with Dr Michael Deeks at University of Exeter, Dr Smita Kurup at Rothamsted and Dr Christine Faulkner at the John Innes Centre.

Obj2.2.6
Zymoseptoria tritici
• Using a PAN genomics and transcriptomics analysis followed up by genetic complementation we resolved that a single gene with the least snp variation and highest expression present within a six gene T-DNA deleted cluster was responsible for a complete loss of virulence on plants by Z. tritici. This is not a predicted secondary metabolite cluster and the T-DNA has inserted into a genome region lacking both transposons and repeat elements.
• We have re-sequenced a further 16 none-pathogenic UV mutants of Z. tritici. This has revealed a new candidate gene set linking cell wall stability to hyphal growth and the virulence of the pathogen on wheat. A further 31 Z. tritici mutant strains with loss of virulence on wheat have been generated.
• In a UoN DTP PhD project (student Hannah Blyth) on the identification of virulence and avirulence genes by taking a 'mutagenomic' approach in Z. tritici fifteen isolates with reduced virulence against wheat cv. Riband from a restriction enzyme-mediated integration mutant library have been whole genome sequenced. Work to complement the candidate genes identified has begun to see if wild-type virulence is restored. Previous gene candidates from a random Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) experiments have been tested through targeted KO using ATMT in the KU70 background, and have not so far validated the observed reduced virulence phenotypes of the random mutants. Another project utilising fungal UV mutagenesis aims to identify avirulence genes in Z. tritici and has been through two rounds of pilot experiments which have refined our methods. The next aim is to utilise a different Z. tritici isolate and wheat cultivar to potentially find AvrSTB19.
Fusarium
• A development of the KnetMiner portal for F. culmorum has been produced (in test for three months), a partner to the existing F. graminearum (http://knetminer.rothamsted.ac.uk/Fusarium_graminearum/). Additionally, an integrated KnetMiner portal of six fungal species, FungiKnet, is in development comprising Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymoseptoria tritici. This portal will allow comparative analysis of genomes, phenotypes and publications in two model organisms and four filamentous pathogenic fungi that infect wheat.
Take-all
• Culturing for DNA extraction for genome sequencing has begun for (wild) take-all isolates, previously isolated from the Rothamsted Highfield long term grassland experiments as well as comparative isolates taken from wheat fields at Rothamsted. The latter were four arable Gt isolates (either Type A / B) have also been characterised for sensitivity to silthiofam (sensitive / insensitive) (collaboration between EI and RRes).
The preparation of mycelium from take-all wild and arable-derived isolates has now been completed and transferred to the Earlham Institute for DNA extraction and full genome sequencing using PacBio and Illumina seq reads. This includes four reference Gt isolates (Type A / B) which are either sensitive or insensitive to the seed applied fungicide Silthiofam.
In addition, Gt isolates collected from Hereward (high take-all builder) and Cadenza (low take-all builder) plots from three long term continuous wheat cultivar field trials (Years 1 - 3) are currently being cultured for resequencing at the Earlham. These isolates will be used in comparative genomic studies to evaluate the impact of cultivar variety, disease progression and environment on the take-all fungus.

Wheat stem rust
• In collaboration with SCIRO (Australia) we isolated a new stem rust avirulence gene AvrSr27. The availability of the AvrSr27 sequence now provides the capacity to detect virulence genotypes in wheat stem rust populations through modern sequencing approaches. Together with AvrSr35 and AvrSr50 (cloned in this collaboration in the first year of DFW ISP), this represent the inception of a molecular diagnostic toolbox for effective prediction of fungal virulence from genotype sequence data followed by regional deployment of most appropriate stem rust resistance genes and their combinations for effective disease control.
Multiple cereal and non-cereal pathogens
A new bioinformatics resource called PHI-Nets has been developed to provide a network resource for 15 Ascomycete fungal pathogens to annotate and identify putative virulence interacting proteins and siRNA targets. These inferred interactomes have been computationally reconstructed using an interolog and domain-based approach. Included in this new resource, which is available from PHI-base, are three important wheat infecting pathogens, namely Z. tritici, F. graminearum and Magnaporthe oryzae. (Janowska-Sejda et al (2019) Frontiers in Microbiology).

Obj2.2.7 - not a Rothamsted objective

Obj2.2.8
• We demonstrated that the tetraploid durum wheat as well as a diploid progenitor of the wheat D genome, Aegilops tauschii, are amenable to VIGS. Collaborative efforts involving RRes and JIC are underway to functionally analyse some of the candidate genes identified through shotgun-sequencing of Ae. tauschii lines.

• We extended VIGS protocols to studies of candidate meiotic genes in wheat (published in https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-9818-0_22) speeding up identification of genes that could be used to improve frequency of genetic recombination, a very desired trait in wheat breeding.

• In the collaborative efforts involving Nomad Bioscience GmbH (Germany) we demonstrated that our new plant virus-based expression (VOX) vector PV101 we developed in the first year of DFW ISP, can be used to manipulate agronomically important traits in wheat (e.g. height, flowering time, and weedicide resistance) through transient heterologous protein expression.

• We have generated a modular cloning toolkit, comprising 103 modules, for genome editing applications in monocots and dicots (the preprint is available on bioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/738021). The toolkit components can be requested via Addgene (www.addgene.org).
Exploitation Route 2018 entry
• At Rothamsted the new phenotyping method using used multispectral imaging to detect aphids and subsequent virus infections will be developed further to establish if this could be used as for a more accurate, high throughput laboratory and field phenotyping platform for use by industry.
• Rothamsted has started to use the new reference F. graminearum genome to develop the 1st pangenome for this species using full genome information available for 21 additional strains, in collaboration with EMBRAPA Brazil. This will be used to select the core, monomorphic virulence genes that can be used to generate the HIGS constructs
• Rothamsted has already followed up in obj 2.2.6 with a comparative genomic analysis between the pathogenic species F. graminearum and the closely related non-pathogenic species F. venenatum (the Quorn fungus). This was specifically done to identify the genes and secondary metabolite gene clusters that are unique to the pathogenic species and those specific to this industrially important source of mycoprotein for human consumption. Both lines of enquiry have potential industrial applications.

2019 and 2020 entry

• In a collaboration with Leicester, JIC, and Bristol, Rothamsted have demonstrated that BSMV-mediated VIGS is effective in inducing silencing of meiotic genes in wheat, with the resulting phenotypes phenocopying mutations induced through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. This will accelerate research aimed to unravel the mechanisms governing meiotic crossover frequency and manipulating crossover frequency and distribution in wheat.
• Following publication of a patent and a research paper describing development of the new FoMV-derived vector for protein expression in wheat and other cereals by Rothamsted (Bouton et al, (2018) Plant Physiology), this vector has been requested to date by 27 academics working on different aspects of cereals biology worldwide, with 18 of these requests already fulfilled. We have also been approached by academics and a large AgBiotech company with regard of potential collaboration in this area. BBSRC Pathfinder funding was used to commission a market analysis for FoMV use by industry. Various options have been discussed on how to take this forward.
• Selected EMS and gamma-irradiated mutants of wheat Taichung 29 and Paragon, respectively, showing reduced susceptibility to STB will be genetically characterised and then shared with breeders through the DFW Breeder's Toolkit.
• We will interact with potential partners in the agrochemical industry to evaluate the possible control of STB disease through targeted inhibition of fungal Lysine biosynthesis
• We will test candidate mutated genes to identify those potentially responsible for abnormal fungal cell walls in Zymoseptoria and their subsequent failure to cause STB disease on wheat. We will seek potential partners in the agrochemical industry to evaluate the possible control of STB disease through targeted attack (or block in production) on the fungal cell wall.
• The identified in planta induced F. graminearum secondary metabolite genes can be tested for their role in wheat disease and are potential novel fungicide targets.
• With the ongoing increase in the number of wheat host target genes curated in PHI-base this resource could be linked to datasets hosted within CerealsDB at Bristol as well as Ensembl Plants allowing users to monitor the presence/absence of host resistance genes in wheat cultivars as well as the emerging fully sequenced additional wheat genomes.
• Lines containing resistance against take-all disease will be shared with breeders via the DFW Breeder's Toolkit.
• Image analysis could be used by both academics and industry for a more accurate high throughput phenotyping method to screen germplasm for resistance against take-all disease and/or evaluate the efficacy of biological control agents and novel chemistries.
• Watkins landraces with resistance to cereal aphids are being included in the DFW breeder's Toolkit, where mapping populations will be created. These will be used to map the resistance trait for the aphid resistance, which if successful will then be available for inclusion in commercial modern wheat cultivars breeding programmes.
• BBSRC Pathfinder funding was used to commission a market analysis for remote detection of aphid infestations on plants. Primary and secondary research identified strong interest in the multispectral imaging system and a clear need for rapid and early detection of aphid or viral damage in multiple crop species. Several of the companies/organisations approached recognised the systems benefits both for crop monitoring and plant breeding purposes. We are currently considering the best ways to take this work and these various commercial opportunities forward.
• With a future increase in the number of wheat host target genes curated into the Pathogen Host-Interactions Database (PHI-base), (1350 interaction entries (12%)), the resource can be linked to CerealsDB hosted at Bristol allowing users to monitor the presence/absence of host resistance genes in > 500 wheat lines a considerable number of which are current or former commercial varieties. This could become a regular activity within the BBSRC ISP Designing Future Wheat (DFW).
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare

URL https://designingfuturewheat.org.uk/
 
Description 2018 entry The wheat Stb6 sequence which confers resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici was shared with the UK wheat breeding community prior to publication. the breeding industry therefore already knows which elite wheat germplasm harbors this still useful resistance gene. 2019 entry The newly sequenced and annotated wheat genome is being used for a wide array of academic and industry purposes. 2020 The new wheat training portal (http://www.wheat-training.com/) has been fully updated and provides a wealth of protocols and information on wheat resources to new and established wheat researchers. Rothamsted Research and WP2 provided information for the functional genomics section.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Economic

 
Description A FAIR community resource for pathogens, hosts and their interactions to enhance global food security and human health
Amount £557,820 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S020020/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 06/2022
 
Description BB/GCRF-IAA/17/18
Amount £3,600 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/GCRF-IAA/17/18 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description BBSRC Pathfinder Follow-on Fund
Amount £13,989 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012393/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description Catalysing collaborations between wheat scientists in the UK and Central Asia
Amount £10,081 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R020981/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 06/2018
 
Description Characterisation of major genes (Stb)-mediated resistance to Septoria tritici blotch disease in wheat (University of Nottingham iCASE PhD studentship / Henry Tidd)
Amount £17,500 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description Defra - Genetic improvement networks for UK crops ( WGIN) CH0106
Amount £1,004,907 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Description Defra - Genetic improvement networks for UK crops (WGIN 3) CH0106
Amount £1,004,907 (GBP)
Funding ID CH0106 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Description Defra Genetic Improvement Networks - WGIN phase 4 (CH0109) Improving the resilience of the wheat crop through genetics and targeted traits analysis
Amount £1,700,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2023
 
Description Development of new tools to detect and quantify five wheat infecting Fusarium species for use in Southern Brazil
Amount £9,965 (GBP)
Funding ID Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture Previously: UK-Brazil Partnership for Yield Stability & Protection in a Changing Climate (PYSP - N8085) 
Organisation Rothamsted Research 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Evaluating imaging technology for detecting fungal colonisation of wheat roots and for assessing their impact on plant health (Niamh Kavanagh BSPP Summer bursary project)
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rothamsted Research 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 08/2018
 
Description GCRF-IAA
Amount £5,250 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/GCRF-IAA/17/18 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Impact Accelerator Award - Off the starting block @ Rothamsted Research
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/SCA/Rothamsted/17 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Understanding molecular basis of disease resistance against Septoria tritici blotch in wheat (University of Nottingham - Rothamsted DTP / Christopher Stephens)
Amount £17,500 (GBP)
Funding ID 1935414 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Understanding the mechanisms underlying Host Induced Gene Silencing (HIGS) in Fusarium graminearum (BSPP) Michael Grimwade-Mann (summer bursary project)
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rothamsted Research 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description Understanding the role of photoprotection in disease resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat (PhD studentship / Dimitra Angelopoulou)
Amount £48,000 (GBP)
Organisation Perry Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Title Foxtail mosaic virus: A New Viral Vector for Protein Expression in Wheat and Maize 
Description A new vector based on a monopartite single-stranded positive sense RNA virus, Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV, genus Potexvirus), have been developed. The gene of interest is inserted downstream of a duplicated sub-genomic promoter of the viral coat protein gene and the corresponding protein is expressed in its free form. This new vector, PV101, allowed expression of a 239 aa-long green fluorescent protein (GFP) in both virus inoculated and upper uninoculated (systemic) leaves of wheat and maize, and directed systemic expression of a larger ca. 600 aa protein GUSPlus in maize. Moreover, we demonstrated that PV101 can be used for in planta expression and functional analysis of apoplastic pathogen effector proteins such as host-specific toxin ToxA of a fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This new plant virus-based vector opens new possibilities for functional genomics studies in two of the most important cereal crops. 
 
Title Method for expression of fungal effector proteins in planta 
Description The method involves expression of apoplastic fungal small secreted proteins (so called, effectors) in barley and wheat using the Barley stripe mosaic virus vector (BSMV). This method has been coined BSMV-VOX (Virus-mediated Over-eXpression). BSMV-VOX for example allows rapid identification of necrosis or cell death inducing fungal effectors in medium throughput screens. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact To our knowledge there are currently no other tools available in the public domain that allow expression and functional analysis of apoplastic fungal effectors directly in planta, specifically in wheat and barley plants. Many academic researchers studying this type of effector proteins in pathogens and pests of cereal crops will benefit from availability of the BSMV-VOX tool. 
 
Title PHI-NETS 
Description Protein-Protein interaction Networks have been developed and published for 13 pathogenic ascomycete species that infect cereal and non-cereal species 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The new PHI-NET resource permits for the 1st time comparative genomics analyses between multiple ascomycete fungal species by network analyses. 
URL http://www.phi-base.org/
 
Title Ensembl Invertebrates, especially Ensembl Fungi, Ensembl Protist and Ensembl bacteria 
Description Ensembl Invertebrates provides annotated genome and a range of simple and advanced query tools to explore the genomes of numerous pathogenic micro-organisms. The genes curated into the Pathogen Host Interactions database (PHI-base), are directly available within the genome browsers of individual species. This data is colour coded to provide the phenotypic outcome from wet biology experimentation and is linked back to the full curated data sets available within PHI-base. The PHI genes can also be searched for within the BioMart Tool across multiple species and by using nine published high level phenotype terms. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Improved comparative genomic analysis of multiple pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Hypothesis testing. Providing up-to-date novel functional data into poorly annotated genomes. 
URL https://fungi.ensembl.org/index.html
 
Title FgMutantDB 
Description FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Through the use of FgMutantDB missing annotations were feedback into larger multispecies fungal genomic databases including, FungiDB, Ensembl and PHI-base. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1087184518300021
 
Title PHI-base: Pathogen-Host Interactions Database 
Description PHI-base (www.phi-base.org) is a knowledge database accessed by researchers in over 125 countries. PHI-base contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions reported in peer reviewed research articles. Genes not affecting the disease interaction phenotype are also curated. PHI-base data is linked to the genome browsers and advanced query tools in ENSEMBL and FungiDB. The data content provided comes from >3000 manually curated references and reports information on 6438 genes from 263 pathogens tested on 194 hosts (plant, animal, others) in 11340 interactions. Direct targets of pathogen effector proteins are also included. Recently the PHI-base team in collaboration with the PomBase team based at the University of Cambridge have developed an online author curation tool called PHI-Canto 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Over 250 peer reviewed publications have cited PHI-base use in their article and cites one or more of the PHI-base references 
URL http://www.phi-base.org
 
Title Pathogen-Host Interactions database 
Description Pathogen-Host Interactions database 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New release - (version 4.8) 
URL http://www.phi-base.org
 
Description A meeting between CIMMYT and DFW funded by BMGF to discuss collaboration projects 
Organisation International Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT)
Country Mexico 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I organised a meeting funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation brought together members of the BBSRC's coordinated wheat programme (Designing Future Wheat) with members of CIMMYT (who breed wheat for the resource poor in the developing world), discuss potential opportunities for interaction. These opportunities are taken forward by writing proposals for Newton , GCRF or IWYP funding calls
Collaborator Contribution See above
Impact This interaction is still ongoing between members of BBSRC's coordinated wheat programme (Designing Future Wheat) and researchers within CIMMYT with proposals being written for IWYP and Newton calls
Start Year 2018
 
Description CIMMYT''s global Septoria trials 
Organisation International Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT)
Country Mexico 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Rothamsted Research is carrying out Septoria disease trials on 50 wheat lines supplied by CIMMYT as part of their global germplasm assessment for disease resistance. The Rothamsted trails includes additional wheat lines that carry most of the known Stb resistance genes as well as the most promising Watkins lines identified in previous Rothamsted trials that show a moderate to high level of resistance to Septoria. These winter sown trails commence in Autumn 2016 and will continue for 5 years. Cimmyt provides the seed for a different set of wheat lines each year. Annually, Rothamsted provides back to Cimmyt, both the raw disease data and the statistically analyses data.
Collaborator Contribution Cimmyt selects the 50 wheat lines to be tested globally. Cimmyt multiplies the seed, does the necessary quarantine checks and ships this seed to Rothamsted early each autumn for direct sowing of the annual field trial.
Impact Too early
Start Year 2016
 
Description Comparative transcriptome analyses F. graminearum infection of wheat in floral and coleoptile tissues 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A very detailed F. graminearum (Fg) transcriptome analysis has been undertaken in wheat floral tissue over the past 3 years which was published in 2017. Brown, NA, Evans, J., Mead, A and. Hammond-Kosack, K.E. (2017) A spatial temporal analysis of the Fusarium graminearum transcriptome during symptomless and symptomatic wheat infection. Molecular Plant Pathology 18, 1295-1312 (e-12564) . We have used this Rothamsted Research generated transcriptomics data set to compare with a comparable transcriptome data set generated at SIPPE on the Fg- wheat coleoptile interaction. This coleoptile data set is being inter-compared with the wheat floral data set to identify the tissue specific similarities and differences.
Collaborator Contribution A very detailed F. graminearum (Fg) transcriptome analysis has been undertaken in wheat coleoptile tissue over the past 3 years which was published in 2012. Xiao-Wei Zhang, Lei-Jie Jia,Yan Zhang,Gang Jiang, Xuan Li,c Dong Zhang, and Wei-Hua Tang (2012) In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles. Plant Cell 24: 5159-5176l. This coleoptile data set is being inter-compared with the wheat floral data set to identify the tissue specific similarities and differences.
Impact Kim Hammond-Kosack was invited to visit SIPPE in 2016 ,to give an institute seminar in 2017 and to attend and present at an international Fusarium genomics workshop in 2017. Professor Tang visited Rothamsted Research in 2017 and gave a departmeantl seminar. Several unpublished data sets have been exchanged and joint analyses are underway.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Development of image based phenotyping for aphid infestation in wheat 
Organisation Crop Health and Protection
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in entomology
Collaborator Contribution CHAP - Imaging expertise, CIMMYT - wheat germplasm
Impact Initial results show that aphids and the virus they transmit can be detected using imaging and this will be developed further to establish if this could be used as for a more accurate, high throughput laboratory and field phenotyping
Start Year 2017
 
Description Development of image based phenotyping for aphid infestation in wheat 
Organisation International Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT)
Country Mexico 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Expertise in entomology
Collaborator Contribution CHAP - Imaging expertise, CIMMYT - wheat germplasm
Impact Initial results show that aphids and the virus they transmit can be detected using imaging and this will be developed further to establish if this could be used as for a more accurate, high throughput laboratory and field phenotyping
Start Year 2017
 
Description EMBRAPA Brazil - Bioinformatics Laboratory, Cenargen Brasilia 
Organisation Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation
Country Brazil 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The genomes of 16 well-characterised Fusarium graminearum (Fg) (15-ADON) isolates, eight each from Parana and Rio Grande du Sul states, were sequenced by Illumina paired end reads. The highly virulent isolate CML3066, with the best sequence coverage (x180), was nominated as the Brazilian reference isolate. We have subsequently created the pan genome for Fg using this data and an additional six global Fg stains including the global reference strain PH-1 originally from the USA. The focus at Rothamsted was then the characterisation of genes predicted to code for small secreted proteins or predicted to reside with discrete secondary metabolite clusters. The sequence variation in the known Fg pathogenicity and virulence genes documented in the PHI-base database has also been explored. To complement these comparative genome analyses, the relative disease causing ability of the 16 Brazilian isolates compared to the global reference strain has been explored in detail.
Collaborator Contribution The EMBRAPA bioinformatics team have applied their expertise in transmembrane spanning proteins to explore the predicted G-protein coupled receptor, 7 transmembrane spanning protein superfamiliy. This superfamiliy contains > 100 genes and some of there are now know to be required for the disease causing ability of Fg.
Impact Three publications have already arisen from the initial joint genome data analysis on the Fg PH-1 genome, which was done in preparation for the main project.. Bresso, E., Leroux, V., Urban, M., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Maigret, B.. and Martins, N.F. (2016) Structure-based virtual screening of hypothetical inhibitors of the enzyme longiborneol synthase, a possible target to reduce Fusarium head blight disease. Journal of Molecular Modeling 22, 1-13. Martins, N.F., Bresso, E., Togawa, R. C., Urban, M., Antoniw, J., Maigret, B. and Hammond-Kosack, K.E. (2016) Searching for novel targets to control wheat head blight disease. I- Protein identification, 3D modeling and virtual screening. Advances in Microbiology 6 (11), 811-830. Doi 10.4236/aim.2016.611079. Bresso, E., Togawa, R. C., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Urban, M., Maigret, B. and Martins, N.F (2016). GPCRs from Fusarium graminearum, detection, modeling and virtual screening - the search for new routes to control head blight disease. BMC Bioinformatics 17 (18), 39. PMID: 28105916. These joint studies were multi-disciplinary and involved bioinformatics and protein modelling.
Start Year 2013
 
Description EMBRAPA Brazil - Passo fundo - Trigo (wheat) team 
Organisation Embrapa Trigo
Country Brazil 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Rothamsted Team has sequenced the genomes of 16 Brazilian strains of the Fusarium head blight disease causing strain F. graminearum (Fg) and has now created a pan -genome for this species by comparing with the available Fg genomes for 6 six additional global isolates including the reference isolate PH-I. This has indicated that the Fg pan genome is relatively closed. The Rothamsted Team has stably transformed the Brazilian commercial wheat cultivar Guaramin for the first time
Collaborator Contribution The EMBRAPA Trigo team have generated various transgenic Arabidopsis harboring different Fg HIGS constructs. The EMBRAPA Team have also screened and identified lettuce cultivars that are fully susceptible to the nominated reference Brazilian strain.
Impact A major display at the annual Cereals event held in Cambridgeshire in June 2016 on the new HIGS and SIGS technologies for the control of FHB disease in wheat . A open evening public event entitled @ Healthy Crops- Healthy Food done at Rothamsted Research in July 2016.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Identification of sources of aphid resistance in wheat 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in entomology, aphid phenotyping and bioassays
Collaborator Contribution Germplasm and genetics
Impact • In collaboration between JIC and Rothamsted, we have screened sequenced EMS mutants and a collection of Ae. tauschii accessions for resistance against two aphid species. In both cases we have identified potentially novel sources of resistance and we are now performing the genetics to identify causal genes underlying these resistance responses.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Isolation of Avr genes from the wheat stem rust fungus 
Organisation Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in wheat functional genomics and plant virology
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in wheat stem rust biology, genetics and genomics
Impact We isolated the very first stem rust avirulence effector (AvrSr50) recognized by the Sr50 resistance protein. We demonstrated that virulence alleles of AvrSr50 have arisen through DNA insertion and sequence divergence, and provided molecular evidence that in addition to sexual recombination, somatic exchange can play a role in the emergence of new virulence traits in wheat stem rust fungus.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Isolation of Avr genes from the wheat stem rust fungus 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Department Department of Plant Pathology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in wheat functional genomics and plant virology
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in wheat stem rust biology, genetics and genomics
Impact We isolated the very first stem rust avirulence effector (AvrSr50) recognized by the Sr50 resistance protein. We demonstrated that virulence alleles of AvrSr50 have arisen through DNA insertion and sequence divergence, and provided molecular evidence that in addition to sexual recombination, somatic exchange can play a role in the emergence of new virulence traits in wheat stem rust fungus.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Isolation of wheat Stb genes for resisatnce to Septoria 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in fungal (Zymoseptoria tritici) biology, wheat functional genomics, wheat-fungal interactions, disease resistance, bioinformatics
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in wheat genetics and genomics
Impact The first wheat gene for resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici (Septoria tritici) has been cloned, published in Nature Genetics, and the corresponding applications patented.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Isolation of wheat Stb genes for resisatnce to Septoria 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Department Department of Crop Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in fungal (Zymoseptoria tritici) biology, wheat functional genomics, wheat-fungal interactions, disease resistance, bioinformatics
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in wheat genetics and genomics
Impact The first wheat gene for resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici (Septoria tritici) has been cloned, published in Nature Genetics, and the corresponding applications patented.
Start Year 2013
 
Description LysM effectors 
Organisation Wageningen University & Research
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Gene function analysis of Septoria LysM effectors
Collaborator Contribution Production and assay of LysM effector proteins
Impact Marshall et al., (2011) Plant Physiology: Sneiders et al., (2018) Mol Plant Pathol.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Molecular and biological characterisation of Fusarium species and isolates collected from infected wheat fields in Southern Brazil 
Organisation Federal University of Viçosa
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Rothamsted team has used a next generation sequencing approach to explore the genomes of the five Fusarium Head Blight causing species in Southern Brazil, namely F. graminearum, F. meridionale, F.cortaderiae, F. austroamericanum and F. asiaticum.. The Rothamsted team are currently focussing on investigating and defining the core and variable parts of the pan genome of F. graminearum. The Rothamsted team also assembled and annotated the F. meridionale genome and has given this data to the University team for further analysis.
Collaborator Contribution The University team had collected field isolates during 2009 - 2012 and provided the 24 Fusarium isolates covering the five required species. The University team had also characterised the disease causing ability of each isolate on the floral spikes of various Brazilian wheat genotypes. Currently, the University team is exploring the genomes of the various F. meridionale,
Impact The two main output delivered so far has been (1) the biological characterisation of the 24 / 5 species collection for disease causing ability on both Brazilian and non-Brazilian wheat genotypes and (2) the 24 newly assembled and annotated genomes covering the five most important FHB causing species in Southern Brazil.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PHI-base collaboration with PomBase (PHI-CANTO and PHI-PO) 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Since Sept 2017 the PomBase team at the University of Cambridge and the PHI-base team at Rothamsted Research have held weekly meetings ( by Skype) as well as occasional face-to-face meetings to develop an new multi-species author curation tool called PHI-Canto as well as a new pathogen - host interaction ontology called PHI-PO and a new .pathogen host disease ontology called PHI-DO. The Rothamsted team have provided the biological, wet biology experimental and literature knowledge into this collaboration
Collaborator Contribution The PomBase team had already developed a highly successful single organism author curation tool called Canto. The PomBase team also bring a wealth of ontology development expertise into this collaborative project.
Impact Two joint posters will be given at the International Ontology Development conference to be held in Cambridge UK in April 2019. The presenting authors will be Dr Alayne Cuzick and Dr Val Wood.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Peter Dodds 
Organisation Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in stem rust disease of wheat, wheat genetics, disease resistance.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in functional genomics of cereals and associated microorganisms, virus-mediated over expression of heterologous proteins (VOX)
Impact Isolation of the very fist stem rust effector protein (PubmedID 2926947).
Start Year 2017
 
Description Plasmodesmata function in Arabidopsis and Wheat 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Devising and supervising of a SWBIo -DTP PhD student
Collaborator Contribution Devising and co-supervising of a SWBIo -DTP PhD student
Impact Unpublished Arabidopsis lines and constructs have been transferred from John Innes Centre to Rothamsted Research to explore plasmodesmata function during the F graminearum - floral infection process. A collaborative agreement is under development.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Providing pathogen-host interaction data to UniprotKB 
Organisation ExPASy, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing pathogen-host interaction data to UniprotKB
Collaborator Contribution Providing pathogen-host interaction data to UniprotKB
Impact Providing pathogen-host interaction data to UniprotKB
Start Year 2019
 
Description Rothamsted - Syngenta Alliance - RoSy 
Organisation Syngenta International AG
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution An industry:academia collaboration turning excellence in wheat science into cutting edge technology for UK and global farmers Recognising the strength and quality of wheat research available at Rothamsted Research, Syngenta is making a multi-million pound collaborative investment into a set of projects aimed at translating our excellence in wheat science into cutting edge technology for farmers. The capacity at Rothamsted was built following years of funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), and Rothamsted has been developing new knowledge and tools to increase UK wheat yield potential to 20 tonnes per hectare. Currently the average farm yield of wheat in the UK is 8.4 tonnes per hectare, dropping to just 3 tonnes per hectare world-wide. Additionally, the rate of yearly increase in wheat yields has declined since 1980. Wheat provides a fifth of human calories. The BBSRC-funded research is improving our understanding of how best to maximise and protect yield potential, determine soil resource interactions and use modelling approaches to support crop improvement. This strategic alliance with Syngenta enables Rothamsted to apply its scientific knowledge and skills to develop outputs that can be used by the company to develop new solutions for farmers in the UK and beyond. Altogether, across the 10 projects funded under this alliance, we have 27 scientists, (from 9 global Syngenta sites), with backgrounds in breeding and crop protection, interacting with 29 scientists from Rothamsted, from molecular biologists to modellers. For Dr Malcolm Hawkesford, 20:20 Wheat® Programme Lead, the level of knowledge exchange enabled by this alliance will lead to not only new products and better advice being developed for farmers, but also contribute to even more relevant science being undertaken at Rothamsted. Specifically the wheat pathogenomics research team at Rothamsted Research has been involved in four collaborative projects with Syngenta at three of their research sites exploring wheat, specific fungal pathogens and /or the development of novel functional genomics tools.
Collaborator Contribution "The objectives of this alliance are totally aligned with those of the Syngenta Cereals Strategy and provide integrated solutions to help growers maximise the yields they can get from their crop in a sustainable way", said Dr James Melichar, Head Product Selection Cereals EAME - Seeds Product Development in Syngenta. "Furthermore, although most of the activities funded under the alliance are focused on wheat, the breakthroughs from projects may be applicable to each of the cereal crops that Syngenta breeds". Syngenta are contributing into the four pathology projects, technical expertise, new knowledge and specific plant genotypes and fungal pathogens for detailed analysis.
Impact Peer reviewed publications, a submitted patent and fully funding the training of a PhD student.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Septoria autophagy 
Organisation University of Exeter
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PhD Supervisor of DTP student
Collaborator Contribution Main Supervisory team of DTP student
Impact Project reports from student. Poster presentations at scientific meetings
Start Year 2016
 
Description Septoria microbial antagonists 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supervising a DTP PhD student based as Rothamsted
Collaborator Contribution Co-supervising PhD student
Impact Several meeting abstracts and research posters
Start Year 2017
 
Description Stb19 
Organisation Australian National University (ANU)
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contribute our expertise in Virus-induced gene silencing in wheat to the project aimed to clone and functionally characterise wheat genes (such as Stb19) for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch disease.
Collaborator Contribution Contributions of our partners: NSW Department of Primary Industries: development of molecular genetic markers flanking Stb19, high-resolution genetic map around Stb19 Australian National University (ANU): high resolution physical map around Stb19 and identification of candidate Stb19 genes INRA: wheat germplasm resources, and genetic diversity study
Impact Several Wall-associate kinase-like genes have been identified as the candidate Stb19 gene, which provides resistance to multipple isolates of the fungal pathogen Zymoseptroia tritici, a causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Stb19 
Organisation Department of Primary Industries New South Wales
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We contribute our expertise in Virus-induced gene silencing in wheat to the project aimed to clone and functionally characterise wheat genes (such as Stb19) for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch disease.
Collaborator Contribution Contributions of our partners: NSW Department of Primary Industries: development of molecular genetic markers flanking Stb19, high-resolution genetic map around Stb19 Australian National University (ANU): high resolution physical map around Stb19 and identification of candidate Stb19 genes INRA: wheat germplasm resources, and genetic diversity study
Impact Several Wall-associate kinase-like genes have been identified as the candidate Stb19 gene, which provides resistance to multipple isolates of the fungal pathogen Zymoseptroia tritici, a causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Stb19 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contribute our expertise in Virus-induced gene silencing in wheat to the project aimed to clone and functionally characterise wheat genes (such as Stb19) for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch disease.
Collaborator Contribution Contributions of our partners: NSW Department of Primary Industries: development of molecular genetic markers flanking Stb19, high-resolution genetic map around Stb19 Australian National University (ANU): high resolution physical map around Stb19 and identification of candidate Stb19 genes INRA: wheat germplasm resources, and genetic diversity study
Impact Several Wall-associate kinase-like genes have been identified as the candidate Stb19 gene, which provides resistance to multipple isolates of the fungal pathogen Zymoseptroia tritici, a causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Syngenta Zt pangenome 
Organisation Syngenta International AG
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Training the researcher to perform analysis. Creating a pangenome and calling SNPs, presence/absence of genes. RNA-seq analysis. Annotating genes and integrating other omics data sources. Analyses for publication.
Collaborator Contribution Providing the sequencing data. Writing the paper. Some data analyses.
Impact Zymoseptoria tritici (Zt) pangenome. Multiple Genome assemblies of different Zt isolates. In planta gene expression and annotations for each Zt gene across 12 isolates.
Start Year 2017
 
Description VIGS vs meiotic genes 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Department Department of Crop Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Rothamsted contributes expertise in Virus-induced gene silencing in wheat to the project aimed to identify and functionally characterise meiotic genes in wheat.
Collaborator Contribution Contributions of collaborators: - Leicester contributes expertise in meiosis - JIC and Bristol contribute expertise in wheat genetics and gene editing, respectively
Impact In collaboration with Leicester, JIC, and Bristol, Rothamsted have demonstrated that BSMV-mediated VIGS is effective in inducing silencing of meiotic genes in wheat, with the resulting phenotypes phenocopying mutations induced through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. This will accelerate research aimed to unravel the mechanisms governing meiotic crossover frequency and manipulating crossover frequency and distribution in wheat.
Start Year 2018
 
Description VIGS vs meiotic genes 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Rothamsted contributes expertise in Virus-induced gene silencing in wheat to the project aimed to identify and functionally characterise meiotic genes in wheat.
Collaborator Contribution Contributions of collaborators: - Leicester contributes expertise in meiosis - JIC and Bristol contribute expertise in wheat genetics and gene editing, respectively
Impact In collaboration with Leicester, JIC, and Bristol, Rothamsted have demonstrated that BSMV-mediated VIGS is effective in inducing silencing of meiotic genes in wheat, with the resulting phenotypes phenocopying mutations induced through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. This will accelerate research aimed to unravel the mechanisms governing meiotic crossover frequency and manipulating crossover frequency and distribution in wheat.
Start Year 2018
 
Description VIGS vs meiotic genes 
Organisation University of Leicester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Rothamsted contributes expertise in Virus-induced gene silencing in wheat to the project aimed to identify and functionally characterise meiotic genes in wheat.
Collaborator Contribution Contributions of collaborators: - Leicester contributes expertise in meiosis - JIC and Bristol contribute expertise in wheat genetics and gene editing, respectively
Impact In collaboration with Leicester, JIC, and Bristol, Rothamsted have demonstrated that BSMV-mediated VIGS is effective in inducing silencing of meiotic genes in wheat, with the resulting phenotypes phenocopying mutations induced through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. This will accelerate research aimed to unravel the mechanisms governing meiotic crossover frequency and manipulating crossover frequency and distribution in wheat.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Wheat Genetic Improvement Networks (WGIN) funded by defra 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Department Department of Crop Genetics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Kim Hammond-Kosack and Peter Shewry at Rothamsted Research co-founded the defra funded Wheat Genetic Improvement Network in 2003. This network is about to enter its 4th phase. Kim Hammond-Kosack is the project leader and Peter Shewry chairs all the meetings. WGIN ensures the wheat genetic, genotyping and phenotyping pre-breeding research ongoing within the project is focussed on improving the sustainability and resilience of the UK wheat crop. A very wide range of wheat traits have been investigated in WGIN over the years, numerous new genetic resources for wheat have been generated and distributed. An integral part of WGIN is the regular connections with the nine wheat breeding companies based in the UK. An annual stakeholder meeting is held each November to connect this project with the needs of the wider UK wheat industry.
Collaborator Contribution John Snape at The John Innes Centre co-founded WGIN in 2003. John Snape was trhe project leader up until 2008 and then this transferred to Simon Griffiths. The John Innes is involved in generating new genetic resources and in genotyping and phenotyping specific mapping populations as well as maintaining and distributing key germplasm.
Impact Over 60 peer reviewed publications, including many involving multiple teams based at different academic organisations and industry. 45 joint meetings with the wheat breeding industry. 15 stakeholder meeting. Annual or biannual community newsletters, Well maintained database contain all the project information, key data sets and the resources available. Training the next generation of wheat scientists, through summer placements funded by learned society summer bursary schemes and involving PhD students in specific large and long term experiments. Considerable new funding obtained for wheat research. Still need to add in the final numbers.
 
Description Wheat plasma membrane 
Organisation University of Exeter
Department Biosciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Devising and then supervising a SWBio DTP PhD student
Collaborator Contribution Devising and then co-supervising a SWBio DTP PhD student
Impact Appointed the PhD student, Laura Baggaley. Initial 6 month student placement at University of Exeter. We have jointly started to devise a multi-disciplinary aspect to this project, where the images generated via confocal microscopy with then be converted into a mathematical model of growth of the Fusarium graminearum wild type and GT2 mutant strains. A formal agreement for this joint project is under development.
Start Year 2015
 
Description mlo- mediated plant defense in wheat 
Organisation RWTH Aachen University
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaboration involving Andy Phillips and Kim Hammond-Kosack at Rothamsted Research and Professor Ralph Panstruga at RWTH Aachen University. Rothamsted generated and provided an EMS mutagenised population of the wheat cultivar Cadenza. Andy Phillips lab hosted the visiting post-doc. The following breeding strategy was devised during a joint meeting at Rothamsted. Both Andy Phillips and Kim Hammond-Kosack contributed to the joint writing of the manuscript, dealing with reviewers comments and checking the final proofs, Kim Hammond-Kosack was awarded in 2018 a new 5 year defra funded projercted called the Wheat Genetic Improvement Network - phase 4 (WGIN 4). Within WGIN 4 the best double and triple mlo lines will be evaluated under field conditions for their resisatnce to powdery mildew and plant growth and plant stature.
Collaborator Contribution A Post doc funded in the Panstruga lab came to Rothamsted Resarch and screened DNA samples from the EMS mutagenised population and identified a series of the required mlo mutant alleles for the A B and D genomes. The Panstriuga lab then completed the required sexual crosses to combine various combinations of mutant mlo A B and D homoeologues. The single, double, and triple mutant lines were tested for the control of wheat powdery mildew under glasshouse conditions. The writing of the joint manuscript was led by the Panstruga Lab. The joint publication appeared in 2017 and was featured on the front cover.
Impact Acevedo-Garcia, J., Spencer, D., Thieron, H., Reinstädler, A., Hammond-Kosack, K.E., Phillips A.L. and Panstruga, R. (2017) mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach. Plant Biotechnology Journal 15, 367-378 plus new funding and field research activities within the defra funded WGIN 4 project
Start Year 2013
 
Description siRNA oligo-mediated silencing of genes in plant pathogenic fungi and their cereal hosts - Royal Holloway - Dr Laurence Bindschedler 
Organisation Royal Holloway, University of London
Department School of Biological Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Rothamsted Research team has designed and generated single gene deletion mutants for a conserved effector in two wheat infecting fungal species, namely Fusarium graminearum and Zymoseptoria tritici. The conserved effector was selected because this small secreted protein is required for pathogenicity by the wheat and the barley attacking species of powdery mildew, respectively Blumeria graminis f sp tritici and Bg fsp hordei . Characterisation of the two sets of mutants both in vitro and in planta has also been carried out at Rothamsted Research. Our collaboartors at Royal Holloway have neither the facilities nor required government licences to carry out these types of experiments. The PhD student visits Rothamsted for a few days each month to complete specific experiments.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborator has been silencing the same effector in trhe wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f sp tritici, using synthetic oligos. Thus confirming that this effector which is predicted to encode a specialist zinc metal protease is required for the infection of both the wheat and the barley infecting powdery mildew species. The Royal Holloway team are also exploring how the expression of this effector is regulated.
Impact So far only joint conference posters , eg BSPP Warwick Dec 2018, MBPP Norwich March 2019 and IS-MPMI Glasgow July 2019
Start Year 2016
 
Title Plant fungal resistance gene 
Description The present invention relates generally to the fields of genetic engineering and plant molecular biology. Specifically, the invention concerns nucleic acids and polypeptides which confer fungal disease resistance in plants, in particular, resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease. Accordingly, the invention relates to isolated nucleic acids and polypeptides which are capable of conferring resistance to the STB disease and the use thereof in generating and identifying STB resistant plants. The invention also encompasses expression vectors comprising said polynucleotides and plants exhibiting resistance to STB disease. The nucleic acids, polypeptides, expression vectors, plants and methods of the present invention may usefully find application in agricultural biotechnology. 
IP Reference WO2017103582 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact None
 
Title VECTORS AND METHODS FOR GENE EXPRESSION IN MONOCOTS 
Description The invention relates to the field of genetic engineering tools for gene expression in plants. Specifically, the invention concerns modified Foxtail Mosaic Virus (FoMV) vectors comprising polynucleotide sequences which are capable of driving expression of a gene of interest in a plant host. Accordingly, the invention concerns FoMV-based expression vectors comprising said polynucleotides, compositions comprising modified FoMV vectors, methods of generating gene expression in plants infected with the modified FoMV vectors. The expression vectors, compositions, plants and methods of the present invention find application in many fields of biotechnology, including, for example, gene characterization, protein production and agricultural biotechnology. 
IP Reference WO2018065785 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed No
Impact Increased international visibility of our research. New links with biotechnology companies.
 
Description Festival of Ideas Open Weekend at Rothamsted - wheat zone: Looking back to the future 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 22-24th June 2018 Festival of Ideas wheat zone Looking back to the future - Alison Lovegrove, Till Pellny, Abby Wood
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop 'Working together to consider the role of biofortification in the global food chain', London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Peter Shewry and Malcolm Hawkesford attended a workshop 'Working together to consider the role of biofortification in the global food chain', London. 2nd May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 1st International Wheat Congress, July 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Alison Lovegrove presented "Exploiting genetic diversity to improve fibre and other bioactive components" at the 1st International Wheat Congress, Saskatoon, Canada, 19th July 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description ? FuturumCareers.com: Saving plants from disease, for 11-19 year-olds (July 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact An article was written for a new publication produced by the London based company called FuturumCareers that is specifically focussing on increasing the number of school pupils in the age group 11-19 to become interested in a STEAM subject and to go on and select an appropriate University Course. The PHI-base team at Rothamsted in collaboration with the ENSEMBL team at EMBL-EBI in Cambridge developed both a comprehensive magazine style article and a quiz to enhance the understanding of pathogen - plant host interactions and the increased use of big data to explore plant diseases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://futurumcareers.com/saving-plants-from-disease
 
Description Alison Lovegrove, WGIN, November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact presentation: Improving the quality of staple foods to deliver health benefits - dietary fibre, at the 15th WGIN Stakeholders' Meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Annual meeting ELIXIR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Annual ELIXIR UK All Hands Meeting, node members
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2017
 
Description AvrSr50 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We prepared and published a press release covering our recently study: Chen et al. (2017) Loss of AvrSr50 by somatic exchange in stem rust leads to virulence for Sr50 resistance in wheat. Science 6370: 1607-1610; http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aao4810. This stimulated increased interest in our research and our story has been picked up by 15 news outlets, blogged by 5, and twitted by 84.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/rust-stemmed-wheat
 
Description BBSRC website press release- Gotcha: the gene that takes the fun out of fungus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This press release was produced to highlight a featured research paper by King et al., PLoS Pathogens. The aim was to more widely promote the identification of a key gene which allows fungi to become pathogens.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/food-security/2017/171011-pr-gotcha-the-gene-that-takes-the-fun-out-of-f...
 
Description Cafe Scientifique Harpenden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I, along with two other Rothamsted PhD students, organise the events for Cafe Scientifique Harpenden. These events consist of short presentations made by local scientists to an audience of members of the public and other PhD students, followed by a question and answer session. The events take place at the Silver Cup pub in Harpenden, and are attended each month by 30-40 people. I have so far been involved in events with speakers from University College London, the SouthEastPhysics network and Rothamsted Research, on topics including brain physiology, astrophysics and GM camelina. I am responsible for recruiting speakers, advertising the event locally and on social media, and share responsibility for chairing events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/o/cafe-scientifique-harpenden-6588711377
 
Description Cafe Scientifique Harpenden Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On 30th July 2018 I was a speaker at the monthly Cafe Scientifique Harpenden event, giving a short presentation of 15 minutes to members of the public. I presented a short introduction to my research area - an investigation into the functions and interactions of the Zymoseptoria tritici effector AvrStb6 and the wheat resistance protein Stb6 - and the aims of my future work. This was followed by a question and answer session with the audience of approximately 30 members of the local community in Harpenden and PhD students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/o/cafe-scientifique-harpenden-6588711377
 
Description Cafe Scientifique Seminar Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Café Scientifique outreach group at Rothamsted Research is a student-led team that organises monthly public seminars. Speakers at these seminars are researchers at Rothamsted and London-based institutes, who speak about the scientific background and the content of their research. The event regularly attracts audiences of 20-35 people, with members of the public from Harpenden and the local area in attendance. Since September 2018 we have organised 13 events, with speakers from Rothamsted or Imperial College London and The South East Physics Network and others. My role involves attracting and booking speakers, advertising the event using posters, email invitations and social media and chairing the events. The main output of this event series is to disseminate the research being carried out at Rothamsted and other organisations to the public of Harpenden and the surrounding area, and to promote the benefits of Rothamsted Research to scientific understanding and advancement.
o The events have taken place on 24th September (Ian Harrison, UCL, "Hacking the Brain"), 29th October (Chiara Gandini, Cambridge University, "Green Fish Farms: Answers in the Microalgae"), 26th November 2018 (Abel Barral, Nature Publishing Group, "How was the Earth Milions of Years Ago?"), 28th January (Olivia Keenan, SEPnet, "The Dwarf Galaxy Problem"), 25th February (Johnathan Napier, "Making Fish Oil in Plants"), 25th March (Danilo Lyra, "Predicting Complex Human and Plant Phenotypes Using DNA Information"), 29th April (Alex Dye, "Searching for Soldierflies in the Insect Apocalypse"), 3rd June (Jess Spong and Tessa Reid, "Fungal Diseases on Wheat" and "The Soil Microbiome"), 29th July (Aislinn Pearson, "Modern Smallholder Farming in Africa"), 30th September (Tony Cass, ICL, "Diagnostics To Go - Microneedles in Health and Illness"), 28th October (Anastasia Sokolidi and Caitlin Willis, "Smart Detection of Airborne Diseases in Tomato Production" and "Investigating Insecticide Resistance in UK Populations of Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle") and 25th November 2019 (Ben Stickler, ICL, "Macroscopic Tests of Quantum Physics") and on 27th January 2020 (Matt Dale and Sarah Raffan, "Out In All Weather - Plant Responses to Environmental Extremes" and "Why You Shouldn't Burn Your Toast").
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
 
Description Cereals 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Demonstration plots and posters
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/events/cereals-2017
 
Description Cereals event 2019, Lincolnshire 12th - 13th June take-all and aphid plot and poster displays presented 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Two displays were devised to showcase specific wheat germplasm identified in DFW that could combat the threat of two major biotic threats namely Take-all root disease and aphid infestation of the crop canopy and wheat spikes. The take-all display was designed and presented by Kim Hammond-Kosack and Gail Canning. The aphid display was designed by Gia Aradottir, but presented by Kim Hammond-Kosack. The purpose of both living plot, poster and live samples displays was to explain the two biotic threats and their impacts on the wheat crop to farmers,farm managers, farm advisors and members of the professional wheat breeding community. Both displayed focussed on the identification of specific Watkins wheat lines and Triticum monococcum accessions that exhibit moderate to high levels of resistance to either biological problem. Over the exceptionally rainy two day event > 900 people from visited the display asked questions and sort advice on cropping rotations involving winter and spring drilled cereals. The interacting visitors came from all over the UK, several European counties as well as Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Chairing wheat genetics symposium, Tuln, Austria 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chaired a session of Wheat Genetic symposium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Challenges and opportunities for agricultural nitrogen science in India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Joint Nitrogen VJC Meeting: Challenges and opportunities for agricultural nitrogen science in India
New Delhi, 3-5 October 2017
P. K. Mandal: Understanding Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Wheat.
We focus on understanding Nitrogen (nitrate) Uptake and Utilization efficiency in contrasting wheat genotypes at biochemical and molecular level. Our results showed considerable genotypic variation for both the component traits at transcript, metabolism (C & N) and RSA level under N-stress. We also observed genotype specific transcript data-set apart from the common transcripts in our microarray study.

Till K Pellny: The Watkins collection as a source for genetically versatile pre-breeding lines.
The Watkins collection comprises of phenotypically diverse landraces collected in the 1920s and 1930s from 32 countries, including India. A nested association mapping panel using 85 founders with Paragon (UK spring) as the common parent has been established at the JIC within the BBSRC WISP project. We are utilizing adapted subgroups from some of these families for field trails in India and the UK.

John Foulkes: Exploiting phenology and adaptation to improve N use efficiency in wheat.
A NAM population of Paragon x Watkins landrace RILs and a panel of MAGIC lines selected for phenology are being phenotyped at UK sites. RILs from the same NAM population are being phenotyped by Indian partners. Phenotyping is focused on N uptake and utilization and root and canopy photosynthesis traits Preliminary results at UK sites and strategies for developing rapid NUE screens are presented.

M.L. Jat: Precision nutrition platform at BISA.
Improving NUE is critical to achieve continued food security & income enhancement & sustaining the soil, plant, and environment, human and animal health. Considering the importance of integrating genetics and precision agronomic management; as a part of INEW, the 'Precision Nutrition Platform" has been established at BISA, Ludhiana, for integrating genotypes and precision agronomic management practices to capture the interactions for attaining higher NUE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.news-india-uk.international/vjcmeeting/press_release
 
Description Co-organised and participated in the joint 1 day defra WGIN -BBSRC DFW Stakeholders meeting held 30th November 2017 at Rothamsted Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact At this stakeholder event which focused exclusively on wheat research and wheat genetic improvement there were 110 attendees. These included members of Defra, AHDB, the UK based wheat breeding companies ( Syngenta, RAGT, KWS, Elsoms, Limagrain, DSV, Saaten Union), the Ag consultant companies Agrii, ADAS and NIAB-TAG, members of the new Innovation UK Centre CHAP as well as farmers from Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and the East Midlands. The other 50% of the audience were UK academics from the John Innes Centre, Quadram Institute (Norwich), Earlham Institute (Norwich), University of Nottingham and the University of Bristol,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference organiser of PAG San Diego attracting 3800 plant and animal researchers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I am on the organising committee of the largest plant and animal ag genomics conference attracting some 3800 researchers, policy makers, industry etc
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
 
Description DFW Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Designing Future Wheat (DFW) is a five-year RCUK/BBSRC funded research program on wheat improvement and breeding. During the DFW Open Day, an overview on the ongoing DFW research programs was provided and the guest speaker Matt Kirton (DSV) shared a breeders' perspective. There was also an opportunity to visit Rothamsted Research's world class laboratories and facilities in the morning, and a research farm in Redbourn (for a hands-on display of research projects ongoing in DFW) in the afternoon.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/events/designing-future-wheat-open-day
 
Description DFW Open Day Event at NIAB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Alison Lovegrove andTill Pellny, June: DFW Open Day Event at NIAB. DFW Topic 2.1 'Enhanced Health Benefits' 21st June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description DFW Presentation to DEFRA chief science advisor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A discussion of the outcomes and impact of WISP and DFW programmes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Dissemination of project and results to date to EMBRAPA Trigo, Brazilian Farmers, Agronomists, AgIndustry and their Milling and Baking companies + links to many University Campus in Brazil as well as Kansas State University, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Kim Hammond-Kosack gave a 30 min invited plenary presentation at an EMBRAPA Trigo organised event in Passo Fundo, Southern Brazil in June 2018. The event was the 12th Meeting of the Brazilian Wheat and Triticale Research Commission (RCBPTT) . This 3 day event had an audiences of ~ 350 attendees. The meeting was attended by EMBRAPA scientists from many of their centres, numerous Brazilian Farmers, Agronomists, various AgIndustry companies both breeding and Ag chemical and several Brazilian Milling, Baking companies, and wheat importers and exports. Also present were government regulators involved in determining the levels of grain and food contamination by mycotoxins. The entire event was linked to many University Campus in Brazil as well as Kansas State University, USA. The second invited plenary speaker was Professor Barbara Valent, Kansas State University, USA.

After both plenary presentations there was a 30 minute discussion and Q and A session hosted by Professor Mauricio Fernandez (Embrapa Trigo) focussing on the control of Fusarium Head blight and Wheat Blast in wheat by breeding , cultural and emerging GM and GE technologies.

During the event Kim Hammond-Kosack visited the private wheat breeding company Biotrigo to see the facilities available for wheat improvement, especially the control of fungal pathogens. Folow up conversations have continued with Biotrigo since this visit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Exploiting phenology and adaptation to improve NUE in wheat 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk " Exploiting phenology and adaptation to improve NUE in wheat" was given on 4 October 2017 at the Workshop of Virtual Joint Centres between India and the UK on "Challenges and opportunities for agricultural nitrogen science in India" held at NASC Complex, Pusa, DPS Marg, New Delhi (3-5 October 2017) by Dr John Foulkes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description FoMV vector 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We prepared and published a press release covering our recently study: Clément Bouton et al. Foxtail mosaic virus: A viral vector for protein expression in cereals, Plant Physiology (2018). DOI: 10.1104/pp.17.01679. This stimulated increased interest in our research and our story has been picked up by 3 news outlets, twitted by 23, and blogged by 1..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/vox-pops-cereal-challenge
 
Description Government Open Access article (Jan 2020), page 370 entitled ' Fighting infectious diseases: Protecting the global wheat crop with big data analysis and knowledge networks' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This article was written to increase awareness of the importance of crop plant health amongst UK and European politicians, leaders of industry and leaders of third sector organisations. The article had a focus on the effects of disease causing pathogens on the No 1 arable crop in Europe namely wheat and how experimentation is increasing becoming predictive through using big data sets and network analyses. The two BBSRC funded resources highlighted in this online and hard copy article are the Pathogen-Host Interactions database (PHI-base) and the knowledge graphical visualisation tool Knetminer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/html5/reader/production/default.aspx?pubname=&edid=e7e6...
 
Description Government Open Access article (July 2019 and Oct 2019), entitled ' Global impact of wheat diseases: Finding new ways to disarm old enemies' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This article was written to increase awareness of the importance of crop plant health amongst UK and European politicians, leaders of industry and leaders of third sector organisations. The article had a focus on the effects of two disease causing fungal pathogens on the No 1 arable crop in Europe namely wheat.

As of early March 2020, this article has had a total reach* of 468,474 and a total engagement** of 303,066. Numbers provided by Open Government access * Total Reach - combined reach of all products where your content appeared. ** Total Engagement across all products where your content has appeared (digital editions, website and email newsletters)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.openaccessgovernment.org/impact-of-wheat/68762/
 
Description Green Man Festival 2017/2018 - co-organiser and participant of the Plant Power Station 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The 'Plant Power Station' was a collaborative scientific outreach project between students across the universities of Bath, Bristol, Exeter and Cardiff as well as Rothamsted Research. Over the four day Green Man Festival held in the Brecon Beacons, approximately 3000 members of the public, of all ages, were successfully attracted to engage with members of the team about the importance of agriculture and the environment. Four interactive activities were carefully designed focusing on: pollinators, crop diversity and origins, plant products and a general agriculture-based quiz. Due to the success of the original event in 2017, measured through the feedback provided by the public, an application was successful to attend the event in 2018. In this instance the four interactive activities focused on: parasites, pollinators, pests and pesticides as well as carbon footprints.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://www.swbio.ac.uk/2017/10/04/promoting-plant-power-at-the-green-man-festival/
 
Description Hannah Blyth - Cafe Scientifique Harpenden Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On 25th June 2018, Hannah Blyth was one of the speakers at that month's Cafe Scientifique Harpenden event. This involved a short presentation on her research area and the aims of her future work, followed by a question and answer session. In attendance were approximately 30 members of the local Harpenden community, along with PhD students from Rothamsted Research. The subject area was the mutagenomic analysis of the wheat fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/o/cafe-scientifique-harpenden-6588711377
 
Description Hertfordshire County Show 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Several members of the team helped to present the Rothamsted Research activities at the Hertfordshire County show on 26th May 2019. The event lasted from approximately 08:30-17:00 and one of the activities included manning a stand and a practical plant DNA extraction which members of the public were able to take part in along with games designed to teach the difference between accuracy and precision. The responsibility of volunteers was to guide members of the public through these activities while explaining the scientific concepts involved and answering questions about our own research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/events/hertfordshire-county-show
 
Description Hosting of the 23rd International Plant Resistance to Insects Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The symposium focused on the increasing need for host plant resistance in insects and covered topics ranging from underlying mechanisms and plant breeding, to modelling and prediction of pest invasion. The symposium also included a number of discussion sessions from which project collaborations and position paper were planned.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/events/23rd-biannual-international-plant-resistance-insects-symposium
 
Description ICC Conference April 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Peter Shewry presented "Designing future wheat with improved quality and pest and disease resistance" at the ICC Conference, Science Meets Technology, Vienna, April 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description INEW Review Meeting in Karnal, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 24th Feb - 2nd Mar 2018: Malcolm Hawkesford, Peter Shewry and Till Pellny attended the INEW Review Meeting in Karnal, India
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Indo-UK Research Collaboration to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Wheat 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Soma Marla, ICAR.NBPGR, New Delhi, India
Nitrogen is the major agronomic input that determines the performance and productivity of wheat crop in both India and UK. With nitrogen being the major production cost for farmers, it has a huge environmental footprint, in terms of pollution of ground waters and generation of greenhouse gases. To minimize the use of applied Nitrogen fertilizers a cross-Institute pre-breeding programme (INEW virtual centre) under India-UK partnership is being executed to identify sources of traits and developing markers for use in academic research and transfer to commercial breeding programmes and responsibility for delivering improved wheat varieties to Indian farmers. The Virtual Joint Centre is bringing together major wheat researchers from ICAR.IARI in New Delhi, Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal, Bourlag Institute for South Asia, Punjab, National Bureau of Plant Genetic resources, New Delhi and National Research Centre for Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi,Punjab Agricultural University. UK partner institutions are Rothamsted research, University of Nottingham, University of Bristol, John Inns Centre and National Institute of Agricultural Botany.
The core of the project is precision field trials being conducted in India and UK using germplasm from both countries, in which the fate of nitrogen in the plant will be followed from root uptake to seed maturity, at limiting and adequate levels of fertilisation. Its impact on grain yield and grain quality in these lines will be studied in detail using the platform technologies (Fig.1) providing information on the relationship between performance and phenology. Major mandate includes integrated study of the genetic, biochemical and molecular basis for improved N use efficiency from mechanisms of nitrogen uptake to partitioning in the grain and effects on processing quality. Candidate genes that control key processes limiting N use efficiency will be identified. The study will be supported by genotyping of germplasm and identification of key genes, enzymes involved, their variation employing high density SNP arrays and transcriptome analysis. Molecular markers developed for key traits will be transferred to wheat breeders in UK and India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Speaker and panelist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation entitled: Aphid resistant wheat: is it probable or even possible?
Event attended by policymakers, agronomists, farmers and academics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bcpc.org/events/4th-pests-beneficials-review-2019
 
Description Invited Speaker and panelist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker and panel discussion on the Future of Crop Protection
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bibalex.org/bva2018/home/home.aspx
 
Description Invited oral presentation given at Plant Health at the Age of Metagenomics, Scientific Colloquium -Paris France September 2019 by Kim Hammond-Kosack 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Oral Presentation entitled 'Using a FAIR database and bioinformatics analyses to improve plant, human, animal and ecosystem health' at Plant Health at the Age of Metagenomics, given at a Scientific Colloquium organised by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and the Euphresco network for phytosanitary research coordination and funding UNESCO, Paris, France, 26th September 2019.

This scientific colloquium focussed on ways to improve phytosanitation methods and the detection of emerging plant pathogen threats across the 31 different country borders throughout Europe

Link to the video-recordings - http://bit.ly/350Hm1P
Link to the recorded presentation - https://zenodo.org/record/3471776#.XZY8z0Yzbcs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://zenodo.org/record/3471776#.XZY8z0Yzbcs
 
Description Invited to participation in the Syngenta R&D Showcase event held at DEBIS London in Nov2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact All the attendees took part in four interactive presentation and discussion sessions on research and innovation to improve the productivity and resilience of Agricultural crops in the UK, Europe and globally. The attendees discussed and debated the emerging alternative technologies available, for example use of drones to identify weeds, pests and pathogens to be controlled, converting crops to all hybrids, for example wheat and barley, the use of genome editing for targetted genome improvements, satellite technologies and crop growth modeling to explore the impact of different environmental / cropping scenarios.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description John Innes Centre open day to the public 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact To show the general public plant science research in practise.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description M Urban conference poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster 'Harnessing community expertise to determine anti-infective target sites' presented at Resistance '19, Rothamsted UK. 16-18th Sept 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Market research - interviews with stakeholders 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interviews with stakeholders for industry feedback on the attractiveness of this new technology and the specific requirements for deploying the multispectral imaging tool, contact has been made with a range of relevant organisations in the pest monitoring and crop protection market. Primary and secondary research identified strong interest in the multispectral imaging system and a clear need for rapid and early detection of aphid or viral damage in crops. Several of the companies/organisations approached recognised the systems benefits both for crop monitoring and plant breeding purposes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Member of the board of the G20 wheat initative 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I am a board member of the G20 wheat initiative set up by the G20 agricultural ministers to facilitate coordination of wheat research in the G20 countries. We organise working group to facilitate such coordination, and to identify priorities for funding by funding agencies within the G20 countries
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
 
Description Member of the management board of CGIAR wheat programme (CIMMYT and ICARD) to breed wheat for the resource-poor in the developing World 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A management board member of CGIAR wheat programme (CIMMYT and ICARD) to breed wheat for the resource-poor in the developing World
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
 
Description Monogram April 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Alison Lovegrove presented "Improving the quality of staple foods to deliver health benefits" at Monogram, Nottingham UK, 30th April 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description NABIM Science Day, London, November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Peter Shewry, Alison Lovegrove - NABIM Science day, London, Talk on 3 industrially-funded projects, to UK millers and associated industries
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Norfolk forum Science festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact To provide the general public with an insight into plant science research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Organisation a day workshop at Eucarpia meeting , Clermont_Ferrand Paris, with INRA (French) and Proweizen (German ) and CIMMYT researchers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The worship was to discuss possible collaborations which could lead to bids into the EU for funding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the conference for the UK Millers and bakers (NABIM-london) on DFW 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Was asked to provide further information on the coordinated DFW programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation on DFW at the DEFRA stakeholders WGIN meeting at RRES 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Request for more information on the programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation on WISP/DFW to ACC1 Cereals and Grains conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The presentation was to inform the cereal grain (rice, maize and wheat) processes community on the step change which has occurred in wheat research and the involvement of WISP/DFW in the step change
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on WISP/DFW to the BBSRC legume community 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation was to describe how the UK coordinated wheat programme was put together, and the impact the programme has had on the step change which has occurred in wheat research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on WISP/DFW to the BBSRC rice community 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation described how the coordinated WISP/DFW UK wheat programme was put together, and the impact the programme has had on the step change which has occurred in wheat research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentations at Whole Grain Summit, Vienna, , November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker and member of organizing group for "Breeding and Biotechnology" topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Press release on PHI-base update article Urban et al. Nucleic Acids Research article (Nov 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This press release highlighted the increasing number of PHI-base entries that have recorded an increase in virulence (hypervirulence) phenotype as a result of a deliberate single gene change, typically a gene deletion or point mutation in pathogenic species that infect either plants, animal or human hosts. Collectively, these results highlight that the pathogenic process is controlled by an increasing diversity of negative feedback loops that can be altered through mutation and result in viable new strains that can cause increased disease symptoms and / or in host pathogen burden.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/gene-data-suggests-superbug-threat-underestimated
 
Description Rothamsted Research Seminar entitled ' Health Crops - Healthy Food' given on 4th November 2019 by Kim Hammond-Kosack 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Th contents of this invited presentation was pitched to be accessible to PhD students, Post doc and PI across all the diverse departments at Rothamsted as well as members of the general public. The focus of the 1st part of the presentation was global food security and specifically the impact of fungal plant pathogens. The 2nd part of the seminar specifically focussed on the research that has been done at Rothamsted over the past 3-5 years investigating the Fusarium - wheat interaction and our plans to take new research results forward to provide novel approaches to disease control.

In total, 108 people attended. The seminar was followed by a good Q and A session and follow-up discussions / questions over the subsequent days and weeks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Rothamsted Festival of Ideas 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact It was our Institute's (Rothamsted Research) 175th birthday and we were celebrating with a Festival of Ideas. The event was free and open to all with something for everyone, from young to old. Our Festival brought together activities, exhibitions and demonstrations to immerse general public in the science of feeding the world. Numerous live plant displays and demonstration have been organised, as well as posters, interactive displays, tractor rides, talks, games and a trove of other astonishing exhibits describing our proud history of ground-breaking discoveries, from crop treatment to crop protection, from statistical interpretation to soils management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/events/rothamsted-festival-ideas
 
Description Rothamsted Press release accompanying a global press release entitled ' One Giant Leap for Wheat' 16th August 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This press release accompanied a peer reviewed publication in Science entitled ' Shifting the limits in wheat research and breeding using a fully annotated reference genome' . More than 200 scientists from 73 research institutes in 20 countries over 13 years have produced the most comprehensive map of a wheat genome, paving the way for more resilient and nutritious varieties of a staple crop that feeds more than a third of the global human population.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/one-giant-leap-wheat
 
Description Rothamsted Press release accompanying a global press release by CSIRO and USA collaborators - Entitled 'Rust Stemmed for Wheat' - 22nd Dec 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A press release entitles entitled 'Rust Stemmed for Wheat' - 22nd Dec 2017 attracted considerable follow-up media attention.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/rust-stemmed-wheat
 
Description Rothamsted Press release also involving the project sponsor Syngenta entitled ' VOX POPS Cereal Challenge' 13th August 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The VOX POPS Cereal Challenge accompanied the publication of a Plant Physiology article entitled ' Foxtail mosaic virus: A Viral Vector for Protein Expression in Cereals'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/vox-pops-cereal-challenge
 
Description Rothamsted Press release accompanying a regional and national press release entitled ' The good, the bad and their fortuitous differences' 20th April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This press release accompanied a publication in in journal BMC Genomics entitled ' Inter-genome comparison of the Quorn fungus Fusarium venenatum and the closely related plant infecting pathogen Fusarium graminearum. This was folowed by an interview with the local BBC radio station covering the St Albans / North London regions, namely Radio Verulamium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/good-bad-and-their-fortuitous-differences
 
Description Rothamsted Press release joint with JIC and INRA France accompanying a global press release entitled ' Another blow to fungal infection' - 12th February 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release accompanying a Nature Genetics publication entitled 'Wheat receptor-kinase-like protein Stb6 controls gene-for-gene resistance to fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici'. This publication has raised considerable interest in the global wheat breeding industry and with CIMMYT.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/another-blow-fungal-infection
 
Description Rothamsted Press release with follow up national and international press releases entitled ' Crop immunisation can root out take-all infections' 22nd May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This press release accompanied the paper published in the Journal of Experimental Botany entitled ' Elite UK winter wheat cultivars differ in their ability to support the colonization of beneficial root-infecting fungi' . There has been considerable interest for the international wheat breeding community in this new trait.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/crop-immunisation-can-root-out-take-all-fungus
 
Description Rothamsted Press release with follow up national and international press releases entitled ' First step to lasting wheat health', 22nd June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This press release accompanied the peer reviewed publication in the Journal Nature Scientific Reports entitled ' Exploring the resilience of wheat crops grown in short rotations through minimising the build-up of an important soil-borne fungal pathogen'.

This project was primarily support by the long running defra funded Wheat Genetic Improvement Network ( http://www.wgin.org.uk/) but required additional BBSRC funding in the ISPs 'Protection Yield Potential of Wheat' and 'Designing Future Wheat' o complete. Various agronomist companies and AHDB are interesting in applying this new knowledge into the arable crop rotation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/first-step-lasting-wheat-health
 
Description Rothamsted-Syngenta Alliance Success Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Oral and poster presentations of our new FoMV technology for protein expression in monocot crops sparked questions and discussion. Potential new uses for this technology have been discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description STEM article targeting 11-16 year age group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A joint team involving the four member PHI-base team at Rothamsted Research and three members of the EBI Ensembl Invertebrates team have devised a STEM article on Big Data and Plant Heath to attract more school pupils into a career in science. The six page article plus a 1 page activities sheet is entitled ' Saving Plants from Disease' . The article will be published in March 2019 in the second issue of a new outreach journal called Futurum Careers, published by Sci-Comm Consulting, UK. This company found the Abstract of the BBSRC BBR grant 'PhytoPath, an infrastructure for hundreds of plant pathogen genomes' ( PI Kim Hammond-Kosack) and also consulted with two members of the BBSRC to identify a science group specifically working with big data and wet biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Science and Engineering Inspiration Event, St Joan of Arc School, Rickmansworth 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I participated in a "Science and Engineering Inspiration Event" at St Joan of Arc School in Rickmansworth, 21st March 2019. At this event myself and another researcher from Rothamsted, Anu Bansal, manned a stall and discussed our STEM careers and the underlying science behind our research with groups of secondary school children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Take-all - wheat plots and poster demonstrations at Cereals in 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Take-all - wheat plots and poster demonstrations in 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 were used to communicate our research results and their implications for the control of root diseases to farmers and industry at the annual Cereals event. In 2012 and 2014 we focussed on communicating our research on identifying root resistance to take-all disease in wheat landraces, the wheat D genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii and the ancient einkorn wheat Triticum monococcum. We included small plots of these different species and take-all infected root samples to show visitors. In 2015 and 2016 we focussed on genetic control of take-all using the low take-all inoculum building trait in elite wheat varieties. In 2015 Sarah-Jane Osborne (Take-all PhD student, BBSRC+AHDB+Agrii funding), aligned to this and other related project, manned an additional poster display on the AHDB stand on her PhD work characterising the potential biocontrol Phialophora fungal species. In 2016 Joseph Moughan (Take-all PhD student, fully Syngenta funded) also had a separate poster display on the RRes stand in the Rothamsted Syngenta 20:20 wheat collaboration (RoSy) area illustrating his progress on combining genetics and chemistry for integrated take-all disease management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014,2015,2016
 
Description Tania Chancellor - Cafe Scientifique Harpenden Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On 25th June 2018, Tania Chancellor was one of the speakers at that month's Cafe Scientifique Harpenden event. This involved a short presentation on her research area and the aims of her future work, followed by a question and answer session. In attendance were approximately 30 members of the local Harpenden community, along with PhD students from Rothamsted Research. The subject area was Gaeumannomyces graminis, the causal agent of take all disease of wheat, and its interactions with the soil microbiome.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/o/cafe-scientifique-harpenden-6588711377
 
Description Task Force for Open Weekend 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Task Force in preparation for the RRes Open weekend to be held in June 2018. it is aimed at the general public, schools and local dignitaries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Watkins Collection as a Source for Genetically Versatile PreBreeding Lines for NUE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Till K Pellny
4th Conference of Cereal Biotechnology and Breeding
06-09 Nov 2017, Budapest, Hungary
Conference poster: The Watkins Collection as a Source for Genetically Versatile PreBreeding Lines for NUE
1st Prize for the Outstanding Poster
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Wheat Genetic Improvement Network Stakeholder event - a joint defra- BBSRC UK stakeholder engagement event held November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Organised this joint WGIN-DFW event for approximately 80 stakeholders from the UK attended this full day event held at Rothamsted Research on the 14th November 2019 The audience included representatives from the nine UK based commercial wheat breeders, UK farmers and farm advisers, SMEs and AHDB as well as staff members, post docs and PhD students from NIAB, John Innes Centre, Rothamsted Research and UK universities. The DFW project was introduced by Graham Moore (JIC) and the DFW presentation entitled 'Has Intensive Breeding Resulted in Changes in the Composition of Wheat Grain and Flour?' was given by Peter Shewry.

The afternoon panel discussion with a high relevance to ongoing DFW research was on ' Farming without Insecticides - New Opportunities'
The panel included Panel discussion with Ruth Bryant (RAGT), Paul Drinkwater (DeRamsey Farm, Huntingdon),
Toby Bruce (Keele University), Steve Ellis (Entomologist ADAS), Lin Field (RRes) and was chaired by
Kim Hammond-Kosack (RRes)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.wgin.org.uk/stakeholders/stakeholdermeetings.php
 
Description US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative - FHB forum 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to give a seminar to the US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative - FHB forum 2017, which consisted of around 200 academics and industrial partners, primarily from the USA and Canada, but also Europe. The purpose of the visit was to interact with the International Fusarium research community. This highlighted our published research on Fusarium transcriptomics, while advertising our on-going research on Fusarium G-protein coupled receptors. Interactions with a researcher at the USDA resulted in a joint publication on the development of a new bioinformatics resource for the Fusarium research community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://scabusa.org/pdfs/nfhbf17_program_web.pdf
 
Description Wheat Career talk given at the John Innes Centre ( 23rd April 2019) by Kim Hammond-Kosack 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Career talk given to an audience of ~ 65 persons who were PhD students, Post -Docs, research fellows or junior, intermediate and senior group leaders about my career path into wheat research, what my current position is in wheat research and at the institute, what have been major challenges in the past to my career development in wheat and what are the current challenges to scientists considering a career in wheat research. This was followed by a Q and A session and then small group discussions over lunch on specific topics with the early career wheat scientists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Wheat Stb6 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We prepared and published a press release covering our recently study: Saintenac et al. (2018) Wheat receptor kinase-like protein Stb6 controls gene-for-gene resistance to fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Nature Genetics, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0051-x.. This stimulated increased interest in our research and our story has been picked up by 7 news outlets, and twitted by 85.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news/another-blow-fungal-infection
 
Description Workshop Madrid Nov 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Keynote speaker "Improving Nutritional Quality of Wheat" at Workshop on Physiology and Breeding of Grain Quality in Cereals, Polytechnic University of Madrid, 29th November 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description demonstration of INEW field trial at Nottingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The INEW field trial at Nottingham was demonstrated to the East Midlands Farmers' Association group in a visit in June 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description member of the G20 wheat Initiative Science board during 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The members of the science board discuss how to better coordinate the wheat research activities in the G20 countries
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description member of the management board of the CGIAR wheat programme (CIMMYT and ICARDA) to breed wheat for the resource poor in the developing world 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I offer advice to the management team of the wheat CGIAR programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description member of the organising committee for PAG 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Suggest plenary speakers for inviting to speak at PAG 2020 meeting attracting 3000 animal and plant researchers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description press article BBConline 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Scientists find secret to healthier white bread" BBC Online, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-bristol-51404197
 
Description press article Bakery and Snacks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "Scientists open avenue for manufacturers to one day produce a high fibre white bread R&D", Bakery and Snacks, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bakeryandsnacks.com/Article/2020/02/05/Scientists-open-avenue-for-manufacturers-to-one-d...
 
Description press article Bakeryinfo.co.uk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "Scientists make white flour with twice the fibre content", Bakeryinfo.co.uk, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://ct.moreover.com/?a=41313137719&p=2bp&v=1&x=4fxy2mFm7Anh9eczjzTw-Q
 
Description press article BioPortfolio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact "Scientists prove high fibre white bread is possible", BioPortfolio , 7th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/4216881/Scientists-prove-high-fibre-white-bread-is-possibl...
 
Description press article FG Insight 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "High fibre wheat genes identified for healthier white bread" FG Insight, 5th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.fginsight.com/news/high-fibre-wheat-genes-identified-for-healthier-white-bread-102055
 
Description press article Farming UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "High fibre wheat genes identified by UK scientists", Farming UK, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.farminguk.com/news/high-fibre-wheat-genes-identified-by-uk-scientists_54918.html
 
Description press article Food Navigator 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Scientists open avenue for manufacturers to one day produce a high fibre white bread", Food Navigator, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2020/02/05/Scientists-open-avenue-for-manufacturers-to-one-day...
 
Description press article Hertfordshire Life (Online) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "A farmer's life in the 21st century", Hertfordshire Life (Online)10th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://ct.moreover.com/?a=41343218463&p=2bp&v=1&x=fnytI8zKY3Zjr3xxWA6gFA
 
Description press article MailOnline 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Gene-edited wheat could lead to high-fibre white bread in UK", MailOnline. 5th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-7970697/High-fibre-white-bread-sale-Britain-5-years-...
 
Description press article New Food Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "Scientists develop high fibre white flour to produce 'healthier white bread'", New Food Magazine, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.newfoodmagazine.com/news/104690/scientists-develop-high-fibre-white-flour-to-produce-hea...
 
Description press article SeedQuest 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Scientists prove that high fibre white loaf is possible - Group identifies parts of the genome that control fibre content of white flour, raising hope that products with be in shops within five years" SeedQuest, 5th Feb 2020 - Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.seedquest.com/news.php?type=news&id_article=113803
 
Description press article The Amed Post 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "High-fibre white bread could be on sale in Britain within five years", The Amed Post, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://amedpost.com/high-fibre-white-bread-could-be-on-sale-in-britain-within-five-years/
 
Description press article The Amed Post 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Gene-edited wheat could lead to high-fibre white bread in UK", The Amed Post, 5th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://amedpost.com/gene-edited-wheat-could-lead-to-high-fibre-white-bread-in-uk/
 
Description press article The Dundee Messsenger 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Scientists find secret to healthier white bread", The Dundee Messenger, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://dundeemessenger.co.uk/uk-news/scientists-find-secret-to-healthier-white-bread/
 
Description press article The Global Miller 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact publication article in The Global Miller "Scientists prove high fibre white bread is possible", 31st Jan 2020 - Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://gfmt.blogspot.com/2020/01/scientists-prove-high-fibre-white-bread.html
 
Description press article The Scottish Farmer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Scientists working towards 'high fibre' white bread" The Scottish Farmer
2nd Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://gfmt.blogspot.com/2020/01/scientists-prove-high-fibre-white-bread.html
 
Description press article i News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "A white loaf that's as nutritious as brown bread could be available within five years" 5th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove, i News
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://inews.co.uk/news/health/white-loaf-brown-bread-nutrition-food-1386384
 
Description press article iflscience 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Scientists Gene-Edited Wheat To Create High-Fiber White Bread That's Actually Good For You", I Fucking Love Science, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/scientists-geneedited-wheat-to-create-highfiber-white-...
 
Description press article, AgroPages.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "Scientists prove that high fibre white loaf is possible", AgroPages.com, 6th Feb 2020, Alison Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---34027.htm
 
Description press article, CPM Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scientists prove high fibre white bread is possible, CPM Magazine, 7th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.cpm-magazine.co.uk/2020/02/07/scientists-prove-high-fibre-white-bread-is-possible/
 
Description press article, Fijivillage.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Scientists find secret to healthier white bread", Fijivillage.com, 9th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://fijivillage.com/news/Scientists-find-secret-to-healthier-white-bread-sr5k29/
 
Description press article, Food Management Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Scientists discover the answer to high-fibre white bread", Food Management Today, 10th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.foodmanagement.today/scientists-discover-the-answer-to-high-fibre-white-bread/
 
Description press article, FoodIngredientsFirst 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "The best thing since sliced bread? "High fiber white bread could be in supermarkets within five years," say researchers", FoodIngredientsFirst, 6th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.foodingredientsfirst.com/news/the-best-thing-since-sliced-bread-high-fiber-white-bread-c...
 
Description press article, Genetic Literacy Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Healthier white bread could be in stores by 2025, after genes controlling wheat fiber content identified, Genetic Literacy Project, 7th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.cpm-magazine.co.uk/2020/02/07/scientists-prove-high-fibre-white-bread-is-possible/
 
Description press article, LongRoom.com (2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "High-fibre white bread could be on sale in Britain within five years", LongRoom.com, 6th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.longroom.com/discussion/1787137/high-fibre-white-bread-could-be-on-sale-in-britain-withi...
 
Description press article, LongRoom.com(1) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "High-fibre white bread could be on sale in Britain within five years", LongRoom.com, 6th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.longroom.com/discussion/1787137/high-fibre-white-bread-could-be-on-sale-in-britain-withi...
 
Description press article, MailOnline 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "High-fibre white bread could be on sale in Britain within five years", MailOnline, 6th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-7970697/High-fibre-white-bread-sale-Britain-5-years-...
 
Description press article, The BMJ 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Sixty seconds on.white bread", thebmj, 10th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m542.full
 
Description press article, World Bakers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "Scientists Prove High Fiber White Bread Is Possible", World Bakers, 7th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.worldbakers.com/ingredient/scientists-prove-high-fiber-white-bread-is-possible/
 
Description press article, foodprocessing.com.au 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact HospitalHealth: "Is this the best thing since sliced bread?", 10th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.foodprocessing.com.au/content/ingredients/article/is-this-the-best-thing-since-sliced-br...
 
Description press article, iNews (2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "White bread isn't as healthy as brown but it's no sin to love the taste", i News, 7th Feb 2020, A Lovegrove
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://inews.co.uk/news/health/white-bread-health-flavour-nutrition-analysis-sandwiches-1392268