To define molecular aspects of strain identity and strain mutation

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: The Roslin Institute

Abstract

Scrapie has been endemic in the UK sheep flock for over 200 years and multiple strains exist in the field. They can be cloned and passaged in suitable hosts in the laboratory, but characterising the differences between these strains and the way in which they are encoded is a major challenge. Likewise, it is exceptionally challenging to determine how novel TSE isolates emerge – are they always present at low levels but get selected for by changes in human practices? Do pre-existing strains of TSE disease mutate to result in modified strains that propagate in new niches such as particular Prnp genotypes? It is also possible that novel strains of TSE disease have always been present but that increased surveillance is only now beginning to pick up these novel cases. We have been working at the forefront of this challenge for many years and are well positioned to continue to define the interactions between TSE strains, their selection and altered pathogenesis in animals. Through extensive in vivo studies of large and small animals we have shown that some TSE agents can be readily modified/mutated on passage through new hosts whilst others appear more stable in a variety of hosts. Targeting of pathology is determined by both strain characteristics and host genetics but the detailed mechanisms causing this are not yet established. In this theme, we aim to determine how the characteristics of TSE strains are encoded, how they are manifest and how they can interconvert in suitable hosts leading to novel isolates displaying different peripheral pathogenesis in animals and with potentially novel host ranges.

Publications

10 25 50

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Angers R (2014) Structural effects of PrP polymorphisms on intra- and interspecies prion transmission. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Bakkebø MK (2015) The Cellular Prion Protein: A Player in Immunological Quiescence. in Frontiers in immunology

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Barria MA (2014) Molecular barriers to zoonotic transmission of prions. in Emerging infectious diseases

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Barron R (2014) Prion disease zoonosis: assessing risk associated with new and emerging prion agents. in CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources

 
Description 1. Understanding the factors that control peripheral tropism of prion strains has important implications for safeguarding food security and controlling disease transmission. Peripheral (non-neuronal) tissues are generally considered to be of low risk for transmission of BSE. However, we have established that, whilst some prion strains have significantly less infectivity in the spleen than the brain, in other strains the spleen can contain titres of infectivity as high as brain (doi: 10.1128/JVI.03469-12). We have shown that the age of the host upon peripheral infection can dramatically impact on prion accumulation in lymphoid tissues in mice (doi: 10.1099/vir.0.058958-0) and have demonstrated the potential for sub-clinical prion infections in these aged animals, as well as in mice that were subject to cross species prion infections (doi: 10.1099/vir.0.052738-0) and in a human heterozygous for PRNP genotype who was infected with variant CJD (doi: 10.1093/brain/awt032). Conversely, together with US collaborators we have shown that tissue distribution (and in utero transmission) of chronic wasting disease-infectivity in elk is not affected by PRNP genotype (doi: 10.1099/vir.0.058958-0).
2. To aid estimates of the risk of zoonotic transmission of prion diseases, it is important to characterise endemic and emerging prion strains and related diseases. In archival studies, we found atypical scrapie in a sheep that died in 1972, indicating that this is not a new disease. Atypical scrapie was also found in mixed infections with classical scrapie (doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000234), and mixed prion infections in sheep is a hypothetical means by which new strains may emerge. We have also recently found that idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis (IBNC) is a multi-proteinopathy of aged cattle that is geographically spread throughout the UK (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129499).
3. The prion protein (PrP) can misfold to various different isoforms, including fibrils and oligomers, and it is important to assess the properties of these structures to define their role in disease. We showed that a specific prion strain was capable of initiating deposition of amyloid fibrils in the brains of indicator mice without the development of prion-like pathology (doi: 10.1128/JVI.00673-13) a result that was reproduced by inoculation of laboratory-prepared protein fibrils (doi: 10.1007/s00401-016-1594-5). In addition, we demonstrated that the presence of misfolded protein in specific regions of the brain does not always correlate with neurodegeneration (doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002579). We have demonstrated that a soluble, high molecular weight, oligomeric form of PrP is significantly more neurotoxic than lower molecular weight oligomers, monomers or amyloid fibrils. Crucially, we have recently generated a large range of novel antibodies that are helping in characterising prion protein isoforms (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091143).
4. We have shown that prion strain-specific misfolding of PrP can be altered by the presence or absence of post translational modifications such as glycosylation (doi: 10.1038/emboj.2013.6) and have identified other modifications that might impact on PrP misfolding, including lysine hydroxylation (doi: 10.1016/j.ijms.2012.08.015) and a specific truncation event that occurs to different extents depending on PRNP genotype (doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.02.020).
5. Misfolded proteins such as PrP, tau and A-beta share similar mechanisms and interact or 'cross-talk' at a molecular and pathological level. This knowledge may lead to identification of therapeutic strategies or targets. We have shown the formation of tau is not linked to deposition of misfolded PrP, but suggest that the interaction between replication of infectivity and host factors regulate the formation of tau and may contribute to the heterogeneous phenotype of prion diseases (doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2017). We have provided further understanding to the soluble oligomeric amyloid-ß-Aßo-binding cellular prion protein (PrPC) signalling pathway in a familial form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by implicating PrPC as a potential therapeutic target for AD in the symptomatic stages of disease (doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0722-17.2017)This and additional studies demonstrated that PrPC does not impact on A-beta production but is a target for certain disease modifying phenotypes (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159119).
6. Genetic variation in hosts i.e. Prnp genotype, can impact on host susceptibility and pathogenesis both within and between species. We provide evidence that specific polymorphisms in goats can have a protective effect against infection with BSE (doi: 10.1186/s13567-017-0455-0) and that there is a relationship between PRNP polymorphisms and susceptibility to scrapie in goats (Migliore et al., 2017). In addition, we showed that increased production of a natural PrP alpha-cleavage fragment, C1, is associated with disease resistance and contributes to a dominant negative effect of the ovine ARR polymorphism in disease susceptibility (doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.02.020) In vitro work in human stem cell -derived astrocytes provides further evidence of human prion replication in genotype-dependent manner but more crucially has provided a new in vitro system for determining mechanisms of disease (doi: 10.1084/jem.20161547).
7. A central hypothesis in protein misfolding is that the misfolded accumulation, spread and distribution are restricted to specific neuronal populations of the CNS, and can predict neurodegeneration. We demonstrated that that PrP seeds could be found through the brain regardless of whether neurodegeneration was present. Furthermore we showed that accumulation of misfolded protein can only define targeting of neurodegeneration when accompanied by a specific innate immune response, microglial in origin (doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002579). This built upon an earlier study of isolated microglia in prion disease which revealed a disease specific, highly pro-inflammatory signature and supported the high contribution of microglia to a chronic neurodegenerative disease process (doi: 10.1128/JVI.02613-15)
Exploitation Route Our understanding of the genetics behind small ruminate prion diseases will enable breeding schemes to be put into place to reduce the spread of scrapie and protect against BSE infection. Our pathogenesis studies using prion models have identified potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease and provides information which can be used to develop risk assessments and risk reduction measures in human prion diseases.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare

 
Description This programme of research has brought together scientists with expertise in large and small animal models, in vitro techniques, genetics and pathology in order to elucidate molecular aspects of prion strain identity and mutation and identify specific molecular and genetic interactions. It has allowed the retention of established prion scientists and the training of young career track fellows in an area of science which although niche has not only practical elements but a translational impact in other protein misfolding diseases affecting humans. Understanding how new strains of prion disease emerge and mutate and identification of novel animal strains of disease is challenging however this knowledge is essential in disease surveillance and in identifying therapeutic targets for disease. Our work has focused primarily on large animals in farmed settings and the use of mouse models of disease. We have made significant advances in understanding the genetics behind susceptibility to ovine and caprine prion diseases which will enable breeding schemes to be put in place to reduce the spread of scrapie and protect against the risk of BSE infection. Pathogenesis and transmission studies have enabled us to start deciphering the molecular pathways shared between the prion protein, PrP, and other misfolded proteins such as tau and A-beta which contribute to Alzheimer's disease. Studies in this area have not only provided data on prion disease pathogenesis but have had the added benefit of identifying potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease. Pathogenesis studies have also enabled us to identify differences in infectivity and titre in different tissues. This has two important consequences; 1) identification of potential sources of infection for zoonotic infections through consumption/use of animal products (i.e. in BSE, CWD), 2) understanding the transmission risks of animal and human prion diseases, including the risk from individuals with sub-clinical infections. The studies in this area have led to substantial uplift funding by Department of Health in order to further understand the nature of subclinical vCJD infection in the UK population. By investigating the influence of different factors on the spread of disease in the body and onset of clinical symptoms we can use the information to further develop risk assessments and risk reduction measures. We can also use the information to develop treatments as at present there are no treatments or cures for vCJD.
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description EFSA working group on goat TSE resistance
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Member of the Independent Archive Advisory Group for the Animal and Plant Health Agency TSE Tissue Archive (Defra)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Risk assessment for vCJD transmission
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/186959/risk_assessment_Feb...
 
Description BBSRC US partnering award
Amount £36,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K021257/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2013 
End 05/2017
 
Description Chronic wasting disease in UK
Amount £24,563 (GBP)
Funding ID SE2023 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Department of Health
Amount £2,067,455 (GBP)
Funding ID 007/0195 
Organisation Government of Catalonia 
Department Department of Health
Sector Public
Country Spain
Start 08/2011 
End 12/2020
 
Description General Scheme - Abigail Diack - A comparative platform for strain typing CWD
Amount £131,947 (GBP)
Funding ID RES0036432-S001 
Organisation Alberta Prion Research Institute 
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2020
 
Description How do resistant ovine pmp genotypes become susceptible genotypes
Amount £135,623 (GBP)
Funding ID SE1445 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 06/2015
 
Description Policy Research Programme - Abigail Diack for RI - Consortium Funding - Assessing and defining pre-clinical vCJD infectivity using transmission and protein aggregation models
Amount £1,553,441 (GBP)
Funding ID PR-R17-0916-23001 
Organisation Department of Health (DH) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 12/2020
 
Description Policy Research Programme Department of Health
Amount £1,130,627 (GBP)
Funding ID PR-ST-1214-10003 
Organisation Government of Catalonia 
Department Department of Health
Sector Public
Country Spain
Start 03/2015 
End 02/2019
 
Description Principals career development scholarship
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Research funding
Amount £26,782 (GBP)
Organisation British Deer Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Description Research funding
Amount £24,563 (GBP)
Funding ID SE2023 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Study of effects of helminth infection on prion disease pathogenesis
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Council on Science and Technology (CONACYT) 
Sector Public
Country Mexico
Start 11/2014 
End 10/2017
 
Description Study of the role of macrophages in prion disease pathogenesis
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Funding ID GR002413 
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description The Wellcome Trust Clinical Veterinary Research Training Programme
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Department Wellcome Trust Bloomsbury Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2013 
End 08/2013
 
Description The evolution of TSE strains in mixed infections
Amount £420,414 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description Towards breeding of goats for genetically determined TSE resistance
Amount £208,000 (GBP)
Funding ID SE2018 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2012 
End 03/2016
 
Description Variation to Contract - Project extension
Amount £367,140 (GBP)
Funding ID 007/0162 
Organisation Government of Catalonia 
Department Department of Health
Sector Public
Country Spain
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Variation to contract - subclinical infection
Amount £176,124 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Catalonia 
Department Department of Health
Sector Public
Country Spain
Start 11/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description Characterization of PrP-specific monoclonal antibodies 
Organisation Central Veterinary Institute
Country Netherlands 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We contributed monoclonal antibodies raised against the sheep PrP protein to various studies.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners assisted in the characaterization of the antibodies, particularly epitope mapping.
Impact Publications: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091143
 
Description EM Analysis of plaque seeding 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing material for analysis by electron microscopy
Collaborator Contribution Performed electron microscopic analysis of tissue from our mouse models.
Impact Jeffrey M, McGovern G, Chambers EV, King D, Gonzalez L, Manson JC, Ghetti B, Piccardo P and Barron RM (2012). Mechanism of PrP amyloid formation in mice without transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Brain Pathology 22:58-66 Jeffrey M, McGovern G, Barron R, Baumann F (2015). Membrane pathology and microglial activation of mice expressing membrane anchored or membrane released forms of Aß and mutated human APP: a comparison with prion disease. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 41:458-470. Barron RM, King D, Jeffrey M, McGovern G, Agarwal S, Gill AC and Piccardo P (2016). PrP aggregation can be seeded by pre-formed recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils without the replication of infectious prions. Acta Neuropathologica 132:611-624 DOI 10.1007/s00401-016-1594-5
Start Year 2007
 
Description Genetic association with TSE disease in sheep and goats 
Organisation Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We provided the genetic analysis of their experimental sheep and goat TSE studies. Regular meetings were held and study design and interpretation of data were shared.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, discussion of study design and manuscript preparation.
Impact González, L., Dagleish, M. P., Martin, S., Finlayson, J., Sisó, S., Eaton, S. L., Goldmann W., Witz, J., Hamilton, S., Stewart, P., Pang, Y., Steele, P., Reid, H. W., Chianini F., Jeffrey, M. (2012) Factors influencing temporal variation of scrapie incidence within a closed Suffolk sheep flock. J Gen Virol 93, 203-211. Gonzalez, L., Jeffrey, M., Dagleish, M.P., Goldmann, W., Siso, S., Eaton, S. L., Martin, S., Finlayson, J., Stewart, P., Steele, P., Pang, Y., Hamilton, S., Reid, H.W., Chianini, F. (2012) Susceptibility to scrapie and disease phenotype in sheep: cross-Prnp genotype experimental transmissions with natural sources. Vet Res. 43(1):55 Sisó, S., Chianini, F., Eaton, S.L., Witz, J., Hamilton, S., Martin, S., Finlayson, J., Pang, Y., Stewart, P., Steele, P., Dagleish, M.P., Goldmann, W., Reid, H.W., Jeffrey, M., González, L. (2012). Disease phenotype in sheep after infection with cloned murine scrapie strains. Prion 6(2):174-183 Dagleish, M.P., Martin, S., Steele, P., Finlayson, J., Eaton, S. L., Sisó, S., Stewart, P., Hamilton, S., Pang, Y., Chianini, F., Reid, H. W., Goldmann, W., González, L., Castilla, J., Jeffrey, M. (2015) Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PLOS ONE 10(1):e0116094 Houston, H., Goldmann, W., Foster, J., Gonzalez, L., Jeffrey, M., Hunter, N. (2015) Comparative susceptibility of sheep of different origins, breeds and PRNP genotypes to challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0143251
Start Year 2012
 
Description Genetic diversity in Turkish sheep and goats 
Organisation Ankara University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My group has an advisory role and supports the data interpretation and manuscript preparation. We check the quality of data and provide control material
Collaborator Contribution They conduct sampling of DNA from animals, sequencing and genotypes. We are in contact regarding new projects and student exchange.
Impact Meydan, H., Pehlivan, E., Özkan, M., Yildiz, M.A., Goldmann, W. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds. Journal of Genetics IN PRESS (accepted 2016) Meydan, H., Özkan, M.M., Yildiz, M. A., Goldmann, W. (2013) Novel Polymorphisms in Ovine Prion Protein Gene. Animal Genetics 44: 588-591
Start Year 2012
 
Description Prion disease susceptibility in carnivores and deer 
Organisation Colorado State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are collaborating with the groups of Drs Hoover and Mathiason at the University and Dr Miller at Division of Parks and Wildlife. My group has contributed genetic analysis of the prion gene from their experimental deer, which is crucial for their experimental set up and we provided the interpretation of the data in the context of genetic association with prion disease. With Dr Miller we have investigated the genetics of carnivores that are exposed to chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of wild deer in Colorado. We sequenced over a hundred samples from bear and mountain lion to establish genetic diversity. We contributed to their manuscript preparation. I visited the Colorado facilities and presented a seminar.
Collaborator Contribution Both groups in Colorado have provided samples for the analysis and background information regarding the animals collected . They have contributed to the interpretation of results and contributed to the manuscript preparation. Members of the group visited the Roslin Institute for presentations and discussion of the ongoing studies
Impact Stewart, P., Campbell, L., Skogtvedt, S., Griffin, K., Arnemo, J., Tryland, M., Miller, M.W., Tranulis, M.A., Goldmann, W. (2012) Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region. PLoS ONE 7(12):e50623 Selariu A, Powers JG, Wild MA, Brandhuber M, Mayfield A, Fullaway S, Nalls A, Goldmann W, Wyckoff AC, Zabel M, Hoover EA, Mathiason CK. (2015) In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk. J Gen Virol 96, 3444-3455 Nalls, A., McNulty, E., Powers, J., Seelig, D., Hoover, C., Haley, N., Hayes-Klug, J., Anderson, K., Stewart, P., Goldmann, W., Hoover, E., Mathiason, C. (2013) Mother to Offspring Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reeves' Muntjac Deer. PLoS One 8, 8 e71844
Start Year 2012
 
Description Prion disease susceptibility in carnivores and prion protein processing 
Organisation Norwegian School of Veterinary Science
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We initiated both studies and planned the experiments. The study was driven by the current epidemic of chronic wasting disease in the USA and tried to answer the question what consequences this epidemic may have on wild species. We also wanted to show how prion protein processing does influence the outcome of prion disease. The collaboration was strengthened by several meeting on both sides of the groups and presentation of research seminars to the respective Institutes.
Collaborator Contribution The group headed by Prof Michael Tranulis has provided material from several mammalian species fro this project. They were actively involved in the planning of experiments and recruited further research teams from Norway into the project, which gave us unique access to wild mammals, particularly aquatic species. They provided sheep samples and protein analysis results that were compared to our UK results to strengthen the outcome of the study.They provided control antibodies and performed Western blots in parallel to my group.
Impact Stewart, P., Campbell, L., Skogtvedt, S., Griffin, K., Arnemo, J., Tryland, M., Miller, M.W., Tranulis, M.A., Goldmann, W. (2012) Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region. PLoS ONE 7(12):e50623 Campbell, L., Gill, A. C., McGovern, G., Hopkins, J., Jalland, C.M.O., Tranulis, M.A., Hunter, N., Goldmann, W. (2013) The PrPC C1 fragment derived from the ovine A136R171 PRNP allele is highly abundant in sheep brain and inhibits fibrillisation of full-length PrPC protein in vitro. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Molecular Basis of Disease (BBAdis) 1832: 826-836 Bakkebø, M.K., Mouillet-Richard, S., Espenes, A., Goldmann, W., Tatzelt, J., Tranulis M.A. (2015) The prion protein: a player in immunological quiescence? Frontiers in Immunology 6, 450 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00450
Start Year 2012
 
Description QuIC analysis of low PrPSc mouse models 
Organisation National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Department Rocky Mountain Laboratories
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of brain tissue from an unique mouse model of TSE disease
Collaborator Contribution Performed QuIC analysis of material from our mouse model
Impact Vascellari S, Orrù CD, Hughson AG, King D, Barron RM, Wilham JM, Baron GS, Race B, Pani A and Caughey B (2012). Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC. PLoS One 7:e48969
 
Description Seeding protein aggregation in mice 
Organisation Colorado State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of amyloid plaque seeding in mouse brain
Collaborator Contribution Provision of mice and tissue from animals overexpressing 101L PrP
Impact Piccardo P, King D, Telling G, Manson JC and Barron RM (2013). Dissociation of prion protein amyloid seeding from transmission of a spongiform encephalopathy. J Virol. 87:12349-12356 doi: 10.1128/JVI.00673-13
 
Description Structural analysis of prion proteins 
Organisation University of Warwick
Department School of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of prion proteins
Collaborator Contribution Analysis of prion proteins and lipids
Impact Several publications and grant applications
 
Description Study of effect of S1PR1 deficiency on prion disease pathogenesis 
Organisation National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Department Genetics of Development and Disease Branch
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We provided the prion disease pathogenesis model.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Richard Proia provided CD19cre S1PR1flox/flox mice. In these mice S1pr1 expression is conditionally ablated only in Cre recombinase-expressing cells (B cells).
Impact Joint publication in the Journal of Immunology: J Immunol 2012; 188:5032-5040; doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1200349
Start Year 2010
 
Description Zoonotic transmission of prions 
Organisation Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piedmont
Country Italy 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Performed prion transmission studies into human PrP and bovine PrP transgenic mice using bovine brain infected with BASE
Collaborator Contribution Provided the BASE brain tissue
Impact Wilson R, Hart P, Piccardo P, Hunter N, Casalone C, Baron T, and Barron RM (2012). Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical BSE. Journal of General Virology 93:1132-1140 Wilson R, Plinston C, Hunter N, Casalone C, Corona C, Tagliavini F, Suardi S, Ruggerone M, Moda F, Graziano S, Sbriccoli M, Cardone F, Pocchiari M, Ingrosso L, Baron T, Richt J, Andreoletti O, Simmons M, Lockey R, Manson JC, and Barron RM (2012). Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP. Journal of General Virology 93:1624-1629
Start Year 2007
 
Description Zoonotic trasnmission of prions 
Organisation French Agency for Food Safety (AFSSA)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Performed transmission experiments to human PrP and bovine PrP transgenic mice using H-BSE infected brain tissue
Collaborator Contribution Provided the H-BSE infected brain tissue
Impact Wilson R, Hart P, Piccardo P, Hunter N, Casalone C, Baron T, and Barron RM (2012). Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical BSE. Journal of General Virology 93:1132-1140 Wilson R, Plinston C, Hunter N, Casalone C, Corona C, Tagliavini F, Suardi S, Ruggerone M, Moda F, Graziano S, Sbriccoli M, Cardone F, Pocchiari M, Ingrosso L, Baron T, Richt J, Andreoletti O, Simmons M, Lockey R, Manson JC, and Barron RM (2012). Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP. Journal of General Virology 93:1624-1629
Start Year 2007
 
Description Zoonotic trasnmission of prions 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department National Animal Disease Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Performed transmission studies in human PrP and bovine PrP transgenic mice using Chronic Wasting Disease infected brain tissue
Collaborator Contribution Provided the Chronic Wasting Disease infected brain tissue
Impact Wilson R, Plinston C, Hunter N, Casalone C, Corona C, Tagliavini F, Suardi S, Ruggerone M, Moda F, Graziano S, Sbriccoli M, Cardone F, Pocchiari M, Ingrosso L, Baron T, Richt J, Andreoletti O, Simmons M, Lockey R, Manson JC, and Barron RM (2012). Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP. Journal of General Virology 93:1624-1629
Start Year 2007
 
Title Commercial release of novel PrP-specific monoclonal antibodies 
Description A panel of novel monoclonal antibodies against sheep PrP were generated and characterized. Three of these monoclonal antibodies have been licensed to AbD Serotec/BioRad for commercial sale. 
IP Reference  
Protection Protection not required
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed Yes
Impact Publication: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091143
 
Description Hosted female pupil to gain hands on 1 week work experience 'researcher shadowing' in my lab 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact hosted female pupil to gain hands on 1 week work experience 'researcher shadowing' in my lab and visit sparked pupil to successfully apply to study neuroscience at Glasgow university
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2014 Neuroleadership Institute speaker Scottish Local Interest Group Expert Scientist. The neurobiology of love. I wrote, led and delivered the workshop. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2014 Neuroleadership Institute speaker Scottish Local Interest Group Expert Scientist. The neurobiology of love. I wrote, led and delivered the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Aurora Academic mentor (Inspiring leadership in women, Leadership foundation for higher education 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Aurora Academic mentor (Inspiring leadership in women, Leadership foundation for higher education. Coaching and mentor
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description BBC Expert Women 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Expert Women; Field Biologist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Vx8FJg3VXo
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC Radio Scotland Brain Waves 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Radio Scotland Brain Waves Interviewed as Expert Scientist on the neurobiology of love an attachment for a Valentines special.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BBSRC Pool of Experts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact BBSRC media: What it's like to be a BBSRC committee member https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zidU5cl--lo
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BNA Streetfair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact British Neuroscience Association Streetfair, held at the Barbican Centre in London alongside the annual BNA symposium. Activity to communicate work we do on TSE disease, protein misfolding and neurodegeneration to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Big Bang, Schools science competition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was a judge moderator for Big Bang, a schools competition for science projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
 
Description Brain infection study reveals how disease spreads from gut 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release describing our study published in the Journal of Virology: http://jvi.asm.org/content/89/18/9532.long
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2015/prions-040815
 
Description Cambo Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science Festival at Cambo in Fife. Roslin hosted an activity based around the animal brain and brain diseases. Event aimed at school children, with engaging hands-on activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Careers Event for S2 secondfary pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Opportunity for S2 pupils to interact with people working in STEM related jobs. Each group given 3 minutes to question each different STEM Ambassador about how they use science in their work. Aim to interest pupils in science before selecting their subjects for 3rd year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Careers Event for Schoolchildren 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Opportunity for S2 pupils to interact with people working in STEM related jobs. Each group given 3 minutes to question each different STEM Ambassador about how they use science in their work. Aim to interest pupils in science before selecting their subjects for 3rd year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Careers event for S4 secondary pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Careers workshop for S4 pupils. Approx 50 pupils attended and had discussions and questions over biological science careers. The school gave an update to say that pupils were interested and requested information on work experience/placement programs as a result.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2017
 
Description Careers event for S4 secondary pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Opportunity for S4 pupils to interact with professionals across a range of areas including STEM. Aim was to give pupils information on careers in biological research prior to choosing final year subjects and University degrees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description Chromatography demo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Demonstrated chromatography to a group of final year students from a local school
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Designed and delivered Neurobehaviour training day workshop for East Bio DTP Students. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Designed and delivered Neurobehaviour training day workshop for East Bio DTP Students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Dunbar Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We ran a 'What's in our brain' activity which was targeted at school children, and consisted of an introduction to the basic anatomy and functions of different regions of the brain, and also the differences and similarities of the brains of different animal species, as well as a neuroeconomics game about human decision making.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Edinburgh University student Zoological Society Guest lecturer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Edinburgh University student Zoological Society Guest lecturer. Talked about my research "Breeding Birds: Adaptations to reproducing in an unpredictable environment" and women in STEM. Lots of good discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Expert Women's Day Scotland. BBC Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Expert Women's Day Scotland. BBC Scotland Glasgow. Selected from over 500 applications for media training.
The aim of the day was to give an introduction to the world of the media, the opportunity to meet some industry professionals as well as getting some hands on training, both on air and on screen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Expert Women's Day Scotland. BBC Scotland Glasgow. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Expert Women's Day Scotland. BBC Scotland Glasgow. August 2013. Selected from over 500 applications for media training.
The aim of the day was to give an introduction to the world of the media, the opportunity to meet some industry professionals as well as getting some hands on training, both on air and on screen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Farm detectives 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Pupils attended for a school visit to carry out hands-on science workshops. This led to questions and awareness of what jobs are available in science and what they entail
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description GetPROTECTED workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This Edinburgh Neuroscience workshop focuses on the structure and function of the brain and why it is important that you protect your brain from damage. It looks at head protection in the context of cycling and sport. Targeted at primary school children (aged 9-11). 6 workshops have run so far (average class size of 25 pupils per class) at different schools in Edinburgh and Midlothian.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://www.edinburghneuroscience.ed.ac.uk/node/2151
 
Description Gut cells are gatekeepers of infectious brain diseases, study finds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release via the media describing our recent research published in PLoS Pathogens
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/health/2016/161214-pr-gut-cells-gatekeepers-of-infectious-brain-diseases...
 
Description Highland Show, Ingliston. Scotland's biggest agricultural show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presenting posters of research and games to interest youngsters. Answering resulting questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Informa Biopharmaceutical Raw Materials Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk about risks of TSE infection in biological produces and processes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Interconnect Student Network is a networking organisation for women in STEM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Promoting the advancement of women in STEM subjects by championing engagement with Athena SWAN-related activities: Invited speaker, Interconnect March 2014 - Student Network is a networking organisation for women studying science, engineering, technology (SET) and the built environment in Scotland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Interview with the Scientist Magazine - All is not quiet on the Western front 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article can be found here: http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/42826/title/All-Is-Not-Quiet-on-the-Western-Front/

This was in response to the loading control methodology we published for normalisation in Eaton et al. PLoS One and Eaton et al. JoVE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/42826/title/All-Is-Not-Quiet-on-the-Western-Fr...
 
Description Keeping bugs at Bay: a Public Engagement Activity at the Roslin Institute 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This activity aims to teach people how the immune system fights bugs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Keeping bugs at Bay: a Public Engagement Activity at the Royal Highland Show 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This activity aims to teach people how the immune system fights bugs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Kickstart University of Edinburgh Widening Participation Summer School Neuroscience workshop. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Kickstart University of Edinburgh Widening Participation Summer School 2016 Neuroscience workshop. I wrote, led and delivered the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Midlothian Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Midlothian Science festival aims to inspire and engage visitors in science and discovery, showcase current local science, cultivate curiosity, inspire local children to embark on scientific careers. Our group were involved in hosting an exhibit which was displayed at different high schools and libraries. We ran a 'What's in our brain' activity which was targeted at school children, and consisted of an introduction to the basic anatomy and functions of different regions of the brain, and also the differences and similarities of the brains of different animal species, as well as a neuroeconomics game about human decision making. The same activity was also included as part of the Easter Bush Doors open day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Midlothian Science festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science festival to highlight research at the roslin Institute and encourage questions relating to research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Midlothian open doors day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Highlights research at the Institute to the general public including school children
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description Neuroinflammation Keystone Symposium (New Mexico) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations and discussion at international conference enabled wider recognition of our work and has resulted in new collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description North for Science! The biology of birds breeding in the Arctic workshop for school pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A workshop for north American school pupils (14 to 16 year olds) on the breeding biology of birds in the Arctic. Promote STEM
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Participation at Royal Highland Show Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of the TSE research activity of the Roslin Institute/Neurobiology Division. Demonstration of simple experiments to children and adults to elucidate the impact of TSE disease in livestock and human health. Answered general questions regarding Roslin research and scientific careers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2016
 
Description Press Interview on Americal BASE case for Science News (online article) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press interview with Science News on recent identification of a case of atypical BSE in the USA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Prion 2016 chair and invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact invited talk to international meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Protein sheds insight into spread of vCJD to the brain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release describing our study published in PLoS Pathogens: http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002402
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-15988283
 
Description Provided expert opinion for Science magazine (Finland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was a consultant for a science journalist writing for the top science magazine in Finland (readership >325,000). I provided expert opinion in the "Readers' questions, experts answer" - section of Tiede (Science) magazine about how and when the brain knows a women is pregnant. The article was published in April 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Roslin Institute Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Each year we run an activity designed to engage the public and introduce them to the work we do on TSE diseases, protein misfolding and neurodegeneration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description Roslin Institute public open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science games for children. Questions from well informed children and more questions from their parents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Roslin Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Institute Open Day to engage general public in our projects and broader research activities in the Institute. Visitors reported interest in learning about our work and why animals are necessary for some aspects of mediacl research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Roslin Open Days (Midlothian Science Festival) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of "Beastly Brain" exhibit, with games, activities and displays to demonstrate how proteins can misfold to cause brain diseases, such as Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and Alzhemier's Disease, and stimulate interest in neuroscience generally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Routes into Employment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Opportunity for S2 pupils to interact with people working in STEM related jobs. Each group given 3 minutes to question each different STEM Ambassador about how they use science in their work. Aim to interest pupils in science before selecting their subjects for 3rd year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Royal Highland Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Roslin Institute event at the Royal Highland Show. Activities designed to raise awareness of the research performed at Roslin and its impact with the general public, farmers, vets, industry etc.. 3 day event supported by several staff members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Royal Highland Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Roslin Institute event at the Royal Highland Show. Activities designed to raise awareness of the research performed at Roslin and its impact with the general public, farmers, vets, industry etc.. 3 day event supported by several staff members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description School visit to the institute Neurobiology workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School visit to the institute. neurobiology workshop.Discussed careers in science and going to University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Science Insights - Dryden Farm visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 40 secondary school students from 25 schools across the local region visited Dryden Farm (Roslin Institute's farm animal research facility) as part of Science Insights, a week-long programme of talks, tours, and research taster sessions hosted by University of Edinburgh. The visit focussed on the use of animals in research, and I hosted a visit and short presentation/Q&A session on the Roslin Scrapie Flock. Feedback from the students was very positive, and demonstrated that many of them had really engaged with the ethical issues of using animals in experiments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Science Insights Researcher Shadowing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Science Insights is an annual work experience programme (launched in 2014) designed to give 5th year high school pupils from Edinburgh and the Lothian region (from 25 different schools in 2016) a real insight into the work and life of research scientists. 40 high school pupils spent one week of their summer holidays following a varied programme of activities, gaining a real insight into research in biological sciences. Activities with my group involved an introducing participants to brain neuroanatomy, as well as hands-on practical experience of sectioning tissue, basic histology and microscopy. Feedback from the students was extremely positive and they were really engaged .The programme was described as 'interesting, enjoyable, worthwhile, educational, informative, fun, challenging, insightful, fascinating and helpful' by the participants. Several of the participants expressed the programme positively influenced their decision to undertake a science/medical degree at university.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.scienceinsights.ed.ac.uk/
 
Description Science Insights Work Experience Programme. Hosted 2 female school pupils for 'researcher shadowing' in my laboratory. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Science Insights Work Experience Programme (Roslin Institute). Hosted 2 female school pupils for 'researcher shadowing' in my laboratory.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Science museum video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Andrew Gill appeared in a video at the National Science Museum talking about the benefits of being a biochemist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Scientific Writing Workshop at the Young Microbiologists Symposium, Dundee, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The journal PLoS Pathogens invited me to host a scientific writing workshop aimed at junior research scientists such as new post-docs or PhD students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lifesci.dundee.ac.uk/other/yms/
 
Description Symposium organiser/chair at BNA Festival of Neuroscience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised and chaired a symposium at BNA conference - led to revised opinions on topic under discussion among presenters and audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk to Haddington U3A 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk entitled "transmissible Alzheimers?" to a local branch of the U3A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Union University Insight to Roslin Research and Public Engagement Activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Discussion over what science I do and how I got into science, tailored to the students home country (USA)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Video Interview for Science Direct 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Video interview about Quantitative Fluorescent Western Blotting for Protein Analysis in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.selectscience.net/SelectScience-TV/Videos/Quantitative-Fluorescent-Western-Blotting-for-P...