Beneficial effects of dietary bioative peptides and polyphenols on cardiovascular health in humans (Workpackage 2)

Lead Research Organisation: Quadram Institute Bioscience
Department Name: Contracts

Abstract

The main objective of the BACCHUS project is to develop tools and resources that will facilitate the generation of robust and exploitable scientific evidence that can be used to support claims of a cause and effect relationship between consumption of bioactive peptides and polyphenols, and beneficial physiological effects related to cardiovascular health in humans. To achieve this, the BACCHUS consortium has assembled 12 leading Research & Technological centres and 16 SMEs. BACCHUS thus contains SMEs directly involved in developing food products and pursuing health claims, experts in health claims legislation and the EFSA review process, and academic and industry partners who provide high quality food and health research that can underpin health claims. Existing SME-developed products that have clear potential for obtaining favourable opinions for health claims have been selected as test cases for study. These have been aligned with a series of work-packages each of which addresses key aspects of the EFSA health claim evaluation process (legislation and dossiers; product/bioactive characterisation; habitual intakes; bioavailability; mechanisms and biomarkers; clinical trials evidence of health benefit) that will deliver tools, processes and high quality original science. Scientific results and best practice guidelines will be made publically available and thus support future claims for industry. The scope and completeness of the existing bioactive database (eBASIS) that includes both compositional and biological effects data will be extended and developed as a sustainable tool with various training materials. All outcomes will be disseminated broadly by direct engagement with SMEs via an existing European SME association, with stakeholders via seminars, newsletters and press releases, as well as through traditional scientific routes (high quality publications, and conference presentations).

Publications

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Edwards, Rebecca L. (2014) Inhibition of VEGF Signaling by Polyphenols in Relation to Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease in Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research, Vol 4

 
Description 1. We have discovered that ellagic acid, a polyphenol found in pomegranates and other fruits and nuts, is a potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectively inhibits its ability to cause signalling through its receptor, VEGF receptor-2. Furthermore, we have tested the ability of the major human metabolites of ellagic acid to inhibit VEGF signalling and shown that as they are more and more metabolised by the gut bacteria, their effectiveness is diminished, but not completely lost. We are currently testing the anti-VEGF activity of ellagic acid in vivo and using an ex vivo model.

2. Specific polyphenols such as EGCG from green tea and procyanidins from apples activate a series of proteins involved in the production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilatory molecule produced in the vascular tissue. This effect occurs independently of the VEGF signalling pathway.

3. We have developed a new method for quantifying procyanidins ('tannins') in apples and apple extracts. Procyanidins are polyphenols that are responsible for the astringency of foods like cocoa and dark chocolate, tea, cider apples and red wine. The method allows quantification of each individual procyanidin oligomer (each oligomer is a different size, containing two or three or four etc... catechin units). The method was developed by IFR and validated by an inter-laboratory ring-test using eight laboratories across Europe.
Exploitation Route 1. Our research on VEGF could be exploited by functional food manufacturers that are interested in developing functional foods with anti-VEGF activities. The research may also be of interest to the pharmaceutical industry which could develop these polyphenols as adjuncts to existing anti-VEGF therapies.

2. The procyanidin method is a considerable improvement on existing methods of analysis and has been validated and would be expected to become the method of choice for laboratories wishing to quantify apple procyanidins.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://www.bacchus-fp7.eu/
 
Description 1. The research has extended the scope of and the number of datasets for bioactive composition of foods and the biological activities of food bioactives in the eBASIS online database. There are now additional data for bioactive peptides, pomegranate / orange / Aronia / apple polyphenols, and additional evidence of biological activity. 3. we have developed two new methods for quantifying bioactives in foods. Specifically, we have developed a unique method for the accurate quantification of ellagitannins in foods such as pomegranate, raspberry, walnuts, etc... and for procyanidins in apples and validated both methods via ring-tests involving several European laboratories. Both methods have been published. 2. The project has developed a set of tools that can be used to support the preparation of dossiers for health claims submissions in Europe. This includes a Best Practice Guide, a health claims dossier template, example health claims to be used as discussion tools, and a unique online intake modelling tool that is useful for understanding effective bioactive doses in the context of population intakes.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Impact on sustainability, shelf-life and nutritional value by vertically farmed leafy greens via a new local supply chain
Amount € 729,415 (EUR)
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2020 
End 12/2020
 
Description Bespoke synthesis of polyphenol human metabolites 
Organisation University of Barcelona
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We used synthetic organic chemistry routes to make phase-2 conjugates of various dietary flavonoids and phenolic acids and supplied these to various collaborators for testing of biological activity. These compounds are not available commercially and for many of them they are unique to our lab.
Collaborator Contribution Partners have used these physiologically relevant metabolites to test their biological activity using in vitro models such as cultured mammalian cell models, etc... They have also used them as authentic standards to facilitate identification and quantification of metabolites in human and animal tissues including blood, urine and faeces.
Impact Petri N, Tannergen C, Holst B, Mellon FA, Bao Y, Plumb GW, Bacon J, O'Leary KA, Kroon PA, Knutson L, Forsell P, Eriksson T, Lennernas H & Williamson G (2003) "Absorption/metabolism of sulforaphane and quercetin, and regulation of phase II enzymes, in human jejenum in vivo". Drug Metab Disposition 31, 805-813.Nemeth K, Plumb GW, Berrin J-G, Juge N, Jacob R, Naim HY, Williamson G, Swallow DM, Kroon PA (2003) "Deglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell ? glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides in humans. Eur J Nutr 42, 29-42.Kroon PA, Clifford MN, Crozier A, Day AJ, Donovan JL, Manach C & Williamson G (2004). How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr 80, 15-21. Dupont MS, Day AJ, Bennett RN, Mellon FA & Kroon PA (2004) "Absorption of kaempferol-3-glucuronide from endive in humans". Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 947-954. Needs PW, Kroon PA (2006) Convenient syntheses of metabolically important quercetin glucuronides and sulfates. Tetrahedron 62, 6862-6868. Davis BD, Needs PW, Kroon PA & Brodbelt (2006) Identification of isomeric flavonoid glucuronides in urine and plasma by metal complexation and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom 41, 911-920. Tribolo S, Lodi F, Connor C, Suri S, Wilson V, Taylor M, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hughes DA (2008). Comparative effects of quercetin and its predominant human metabolites on adhesion molecule expression in activated human vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis 197, 50-56. Loke WM, Proudfoot JM, Stewart S, McKinley AJ, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hodgson JM & Croft KD (2008). Metabolic transformation has a profound effect on anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids such as quercetin: Lack of association between antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Biochem Pharmacol 75, 1045-1053. Loke WM, Proudfoot JM, Stewart S, McKinley AJ, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hodgson JM & Croft KD (2008). Quercetin and its in vivo metabolites inhibit neutrophil-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. J Agric Food Chem 56, 3609-3615. Hollands W, Brett GM, Radreau P, Saha S, Teucher B, Bennett, RN & Kroon PA (2008). Processing blackcurrants dramatically reduces the content and does not enhance the urinary yield of anthocyanins in human subjects. Food Chem 108, 869-878. Suri S, Taylor MA, Verity A, Tribolo S, Kroon PA, Hughes DA, Wilson VG (2008). A comparative study of the effects of quercetin and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites on human neutrophil function in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol 76, 645-673. Barrington R, Williamson G, Bennett RN, Davis BD, Brodbelt JS, Kroon PA (2009). Absorption, conjugation and efflux of the flavonoids, kaempferol and galangin, using the intestinal CaCo-2/TC7 cell model. J Functional Foods 1, 74-97. Brett GM, Hollands W, Needs PW, Teucher B, Dainty JR, Bennett RN, Davis BD, Brodbelt JS & Kroon PA (2009). Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion. Br J Nutr 101, 664-675. http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A44rP6ra (Personal author link) Winterbone MS, Tribolo S, Needs PW, Kroon PA & Hughes DA (2009). Physiologically relevant metabolites of quercetin have no effect on adhesion molecule or chemokine expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 202, 431-438. Kay CD, Kroon PA, Cassidy A (2009). The bioactivity of dietary anthocyanins is likely to be mediated by their degradation products. Mol Nutr Food Res 53 Suppl 1:S92-101. Lodi F, Jiménez R, Moreno L, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Hughes DA, Santos-Buelga C, González-Paramás A, Cogolludo A, Duarte J, Perez-Vizcaino F (2009). Glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites of the flavonoid quercetin prevent endothelial dysfunction but lack direct vasodilator effects in rat aorta. Atherosclerosis 204, 34-39. Radreau P, Rhodes JD, Mithen RF, Kroon PA, Sanderson J (2009) Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway activation by quercetin in human lens epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res 89, 995-1002. Curtis PJ, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Walls R, Jenkins G, Kay CD, Cassidy A (2009). Cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers and liver function are not altered following twelve week ingestion of an elderberry extract rich in anthocyanins. J Nutr 139, 2266-2271. Soler A, Romero MP, Saha S, Furniss CSM, Kroon PA, Motilva MJ (2010). Digestion stability and evaluation of the metabolism and transport of olive oil phenols in human small intestinal epithelial Caco2/TC7 cell line. Food Chem, 119, 703-714. Suri S, Liu XH, Rayment S, Hughes DA, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Taylor MA, Tribolo S, Wilson VG (2010). Quercetin and its major metabolites selectively modulate cyclic GMP-dependent relaxations and associated tolerance in pig isolated coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol 159, 566-575. Bartholomé R, Haenen G, Hollman PCH, Bast A, Dagnelie PC, Roos D, Keijer J, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Arts ICW (2010). Deconjugation kinetics of glucuronidated phase-II flavonoid metabolites by ß-glucuronidase from neutrophils. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 25, 379-387. Pereira-Caro G, Mateos R, Saha S, Madrona A, Espartero JL, Bravo L, Kroon PA (2010). Trans-epithelial transport and metabolism of new lipopohilic ether derivatives of hydroxytyrosol by enterocyte-like CaCo-2/TC7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 58, 11501-11509. Al-Shalmani S, Suri S, Hughes DA, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Taylor MA, Tribolo S, Wilson VG (2011). Quercetin and its principal metabolites, but not myricetin, oppose LPS-induced hyporesponsiveness of the porcine isolated coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol 162, 1485-1497. Curtis PJ, Sampson M, Potter J, Dhatariya K, Kroon PA, Cassidy A (2012). Chronic ingestion of flavan-3-ols and isoflavones improves insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein status and attenuates estimated 10-year CVD risk in medicated postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a one year double-blind randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 35, 226-232. Saha S, Hollands W, Needs PW, Ostertag LM, de Roos B, Duthie GG, Kroon PA (2012). Human O-sulfated metabolites of (-)-epicatechin and methyl-(-)-epicatechin are poor substrates for commercial aryl-sulfatases: Implications for studies concerned with quantifying epicatechin bioavailability. Pharmacol Res 65, 592-602. Lodi F, Tribolo S, Winterbone MS, Needs PW, Hughes DA, Kroon PA (2012). Human quercetin conjugated metabolites attenuate TNF-a-induced changes in vasomodulatory molecules in a HUASMCs/HUVECs co-culture model. Planta Med 78, 1571-1573. Hollands WJ, Hart D, Dainty JR, Hasselwander O, Tiihonen K, Wood R, Kroon PA (2013). Bioavailability of epicatechin and effects on nitric oxide metabolites of an apple flavanol-rich extract supplemented beverage compared to a whole apple puree: a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 1209-1217. Tribolo S, Lodi F, Winterbone MS, Saha S, Needs PW, Suri S, Taylor MA, Wilson VG, Walls R, Cassidy A, Hughes DA, Kroon PA (2013). Human metabolic transformation of quercetin blocks its capacity to decrease eNOS expression and endothelin-1 secretion by human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem 61, 8589-8596. Czank C, Cassidy A, Zhang Q, Morrison DJ, Preston T, Kroon PA, Botting NP, Kay CD (2013). Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a 13C-tracer study. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 995-1003. Konic-Ristic A, Srdic-Rajica T, Kardum N, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Hayran O, Boyko N, Jorjadze M, Glibetic M (2013). Effects of bioactive-rich extracts of pomegranate, persimmon, nettle, dill, kale and Sideritis and isolated bioactives on arachidonic acid induced markers of platelet activation and platelet-leucocyte aggregation. J Sci Food Agric 93, 3581-3587. De Ferrars RM, Czank C, Zhang Q, Botting NP, Kroon PA, Cassidy A, Kay CD (2014). The pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and their metabolites in humans. Br J Pharmacol 171, 3268-3282. De Ferrars R, Czank C, Saha S, Needs PW, Zhang Q, Raheem KS, Kroon PA, Kay CD (2014). Methods for isolating, identifying and quantifying anthocyanin metabolites in clinical samples. Anal Chem 86, 10052-10058. Danesi F, Kroon PA, Saha S, de Biase D, D'Antuono LF, Bordoni A (2014). Mixed pro- and anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate polyphenols in cultured cells. Int J Mol Sci 15, 19458-19471. Barrington RD, Needs PW, Williamson G, Kroon PA. MK571 inhibits phase-2 conjugation of flavonols by Caco-2/TC7 cells, but does not specifically inhibit their apical efflux. Biochem Pharmacol 95, 193-200. Cerezo AB, Winterbone MS, Moyle CW, Needs PW, Kroon PA (2015). Molecular structure-function relationship of dietary polyphenols for inhibiting VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 activity. Mol Nutr Food Res. 59, 2119-2131. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500407. Gornas P, Redenkovs V, Pugacheva I, Soliven A, Needs PW, Kroon PA (2016). Varied composition of tocochromanols in different types of bran: Rye, wheat, oat, spelt, buckwheat, corn and rice. Int J Food Properties 19, 1757-1764. Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Kroon PA, Philo M, Mensink M, Kromhout D, Hollman PCH (2016). Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomised, crossover study. Mol Nutr Food Res 60, 2379-2386. Poór M, Boda G, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Lemli B, Bencsik T (2017). Interaction of quercetin and its metabolites with warfarin: displacement of warfarin from serum albumin and inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Biomed Pharmacol 88, 574-581. Hollands WJ*, Voorspoels S*, Jacobs G, Aaby K, Meisland A, Garcia-Villalbad R, Tomas-Barberan F, Piskula MJ, Mawson D, Vovk I, Needs PW and Kroon PA (2017). Development, validation and evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins in apple extracts. J Chromatogr A 1495, 46-56. Van Rymenant E, Grootaert C, Beerens K, Needs P, Kroon P, Kerimi A, Williamson G, García Villalba R, González-Sarrías A, Tomas-Barberan F, Van Camp J, Van de Voorde J. Vasorelaxant activity of twenty-one physiologically relevant (poly)phenolic metabolites on isolated mouse arteries. Mol Nutr Food Res 13, 4331-4335. Perez-Moral N, Saha S, Philo M, Hart DJ, Winterbone MS, Hollands WJ, Spurr M, Bows J, vander Velpen V, Kroon PA*, Curtis PJC (2018) Comparative bio-accessibility, bioavailability and bioequivalence of quercetin, apigenin, glucoraphanin and carotenoids from freeze-dried vegetables incorporated into a baked snack versus minimally processed vegetables: Evidence from in vitro models and a human bioavailability study. J Func Food 48, 410-419. Poor M, Boda G, Kunsagi-Mate S, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Lemli B (2018). Fluorescence spectroscopic evaluation of the interactions of quercetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin-3 '-sulfate with different albumins. J Luminescence 194, 156-163. Wu Q, Kroon PA, Shao HJ, Needs PW, Yang XB (2018). Differential effects of quercetin and two of its derivatives, isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide, in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 66, 7181-7189. Wu Q, Needs PW, Lu YL, Kroon PA, Ren DY, Yang XB (2018). Different antitumor effects of quercetin, quercetin-3'-sulfate and quercetin-3-glucuronide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Food Func 9, 1736-1746.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Bespoke synthesis of polyphenol human metabolites 
Organisation University of Milan
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We used synthetic organic chemistry routes to make phase-2 conjugates of various dietary flavonoids and phenolic acids and supplied these to various collaborators for testing of biological activity. These compounds are not available commercially and for many of them they are unique to our lab.
Collaborator Contribution Partners have used these physiologically relevant metabolites to test their biological activity using in vitro models such as cultured mammalian cell models, etc... They have also used them as authentic standards to facilitate identification and quantification of metabolites in human and animal tissues including blood, urine and faeces.
Impact Petri N, Tannergen C, Holst B, Mellon FA, Bao Y, Plumb GW, Bacon J, O'Leary KA, Kroon PA, Knutson L, Forsell P, Eriksson T, Lennernas H & Williamson G (2003) "Absorption/metabolism of sulforaphane and quercetin, and regulation of phase II enzymes, in human jejenum in vivo". Drug Metab Disposition 31, 805-813.Nemeth K, Plumb GW, Berrin J-G, Juge N, Jacob R, Naim HY, Williamson G, Swallow DM, Kroon PA (2003) "Deglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell ? glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides in humans. Eur J Nutr 42, 29-42.Kroon PA, Clifford MN, Crozier A, Day AJ, Donovan JL, Manach C & Williamson G (2004). How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr 80, 15-21. Dupont MS, Day AJ, Bennett RN, Mellon FA & Kroon PA (2004) "Absorption of kaempferol-3-glucuronide from endive in humans". Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 947-954. Needs PW, Kroon PA (2006) Convenient syntheses of metabolically important quercetin glucuronides and sulfates. Tetrahedron 62, 6862-6868. Davis BD, Needs PW, Kroon PA & Brodbelt (2006) Identification of isomeric flavonoid glucuronides in urine and plasma by metal complexation and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom 41, 911-920. Tribolo S, Lodi F, Connor C, Suri S, Wilson V, Taylor M, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hughes DA (2008). Comparative effects of quercetin and its predominant human metabolites on adhesion molecule expression in activated human vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis 197, 50-56. Loke WM, Proudfoot JM, Stewart S, McKinley AJ, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hodgson JM & Croft KD (2008). Metabolic transformation has a profound effect on anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids such as quercetin: Lack of association between antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Biochem Pharmacol 75, 1045-1053. Loke WM, Proudfoot JM, Stewart S, McKinley AJ, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hodgson JM & Croft KD (2008). Quercetin and its in vivo metabolites inhibit neutrophil-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. J Agric Food Chem 56, 3609-3615. Hollands W, Brett GM, Radreau P, Saha S, Teucher B, Bennett, RN & Kroon PA (2008). Processing blackcurrants dramatically reduces the content and does not enhance the urinary yield of anthocyanins in human subjects. Food Chem 108, 869-878. Suri S, Taylor MA, Verity A, Tribolo S, Kroon PA, Hughes DA, Wilson VG (2008). A comparative study of the effects of quercetin and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites on human neutrophil function in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol 76, 645-673. Barrington R, Williamson G, Bennett RN, Davis BD, Brodbelt JS, Kroon PA (2009). Absorption, conjugation and efflux of the flavonoids, kaempferol and galangin, using the intestinal CaCo-2/TC7 cell model. J Functional Foods 1, 74-97. Brett GM, Hollands W, Needs PW, Teucher B, Dainty JR, Bennett RN, Davis BD, Brodbelt JS & Kroon PA (2009). Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion. Br J Nutr 101, 664-675. http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A44rP6ra (Personal author link) Winterbone MS, Tribolo S, Needs PW, Kroon PA & Hughes DA (2009). Physiologically relevant metabolites of quercetin have no effect on adhesion molecule or chemokine expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 202, 431-438. Kay CD, Kroon PA, Cassidy A (2009). The bioactivity of dietary anthocyanins is likely to be mediated by their degradation products. Mol Nutr Food Res 53 Suppl 1:S92-101. Lodi F, Jiménez R, Moreno L, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Hughes DA, Santos-Buelga C, González-Paramás A, Cogolludo A, Duarte J, Perez-Vizcaino F (2009). Glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites of the flavonoid quercetin prevent endothelial dysfunction but lack direct vasodilator effects in rat aorta. Atherosclerosis 204, 34-39. Radreau P, Rhodes JD, Mithen RF, Kroon PA, Sanderson J (2009) Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway activation by quercetin in human lens epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res 89, 995-1002. Curtis PJ, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Walls R, Jenkins G, Kay CD, Cassidy A (2009). Cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers and liver function are not altered following twelve week ingestion of an elderberry extract rich in anthocyanins. J Nutr 139, 2266-2271. Soler A, Romero MP, Saha S, Furniss CSM, Kroon PA, Motilva MJ (2010). Digestion stability and evaluation of the metabolism and transport of olive oil phenols in human small intestinal epithelial Caco2/TC7 cell line. Food Chem, 119, 703-714. Suri S, Liu XH, Rayment S, Hughes DA, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Taylor MA, Tribolo S, Wilson VG (2010). Quercetin and its major metabolites selectively modulate cyclic GMP-dependent relaxations and associated tolerance in pig isolated coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol 159, 566-575. Bartholomé R, Haenen G, Hollman PCH, Bast A, Dagnelie PC, Roos D, Keijer J, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Arts ICW (2010). Deconjugation kinetics of glucuronidated phase-II flavonoid metabolites by ß-glucuronidase from neutrophils. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 25, 379-387. Pereira-Caro G, Mateos R, Saha S, Madrona A, Espartero JL, Bravo L, Kroon PA (2010). Trans-epithelial transport and metabolism of new lipopohilic ether derivatives of hydroxytyrosol by enterocyte-like CaCo-2/TC7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 58, 11501-11509. Al-Shalmani S, Suri S, Hughes DA, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Taylor MA, Tribolo S, Wilson VG (2011). Quercetin and its principal metabolites, but not myricetin, oppose LPS-induced hyporesponsiveness of the porcine isolated coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol 162, 1485-1497. Curtis PJ, Sampson M, Potter J, Dhatariya K, Kroon PA, Cassidy A (2012). Chronic ingestion of flavan-3-ols and isoflavones improves insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein status and attenuates estimated 10-year CVD risk in medicated postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a one year double-blind randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 35, 226-232. Saha S, Hollands W, Needs PW, Ostertag LM, de Roos B, Duthie GG, Kroon PA (2012). Human O-sulfated metabolites of (-)-epicatechin and methyl-(-)-epicatechin are poor substrates for commercial aryl-sulfatases: Implications for studies concerned with quantifying epicatechin bioavailability. Pharmacol Res 65, 592-602. Lodi F, Tribolo S, Winterbone MS, Needs PW, Hughes DA, Kroon PA (2012). Human quercetin conjugated metabolites attenuate TNF-a-induced changes in vasomodulatory molecules in a HUASMCs/HUVECs co-culture model. Planta Med 78, 1571-1573. Hollands WJ, Hart D, Dainty JR, Hasselwander O, Tiihonen K, Wood R, Kroon PA (2013). Bioavailability of epicatechin and effects on nitric oxide metabolites of an apple flavanol-rich extract supplemented beverage compared to a whole apple puree: a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 1209-1217. Tribolo S, Lodi F, Winterbone MS, Saha S, Needs PW, Suri S, Taylor MA, Wilson VG, Walls R, Cassidy A, Hughes DA, Kroon PA (2013). Human metabolic transformation of quercetin blocks its capacity to decrease eNOS expression and endothelin-1 secretion by human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem 61, 8589-8596. Czank C, Cassidy A, Zhang Q, Morrison DJ, Preston T, Kroon PA, Botting NP, Kay CD (2013). Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a 13C-tracer study. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 995-1003. Konic-Ristic A, Srdic-Rajica T, Kardum N, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Hayran O, Boyko N, Jorjadze M, Glibetic M (2013). Effects of bioactive-rich extracts of pomegranate, persimmon, nettle, dill, kale and Sideritis and isolated bioactives on arachidonic acid induced markers of platelet activation and platelet-leucocyte aggregation. J Sci Food Agric 93, 3581-3587. De Ferrars RM, Czank C, Zhang Q, Botting NP, Kroon PA, Cassidy A, Kay CD (2014). The pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and their metabolites in humans. Br J Pharmacol 171, 3268-3282. De Ferrars R, Czank C, Saha S, Needs PW, Zhang Q, Raheem KS, Kroon PA, Kay CD (2014). Methods for isolating, identifying and quantifying anthocyanin metabolites in clinical samples. Anal Chem 86, 10052-10058. Danesi F, Kroon PA, Saha S, de Biase D, D'Antuono LF, Bordoni A (2014). Mixed pro- and anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate polyphenols in cultured cells. Int J Mol Sci 15, 19458-19471. Barrington RD, Needs PW, Williamson G, Kroon PA. MK571 inhibits phase-2 conjugation of flavonols by Caco-2/TC7 cells, but does not specifically inhibit their apical efflux. Biochem Pharmacol 95, 193-200. Cerezo AB, Winterbone MS, Moyle CW, Needs PW, Kroon PA (2015). Molecular structure-function relationship of dietary polyphenols for inhibiting VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 activity. Mol Nutr Food Res. 59, 2119-2131. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500407. Gornas P, Redenkovs V, Pugacheva I, Soliven A, Needs PW, Kroon PA (2016). Varied composition of tocochromanols in different types of bran: Rye, wheat, oat, spelt, buckwheat, corn and rice. Int J Food Properties 19, 1757-1764. Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Kroon PA, Philo M, Mensink M, Kromhout D, Hollman PCH (2016). Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomised, crossover study. Mol Nutr Food Res 60, 2379-2386. Poór M, Boda G, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Lemli B, Bencsik T (2017). Interaction of quercetin and its metabolites with warfarin: displacement of warfarin from serum albumin and inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Biomed Pharmacol 88, 574-581. Hollands WJ*, Voorspoels S*, Jacobs G, Aaby K, Meisland A, Garcia-Villalbad R, Tomas-Barberan F, Piskula MJ, Mawson D, Vovk I, Needs PW and Kroon PA (2017). Development, validation and evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins in apple extracts. J Chromatogr A 1495, 46-56. Van Rymenant E, Grootaert C, Beerens K, Needs P, Kroon P, Kerimi A, Williamson G, García Villalba R, González-Sarrías A, Tomas-Barberan F, Van Camp J, Van de Voorde J. Vasorelaxant activity of twenty-one physiologically relevant (poly)phenolic metabolites on isolated mouse arteries. Mol Nutr Food Res 13, 4331-4335. Perez-Moral N, Saha S, Philo M, Hart DJ, Winterbone MS, Hollands WJ, Spurr M, Bows J, vander Velpen V, Kroon PA*, Curtis PJC (2018) Comparative bio-accessibility, bioavailability and bioequivalence of quercetin, apigenin, glucoraphanin and carotenoids from freeze-dried vegetables incorporated into a baked snack versus minimally processed vegetables: Evidence from in vitro models and a human bioavailability study. J Func Food 48, 410-419. Poor M, Boda G, Kunsagi-Mate S, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Lemli B (2018). Fluorescence spectroscopic evaluation of the interactions of quercetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin-3 '-sulfate with different albumins. J Luminescence 194, 156-163. Wu Q, Kroon PA, Shao HJ, Needs PW, Yang XB (2018). Differential effects of quercetin and two of its derivatives, isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide, in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 66, 7181-7189. Wu Q, Needs PW, Lu YL, Kroon PA, Ren DY, Yang XB (2018). Different antitumor effects of quercetin, quercetin-3'-sulfate and quercetin-3-glucuronide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Food Func 9, 1736-1746.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Bespoke synthesis of polyphenol human metabolites 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We used synthetic organic chemistry routes to make phase-2 conjugates of various dietary flavonoids and phenolic acids and supplied these to various collaborators for testing of biological activity. These compounds are not available commercially and for many of them they are unique to our lab.
Collaborator Contribution Partners have used these physiologically relevant metabolites to test their biological activity using in vitro models such as cultured mammalian cell models, etc... They have also used them as authentic standards to facilitate identification and quantification of metabolites in human and animal tissues including blood, urine and faeces.
Impact Petri N, Tannergen C, Holst B, Mellon FA, Bao Y, Plumb GW, Bacon J, O'Leary KA, Kroon PA, Knutson L, Forsell P, Eriksson T, Lennernas H & Williamson G (2003) "Absorption/metabolism of sulforaphane and quercetin, and regulation of phase II enzymes, in human jejenum in vivo". Drug Metab Disposition 31, 805-813.Nemeth K, Plumb GW, Berrin J-G, Juge N, Jacob R, Naim HY, Williamson G, Swallow DM, Kroon PA (2003) "Deglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell ? glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides in humans. Eur J Nutr 42, 29-42.Kroon PA, Clifford MN, Crozier A, Day AJ, Donovan JL, Manach C & Williamson G (2004). How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr 80, 15-21. Dupont MS, Day AJ, Bennett RN, Mellon FA & Kroon PA (2004) "Absorption of kaempferol-3-glucuronide from endive in humans". Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 947-954. Needs PW, Kroon PA (2006) Convenient syntheses of metabolically important quercetin glucuronides and sulfates. Tetrahedron 62, 6862-6868. Davis BD, Needs PW, Kroon PA & Brodbelt (2006) Identification of isomeric flavonoid glucuronides in urine and plasma by metal complexation and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom 41, 911-920. Tribolo S, Lodi F, Connor C, Suri S, Wilson V, Taylor M, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hughes DA (2008). Comparative effects of quercetin and its predominant human metabolites on adhesion molecule expression in activated human vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis 197, 50-56. Loke WM, Proudfoot JM, Stewart S, McKinley AJ, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hodgson JM & Croft KD (2008). Metabolic transformation has a profound effect on anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids such as quercetin: Lack of association between antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Biochem Pharmacol 75, 1045-1053. Loke WM, Proudfoot JM, Stewart S, McKinley AJ, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hodgson JM & Croft KD (2008). Quercetin and its in vivo metabolites inhibit neutrophil-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. J Agric Food Chem 56, 3609-3615. Hollands W, Brett GM, Radreau P, Saha S, Teucher B, Bennett, RN & Kroon PA (2008). Processing blackcurrants dramatically reduces the content and does not enhance the urinary yield of anthocyanins in human subjects. Food Chem 108, 869-878. Suri S, Taylor MA, Verity A, Tribolo S, Kroon PA, Hughes DA, Wilson VG (2008). A comparative study of the effects of quercetin and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites on human neutrophil function in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol 76, 645-673. Barrington R, Williamson G, Bennett RN, Davis BD, Brodbelt JS, Kroon PA (2009). Absorption, conjugation and efflux of the flavonoids, kaempferol and galangin, using the intestinal CaCo-2/TC7 cell model. J Functional Foods 1, 74-97. Brett GM, Hollands W, Needs PW, Teucher B, Dainty JR, Bennett RN, Davis BD, Brodbelt JS & Kroon PA (2009). Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion. Br J Nutr 101, 664-675. http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A44rP6ra (Personal author link) Winterbone MS, Tribolo S, Needs PW, Kroon PA & Hughes DA (2009). Physiologically relevant metabolites of quercetin have no effect on adhesion molecule or chemokine expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 202, 431-438. Kay CD, Kroon PA, Cassidy A (2009). The bioactivity of dietary anthocyanins is likely to be mediated by their degradation products. Mol Nutr Food Res 53 Suppl 1:S92-101. Lodi F, Jiménez R, Moreno L, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Hughes DA, Santos-Buelga C, González-Paramás A, Cogolludo A, Duarte J, Perez-Vizcaino F (2009). Glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites of the flavonoid quercetin prevent endothelial dysfunction but lack direct vasodilator effects in rat aorta. Atherosclerosis 204, 34-39. Radreau P, Rhodes JD, Mithen RF, Kroon PA, Sanderson J (2009) Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway activation by quercetin in human lens epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res 89, 995-1002. Curtis PJ, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Walls R, Jenkins G, Kay CD, Cassidy A (2009). Cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers and liver function are not altered following twelve week ingestion of an elderberry extract rich in anthocyanins. J Nutr 139, 2266-2271. Soler A, Romero MP, Saha S, Furniss CSM, Kroon PA, Motilva MJ (2010). Digestion stability and evaluation of the metabolism and transport of olive oil phenols in human small intestinal epithelial Caco2/TC7 cell line. Food Chem, 119, 703-714. Suri S, Liu XH, Rayment S, Hughes DA, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Taylor MA, Tribolo S, Wilson VG (2010). Quercetin and its major metabolites selectively modulate cyclic GMP-dependent relaxations and associated tolerance in pig isolated coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol 159, 566-575. Bartholomé R, Haenen G, Hollman PCH, Bast A, Dagnelie PC, Roos D, Keijer J, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Arts ICW (2010). Deconjugation kinetics of glucuronidated phase-II flavonoid metabolites by ß-glucuronidase from neutrophils. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 25, 379-387. Pereira-Caro G, Mateos R, Saha S, Madrona A, Espartero JL, Bravo L, Kroon PA (2010). Trans-epithelial transport and metabolism of new lipopohilic ether derivatives of hydroxytyrosol by enterocyte-like CaCo-2/TC7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 58, 11501-11509. Al-Shalmani S, Suri S, Hughes DA, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Taylor MA, Tribolo S, Wilson VG (2011). Quercetin and its principal metabolites, but not myricetin, oppose LPS-induced hyporesponsiveness of the porcine isolated coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol 162, 1485-1497. Curtis PJ, Sampson M, Potter J, Dhatariya K, Kroon PA, Cassidy A (2012). Chronic ingestion of flavan-3-ols and isoflavones improves insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein status and attenuates estimated 10-year CVD risk in medicated postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a one year double-blind randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 35, 226-232. Saha S, Hollands W, Needs PW, Ostertag LM, de Roos B, Duthie GG, Kroon PA (2012). Human O-sulfated metabolites of (-)-epicatechin and methyl-(-)-epicatechin are poor substrates for commercial aryl-sulfatases: Implications for studies concerned with quantifying epicatechin bioavailability. Pharmacol Res 65, 592-602. Lodi F, Tribolo S, Winterbone MS, Needs PW, Hughes DA, Kroon PA (2012). Human quercetin conjugated metabolites attenuate TNF-a-induced changes in vasomodulatory molecules in a HUASMCs/HUVECs co-culture model. Planta Med 78, 1571-1573. Hollands WJ, Hart D, Dainty JR, Hasselwander O, Tiihonen K, Wood R, Kroon PA (2013). Bioavailability of epicatechin and effects on nitric oxide metabolites of an apple flavanol-rich extract supplemented beverage compared to a whole apple puree: a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 1209-1217. Tribolo S, Lodi F, Winterbone MS, Saha S, Needs PW, Suri S, Taylor MA, Wilson VG, Walls R, Cassidy A, Hughes DA, Kroon PA (2013). Human metabolic transformation of quercetin blocks its capacity to decrease eNOS expression and endothelin-1 secretion by human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem 61, 8589-8596. Czank C, Cassidy A, Zhang Q, Morrison DJ, Preston T, Kroon PA, Botting NP, Kay CD (2013). Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a 13C-tracer study. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 995-1003. Konic-Ristic A, Srdic-Rajica T, Kardum N, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Hayran O, Boyko N, Jorjadze M, Glibetic M (2013). Effects of bioactive-rich extracts of pomegranate, persimmon, nettle, dill, kale and Sideritis and isolated bioactives on arachidonic acid induced markers of platelet activation and platelet-leucocyte aggregation. J Sci Food Agric 93, 3581-3587. De Ferrars RM, Czank C, Zhang Q, Botting NP, Kroon PA, Cassidy A, Kay CD (2014). The pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and their metabolites in humans. Br J Pharmacol 171, 3268-3282. De Ferrars R, Czank C, Saha S, Needs PW, Zhang Q, Raheem KS, Kroon PA, Kay CD (2014). Methods for isolating, identifying and quantifying anthocyanin metabolites in clinical samples. Anal Chem 86, 10052-10058. Danesi F, Kroon PA, Saha S, de Biase D, D'Antuono LF, Bordoni A (2014). Mixed pro- and anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate polyphenols in cultured cells. Int J Mol Sci 15, 19458-19471. Barrington RD, Needs PW, Williamson G, Kroon PA. MK571 inhibits phase-2 conjugation of flavonols by Caco-2/TC7 cells, but does not specifically inhibit their apical efflux. Biochem Pharmacol 95, 193-200. Cerezo AB, Winterbone MS, Moyle CW, Needs PW, Kroon PA (2015). Molecular structure-function relationship of dietary polyphenols for inhibiting VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 activity. Mol Nutr Food Res. 59, 2119-2131. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500407. Gornas P, Redenkovs V, Pugacheva I, Soliven A, Needs PW, Kroon PA (2016). Varied composition of tocochromanols in different types of bran: Rye, wheat, oat, spelt, buckwheat, corn and rice. Int J Food Properties 19, 1757-1764. Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Kroon PA, Philo M, Mensink M, Kromhout D, Hollman PCH (2016). Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomised, crossover study. Mol Nutr Food Res 60, 2379-2386. Poór M, Boda G, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Lemli B, Bencsik T (2017). Interaction of quercetin and its metabolites with warfarin: displacement of warfarin from serum albumin and inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Biomed Pharmacol 88, 574-581. Hollands WJ*, Voorspoels S*, Jacobs G, Aaby K, Meisland A, Garcia-Villalbad R, Tomas-Barberan F, Piskula MJ, Mawson D, Vovk I, Needs PW and Kroon PA (2017). Development, validation and evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins in apple extracts. J Chromatogr A 1495, 46-56. Van Rymenant E, Grootaert C, Beerens K, Needs P, Kroon P, Kerimi A, Williamson G, García Villalba R, González-Sarrías A, Tomas-Barberan F, Van Camp J, Van de Voorde J. Vasorelaxant activity of twenty-one physiologically relevant (poly)phenolic metabolites on isolated mouse arteries. Mol Nutr Food Res 13, 4331-4335. Perez-Moral N, Saha S, Philo M, Hart DJ, Winterbone MS, Hollands WJ, Spurr M, Bows J, vander Velpen V, Kroon PA*, Curtis PJC (2018) Comparative bio-accessibility, bioavailability and bioequivalence of quercetin, apigenin, glucoraphanin and carotenoids from freeze-dried vegetables incorporated into a baked snack versus minimally processed vegetables: Evidence from in vitro models and a human bioavailability study. J Func Food 48, 410-419. Poor M, Boda G, Kunsagi-Mate S, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Lemli B (2018). Fluorescence spectroscopic evaluation of the interactions of quercetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin-3 '-sulfate with different albumins. J Luminescence 194, 156-163. Wu Q, Kroon PA, Shao HJ, Needs PW, Yang XB (2018). Differential effects of quercetin and two of its derivatives, isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide, in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 66, 7181-7189. Wu Q, Needs PW, Lu YL, Kroon PA, Ren DY, Yang XB (2018). Different antitumor effects of quercetin, quercetin-3'-sulfate and quercetin-3-glucuronide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Food Func 9, 1736-1746.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Bespoke synthesis of polyphenol human metabolites 
Organisation University of Perth
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We used synthetic organic chemistry routes to make phase-2 conjugates of various dietary flavonoids and phenolic acids and supplied these to various collaborators for testing of biological activity. These compounds are not available commercially and for many of them they are unique to our lab.
Collaborator Contribution Partners have used these physiologically relevant metabolites to test their biological activity using in vitro models such as cultured mammalian cell models, etc... They have also used them as authentic standards to facilitate identification and quantification of metabolites in human and animal tissues including blood, urine and faeces.
Impact Petri N, Tannergen C, Holst B, Mellon FA, Bao Y, Plumb GW, Bacon J, O'Leary KA, Kroon PA, Knutson L, Forsell P, Eriksson T, Lennernas H & Williamson G (2003) "Absorption/metabolism of sulforaphane and quercetin, and regulation of phase II enzymes, in human jejenum in vivo". Drug Metab Disposition 31, 805-813.Nemeth K, Plumb GW, Berrin J-G, Juge N, Jacob R, Naim HY, Williamson G, Swallow DM, Kroon PA (2003) "Deglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell ? glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides in humans. Eur J Nutr 42, 29-42.Kroon PA, Clifford MN, Crozier A, Day AJ, Donovan JL, Manach C & Williamson G (2004). How should we assess the effects of exposure to dietary polyphenols in vitro? Am J Clin Nutr 80, 15-21. Dupont MS, Day AJ, Bennett RN, Mellon FA & Kroon PA (2004) "Absorption of kaempferol-3-glucuronide from endive in humans". Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 947-954. Needs PW, Kroon PA (2006) Convenient syntheses of metabolically important quercetin glucuronides and sulfates. Tetrahedron 62, 6862-6868. Davis BD, Needs PW, Kroon PA & Brodbelt (2006) Identification of isomeric flavonoid glucuronides in urine and plasma by metal complexation and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom 41, 911-920. Tribolo S, Lodi F, Connor C, Suri S, Wilson V, Taylor M, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hughes DA (2008). Comparative effects of quercetin and its predominant human metabolites on adhesion molecule expression in activated human vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis 197, 50-56. Loke WM, Proudfoot JM, Stewart S, McKinley AJ, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hodgson JM & Croft KD (2008). Metabolic transformation has a profound effect on anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids such as quercetin: Lack of association between antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Biochem Pharmacol 75, 1045-1053. Loke WM, Proudfoot JM, Stewart S, McKinley AJ, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Hodgson JM & Croft KD (2008). Quercetin and its in vivo metabolites inhibit neutrophil-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. J Agric Food Chem 56, 3609-3615. Hollands W, Brett GM, Radreau P, Saha S, Teucher B, Bennett, RN & Kroon PA (2008). Processing blackcurrants dramatically reduces the content and does not enhance the urinary yield of anthocyanins in human subjects. Food Chem 108, 869-878. Suri S, Taylor MA, Verity A, Tribolo S, Kroon PA, Hughes DA, Wilson VG (2008). A comparative study of the effects of quercetin and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites on human neutrophil function in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol 76, 645-673. Barrington R, Williamson G, Bennett RN, Davis BD, Brodbelt JS, Kroon PA (2009). Absorption, conjugation and efflux of the flavonoids, kaempferol and galangin, using the intestinal CaCo-2/TC7 cell model. J Functional Foods 1, 74-97. Brett GM, Hollands W, Needs PW, Teucher B, Dainty JR, Bennett RN, Davis BD, Brodbelt JS & Kroon PA (2009). Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion. Br J Nutr 101, 664-675. http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A44rP6ra (Personal author link) Winterbone MS, Tribolo S, Needs PW, Kroon PA & Hughes DA (2009). Physiologically relevant metabolites of quercetin have no effect on adhesion molecule or chemokine expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 202, 431-438. Kay CD, Kroon PA, Cassidy A (2009). The bioactivity of dietary anthocyanins is likely to be mediated by their degradation products. Mol Nutr Food Res 53 Suppl 1:S92-101. Lodi F, Jiménez R, Moreno L, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Hughes DA, Santos-Buelga C, González-Paramás A, Cogolludo A, Duarte J, Perez-Vizcaino F (2009). Glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites of the flavonoid quercetin prevent endothelial dysfunction but lack direct vasodilator effects in rat aorta. Atherosclerosis 204, 34-39. Radreau P, Rhodes JD, Mithen RF, Kroon PA, Sanderson J (2009) Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway activation by quercetin in human lens epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res 89, 995-1002. Curtis PJ, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Walls R, Jenkins G, Kay CD, Cassidy A (2009). Cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers and liver function are not altered following twelve week ingestion of an elderberry extract rich in anthocyanins. J Nutr 139, 2266-2271. Soler A, Romero MP, Saha S, Furniss CSM, Kroon PA, Motilva MJ (2010). Digestion stability and evaluation of the metabolism and transport of olive oil phenols in human small intestinal epithelial Caco2/TC7 cell line. Food Chem, 119, 703-714. Suri S, Liu XH, Rayment S, Hughes DA, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Taylor MA, Tribolo S, Wilson VG (2010). Quercetin and its major metabolites selectively modulate cyclic GMP-dependent relaxations and associated tolerance in pig isolated coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol 159, 566-575. Bartholomé R, Haenen G, Hollman PCH, Bast A, Dagnelie PC, Roos D, Keijer J, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Arts ICW (2010). Deconjugation kinetics of glucuronidated phase-II flavonoid metabolites by ß-glucuronidase from neutrophils. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 25, 379-387. Pereira-Caro G, Mateos R, Saha S, Madrona A, Espartero JL, Bravo L, Kroon PA (2010). Trans-epithelial transport and metabolism of new lipopohilic ether derivatives of hydroxytyrosol by enterocyte-like CaCo-2/TC7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 58, 11501-11509. Al-Shalmani S, Suri S, Hughes DA, Kroon PA, Needs PW, Taylor MA, Tribolo S, Wilson VG (2011). Quercetin and its principal metabolites, but not myricetin, oppose LPS-induced hyporesponsiveness of the porcine isolated coronary artery. Br J Pharmacol 162, 1485-1497. Curtis PJ, Sampson M, Potter J, Dhatariya K, Kroon PA, Cassidy A (2012). Chronic ingestion of flavan-3-ols and isoflavones improves insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein status and attenuates estimated 10-year CVD risk in medicated postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a one year double-blind randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 35, 226-232. Saha S, Hollands W, Needs PW, Ostertag LM, de Roos B, Duthie GG, Kroon PA (2012). Human O-sulfated metabolites of (-)-epicatechin and methyl-(-)-epicatechin are poor substrates for commercial aryl-sulfatases: Implications for studies concerned with quantifying epicatechin bioavailability. Pharmacol Res 65, 592-602. Lodi F, Tribolo S, Winterbone MS, Needs PW, Hughes DA, Kroon PA (2012). Human quercetin conjugated metabolites attenuate TNF-a-induced changes in vasomodulatory molecules in a HUASMCs/HUVECs co-culture model. Planta Med 78, 1571-1573. Hollands WJ, Hart D, Dainty JR, Hasselwander O, Tiihonen K, Wood R, Kroon PA (2013). Bioavailability of epicatechin and effects on nitric oxide metabolites of an apple flavanol-rich extract supplemented beverage compared to a whole apple puree: a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 1209-1217. Tribolo S, Lodi F, Winterbone MS, Saha S, Needs PW, Suri S, Taylor MA, Wilson VG, Walls R, Cassidy A, Hughes DA, Kroon PA (2013). Human metabolic transformation of quercetin blocks its capacity to decrease eNOS expression and endothelin-1 secretion by human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem 61, 8589-8596. Czank C, Cassidy A, Zhang Q, Morrison DJ, Preston T, Kroon PA, Botting NP, Kay CD (2013). Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a 13C-tracer study. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 995-1003. Konic-Ristic A, Srdic-Rajica T, Kardum N, Kroon PA, Hollands WJ, Hayran O, Boyko N, Jorjadze M, Glibetic M (2013). Effects of bioactive-rich extracts of pomegranate, persimmon, nettle, dill, kale and Sideritis and isolated bioactives on arachidonic acid induced markers of platelet activation and platelet-leucocyte aggregation. J Sci Food Agric 93, 3581-3587. De Ferrars RM, Czank C, Zhang Q, Botting NP, Kroon PA, Cassidy A, Kay CD (2014). The pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and their metabolites in humans. Br J Pharmacol 171, 3268-3282. De Ferrars R, Czank C, Saha S, Needs PW, Zhang Q, Raheem KS, Kroon PA, Kay CD (2014). Methods for isolating, identifying and quantifying anthocyanin metabolites in clinical samples. Anal Chem 86, 10052-10058. Danesi F, Kroon PA, Saha S, de Biase D, D'Antuono LF, Bordoni A (2014). Mixed pro- and anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate polyphenols in cultured cells. Int J Mol Sci 15, 19458-19471. Barrington RD, Needs PW, Williamson G, Kroon PA. MK571 inhibits phase-2 conjugation of flavonols by Caco-2/TC7 cells, but does not specifically inhibit their apical efflux. Biochem Pharmacol 95, 193-200. Cerezo AB, Winterbone MS, Moyle CW, Needs PW, Kroon PA (2015). Molecular structure-function relationship of dietary polyphenols for inhibiting VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 activity. Mol Nutr Food Res. 59, 2119-2131. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500407. Gornas P, Redenkovs V, Pugacheva I, Soliven A, Needs PW, Kroon PA (2016). Varied composition of tocochromanols in different types of bran: Rye, wheat, oat, spelt, buckwheat, corn and rice. Int J Food Properties 19, 1757-1764. Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Kroon PA, Philo M, Mensink M, Kromhout D, Hollman PCH (2016). Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomised, crossover study. Mol Nutr Food Res 60, 2379-2386. Poór M, Boda G, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Lemli B, Bencsik T (2017). Interaction of quercetin and its metabolites with warfarin: displacement of warfarin from serum albumin and inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Biomed Pharmacol 88, 574-581. Hollands WJ*, Voorspoels S*, Jacobs G, Aaby K, Meisland A, Garcia-Villalbad R, Tomas-Barberan F, Piskula MJ, Mawson D, Vovk I, Needs PW and Kroon PA (2017). Development, validation and evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins in apple extracts. J Chromatogr A 1495, 46-56. Van Rymenant E, Grootaert C, Beerens K, Needs P, Kroon P, Kerimi A, Williamson G, García Villalba R, González-Sarrías A, Tomas-Barberan F, Van Camp J, Van de Voorde J. Vasorelaxant activity of twenty-one physiologically relevant (poly)phenolic metabolites on isolated mouse arteries. Mol Nutr Food Res 13, 4331-4335. Perez-Moral N, Saha S, Philo M, Hart DJ, Winterbone MS, Hollands WJ, Spurr M, Bows J, vander Velpen V, Kroon PA*, Curtis PJC (2018) Comparative bio-accessibility, bioavailability and bioequivalence of quercetin, apigenin, glucoraphanin and carotenoids from freeze-dried vegetables incorporated into a baked snack versus minimally processed vegetables: Evidence from in vitro models and a human bioavailability study. J Func Food 48, 410-419. Poor M, Boda G, Kunsagi-Mate S, Needs PW, Kroon PA, Lemli B (2018). Fluorescence spectroscopic evaluation of the interactions of quercetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin-3 '-sulfate with different albumins. J Luminescence 194, 156-163. Wu Q, Kroon PA, Shao HJ, Needs PW, Yang XB (2018). Differential effects of quercetin and two of its derivatives, isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide, in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Agric Food Chem 66, 7181-7189. Wu Q, Needs PW, Lu YL, Kroon PA, Ren DY, Yang XB (2018). Different antitumor effects of quercetin, quercetin-3'-sulfate and quercetin-3-glucuronide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Food Func 9, 1736-1746.
Start Year 2010
 
Description 'Heroes of Food Research' Public Engagement activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The purpose of the set of activities was to engage in a dialogue with members of the public in the region where we recruit participants to partake in dietary intervention studies. The activities included two sessions in Norwich's Forum Library public space where visitors could read about the types of studies that were going on, discuss what was involved when volunteering to participate in a study, ask questions of study PIs and study managers, taste intervention foods, complete a short questionnaire, and sign up for future activities which included an evening session with audience participation and voting and a workshop to gather feedback from potential volunteers. As a result of the activities and the significant feedback from the general public and those who had previously participated in human studies, we completely revamped our institute's Human Studies internet pages, recorded feedback and subsequently changed various features of our adverts that invited people to participate in specific studies, and recruited a significant number of new people to our database of interested volunteers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL https://quadram.ac.uk/volunteer/
 
Description Bioavailability 2018 International Conference, 'Understanding the bioavailability of micronutrients and bioactive compounds for improved public health', the 8th in the series of Bioavailability conferences. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Bioavailability 2018 International Conference, 'Understanding the bioavailability of micronutrients and bioactive compounds for improved public health', the 8th in the series of Bioavailability conferences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Clinical Trial Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact International Clinical Trial Day
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Norwich Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Norwich Science Festival
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Research Presentation- Knowledge Exchange (Munich) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented an overview of my research to students and academics at the university of Munich, this sparked questions and ideas on what I could next and other avenues to explore within my project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Royal Norfolk Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Royal Norfolk Show
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The role of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-y-valerolactone, the gut microbiota metabolite of (-)-epicatechin, in reducing insulin resistance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International conference on polyphenols and health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The role of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-y-valerolactone, the gut microbiota metabolite of (-)-epicatechin, in reducing insulin resistance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact NuGo Conference, Bern Switzerland 16h-19th September 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Wageningen European Study trip 2020 A series of presentations and tours for these undergraduate/masters students of nutrition and health. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A series of presentations and tours for these undergraduate/masters students of nutrition and health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020