Molecular and genetic determinants of virus-host interactions affecting pathogenicity

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

IAH has a distinct genetic resource of a number of inbred lines of chickens, which differ in their susceptibility to avian viral diseases. The availability of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) and CNV (copy number variation) data highlighting the genetic differences and the recent progress in the determination and the analysis of the data from re-sequencing of the genomes of these lines will enable us to make significant progress in understanding the molecular basis for the genetic differences that account for disease susceptibility. The Genetics and Genomics group will undertake detailed genetic analysis of the genomes of these unique lines to identify the determinants that are linked to disease resistance.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Molecular and genetic determinants of virus-host interactions affecting pathogenicity has allowed research to be conducted on chicken disease resisitance and has resulted in the external fudning of the project entittled Restriction of avian viruses by host interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs).
Exploitation Route This project is ongoing and is providing useful information of the activation of host gens by avian viruses.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://www.pirbright.ac.uk/research/GeneticsGenomics/Default.aspx
 
Description Research on this project resulted in funding of an additional grant "interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) Knock-Out for vaccine production.
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Economic

 
Description LVIF
Amount $1,500,000 (CAD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 04/2018 
End 09/2020
 
Title A Versatile Panel of Reference Gene Assays for the Measurement of Chicken mRNA by Quantitative PCR 
Description Quantitative real-time PCR assays are widely used for the quantification of mRNA within avian experimental samples. Multiple stably-expressed reference genes can be used to control random technical variation between samples. It is necessary to select reference genes with the lowest variation in representative samples. The candidate reference gene assays must be reliable. In particular, they should have high amplification specificity and efficiency, and not produce signals from contaminating DNA. Whilst recent research papers identify specific genes that are stable in particular tissues and experimental treatments, here we describe a panel of ten avian gene primer and probe sets that can be used to identify suitable reference genes in many experimental contexts. The panel was tested with TaqMan and SYBR Green systems in two experimental scenarios, a tissue collection, and virus infection of cultured fibroblasts. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were able to select appropriate reference gene sets in each case. We show the effects of using the selected genes on the detection of statistically significant differences in expression. The results are compared with those obtained using 28s ribosomal RNA, the present most widely accepted reference gene in chicken work, identifying circumstances where the use of this gene might provide misleading results. Widely used methods for eliminating DNA contamination of RNA reduced, but did not completely remove, detectable DNA. We therefore attached special importance to testing each qPCR assay for absence of signal using DNA template. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The assays and analyses developed here provide a useful resource for selecting reference genes for investigations of avian biology. 
 
Title Comprehensive analysis of genetic variants across immune loci in indigenous breeds. 
Description The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family comprises a class of restriction factors widely characterised in humans for their potent antiviral activity. Their biological activity is well documented in several animal species, but their genetic variation and biological mechanism is less well understood, particularly in avian species. Here we report the complete sequence of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus IFITM locus from a wide variety of chicken breeds to examine the detailed pattern of genetic variation of the locus on chromosome 5, including the flanking genes ATHL1 and B4GALNT4. We have generated chIFITM sequences from commercial breeds (supermarket-derived chicken breasts), ancient bone samples, indigenous chickens from Nigeria (Nsukka) and Ethiopia, European breeds and inbred chicken lines from The Pirbright Institute, totalling of 211 chickens. Through mapping of genetic variants to the latest chIFITM consensus sequence our data reveal that the chIFITM locus does not show structural variation in the locus across the populations analysed, despite spanning diverse breeds from different geographic locations. However, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in functionally important regions of the proteins within certain groups of chickens were detected, in particular the European breeds and indigenous birds from Ethiopia and Nigeria. In addition, we also found that two out of four SNVs located in the chIFITM1 (Ser36 and Arg77) and chIFITM3 (Val103) proteins were simultaneously under positive selection. Together these data suggest that IFITM genetic variation may contribute to the capacities of different chicken populations to resist viral infection. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This paper is currently in press in. BMC Genomics. 
 
Title IFITM Seq 
Description We have established that chickens encode interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) orthologues that restrict influenza infection in vitro. The aim of our work is to determine the biology and genetic variation of the IFITM locus in chickens, specifically the ability of IFITM genes and alleles to protect the host against both endemic and emerging avian viruses. The output of this project is to identify alleles that correlate with resistance to a number of avian viruses allowing poultry breeding programs to select the beneficial alleles. We have now produced contiguos sequnce for the IFITM Locus that was previously not represented in the Gallus gallus genome. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We have filed patents for the develpment of vaccines. Patent filed for The Pirbright & Sanger Institutes "Viral resistance genes (IFITM genes) in chickens". International Patent Application No. PCT/GB2014/051693. 
 
Title SAL Locus 
Description SAL1 Patent for Salmonella resistance in chickens"-. PCT/GB2010/000850. The Pirbright Institute. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact SAL1 Patent for Salmonella resistance in chickens"-. PCT/GB2010/000850. The Pirbright Institute. 
 
Title Avian 600k SNP Array 
Description Development of a high density 600K SNP genotyping array for chicken. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication: Kranis A, Almas A Gheyas, Boschiero C, Turner F, Yu L, Smith S, Talbot R, Pirani A, Brew F, Kaiser P, Hocking P, Fife M et al. Development of a high density 600K SNP genotyping array for chicken. (2013) BMC Genomics, 14:59 
 
Description Industrial partnership-Aviagen 2018 
Organisation Aviagen Group
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have established a significant industrial partnership with Aviagen group Ltd. The nature of this work remains confidential.
Collaborator Contribution The nature of this work remains confidential.
Impact The nature of this work remains confidential.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Research Collaboration with Nigeria (23rd - 28th January 2017) 
Organisation University of Nigeria
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of rare breed indigenous chicken in Nigeria.
Collaborator Contribution Helped with sampling and background information of the breed.
Impact Analysis is ongoing.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Roslin 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint Grant: 'Role of AKT1 & SIVA1 in resistance to avian salmonellosis' Stevens, Kaiser & Fife
Collaborator Contribution Poultry are a key reservoir of human Salmonella infections owing to the ability of some strains to colonise the avian intestines and reproductive tract. Birds often carry the bacteria in the absence of overt symptoms; however some types of Salmonella cause severe typhoid-like diseases in poultry that exert substantial welfare and economic costs. Global population growth and rising affluence are fuelling demand for poultry meat and eggs, and a need exists to enhance the supply and safety of such. Though vaccines are used in layers in some countries, most of the 55 billion chickens reared annually worldwide lack protection against Salmonella infection. We and others have discovered that some chickens exhibit heritable differences in resistance to Salmonella. It may be feasible to selectively breed for birds with improved resilience to Salmonella infection; however this requires the identification of resistance-associated factors and knowledge of how they act. By analysing the genetic material of birds that differ in resistance, we have located a region of the chicken chromosome that confers protection against typhoidal salmonellosis, both in laboratory studies and commercial poultry populations. Recent studies have now resolved the region associated with resistance to just a handful of genes. It is highly plausible that variation affecting two genes in this region (AKT1 and SIVA1) explains why birds react to Salmonella in different ways, as the encoded proteins control host processes that impact on the fate of bacteria. For example, AKT1 and SIVA1 control the death of infected cells and the induction of immune responses, but have opposing activities. It is not possible for us to predict how the genetic changes affecting these genes will alter their expression or activity. Moreover, it is unclear how such factors may control the growth and spread of Salmonella in birds. We therefore propose to: 1. Examine if birds normally respond to Salmonella infection by activating the expression or function of AKT1 and SIVA1. We will examine this in cells cultured from chickens, as well as in intact birds, and associate any differences with host responses and the fate of the bacteria. 2. Examine if lines of chicken known to differ in resistance to Salmonella infection vary in the levels or activation of AKT1 and SIVA1. 3. Use specific inhibitors and bacterial strains to establish that AKT1 activation is necessary for Salmonella to grow and spread in birds. 4. Define the nature, frequency and consequences of genetic changes affecting AKT1 and SIVA1 in commercial poultry populations. This will aid the selective breeding of chickens that show improved resilience to Salmonella infection. We are fortunate to have the support of one of the world's largest poultry breeding companies (Erich Wesjohann Group), who will provide birds, genome sequences, expertise and 10% of total project costs. This reflects the value of the proposed studies to the industry. The consortium has productively collaborated and the proposed studies are a timely, logical and feasible extension of our recent joint research.
Impact SAL1 Patent for Salmonella resistance in chickens"-. PCT/GB2010/000850. The Pirbright Institute.
Start Year 2012
 
Description SANGER IFITM 
Organisation The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute (TPI) is a world leader in research on viral diseases of livestock with a strong track record in translating this research into effective disease control. The Genetics and Genomics group is interested in understanding the genetics and evolution of animal-pathogen interactions, with the strategic aim of improving the control of viral disease outbreaks. The group's main focus involves the study of the genetic basis of avian viral disease resistance. The virus-restricting IFITM proteins are under investigation in this study, thus contributing directly to the BBSRC key strategic priority on Global Food security.
Collaborator Contribution Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) is a world leader in uncovering the genetic basis of disease including infectious disease, providing results that are translated into diagnostics, treatments or therapies that reduce global health burdens. The virus genomics group investigates human pathogenic virus infections and the molecular genetic determinants of disease pathogenesis and transmission including zoonotic virus infections.
Impact S. Smith, M. S. Gibson, R. Wash, F. Ferrara, E. Wright, N. Temperton, P. Kellam, and M. Fife. (2013) Chicken IFITM3 restricts Influenza viruses and Lyssaviruses in vitro. J. Virology. 87, 12957 Benfield C, Smith SE, Wright E, Wash RS, Ferrara F, Temperton NJ, Kellam P. Bat and pig Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 restrict cell entry by influenza virus and lyssaviruses. J Gen Virol. 2015 (in press)
Start Year 2014
 
Title Avian cells for improved virus production 
Description Type I interferons protect cells from virus infection through the induction of a group of genes collectively named interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Among these interferon stimulated proteins, are the IFITM (interferon-inducible transmembrane) genes which have been shown to restrict the replication of several highly pathogenic human viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, filoviruses (Marburg virus and Ebola virus), influenza A viruses (IAVs), and flaviviruses (dengue virus). The Genetics and Genomics group have identified these antiviral proteins in the chicken (chIFITM) and have shown that a reduction in chIFITM expression results in an increase in the virus titre in CEFs infected with avian influenza A virus (AIV) H9N2, suggesting that chIFITMs have a functional role in the control of viral infections. The observation may have useful implications in terms of vaccine production. To this end, a patent was filed relating to the modification and testing of avian IFITMs, and has now been granted in multiple countries. Many vaccines have been produced in embryonated hen's eggs or continuous avian cell lines for more than 30 years. However, it is well established that the rate determining step in the manufacture of numerous vaccines is the induction of antiviral immune responses that prevents the replication of vaccine viruses. To generate chIFITM knock-down, we will use cutting edge genetic approaches such as siRNA and a CRISPR/Cas9 system which will directly target and knock-out chIFITM expression. We believe that this approach will overcome the rate limiting step in vaccine production, directly resulting in increased vaccine yields and improve the speed at which vaccines can be manufactured. We are currently in talks with major vaccine producers keen to adopt this internationally patented technology, to advance the field of both animal and human vaccine production. 
IP Reference United States Patent Application No. 14/895,866 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact This work has arisen as a result of an Animal Health Research Club grant. Involvement of the commercial sector has been encouraged and applauded by the ARC Steering committee. The IMPACT of this work is potentially very significant, and could provide considerable income to The Pirbright Institute.
 
Title Chicken IFITMs 
Description The present invention provides an avian cell in which the expression or activity of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3) is reduced. The invention also provides methods for passaging viruses in avian cells, embryos and/or avian cell lines which have reduced expression of one or more IFITM genes and methods which involve investigating the sequence of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3). 
IP Reference PCT/GB2014/051693 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact The present invention provides an avian cell in which the expression or activity of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3) is reduced. The invention also provides methods for passaging viruses in avian cells, embryos and/or avian cell lines which have reduced expression of one or more IFITM genes and methods which involve investigating the sequence of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3). This patent has enabled us to leverage funding for continued work.
 
Title SAL1 Patent for Salmonella resistance in chickens 
Description SAL1 Patent for Salmonella resistance in chickens 
IP Reference PCT/GB2010/000850 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact Secured further funding and allowed Link grant with commercial company.
 
Title Viral resistance genes (IFITM genes) in chickens 
Description Viral resistance genes (IFITM genes) in chickens: potential for increased vaccine produciton. 
IP Reference PCT/GB2014/051693 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2014
Licensed No
Impact Viral resistance genes (IFITM genes) in chickens: potential for increased vaccine produciton.
 
Description AB Improving Approaches to Prevent and Control Viral Diseases of Livestock and Poultry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Batra, A., Maier, H.J., Britton P., Hiscox, J.A., Fife, M.S., 2015. PI3K/AKT signalling during infectious bronchitis virus infection. Food Security: Improving Approaches to Prevent and Control Viral Diseases of Livestock and Poultry, British Council Research Links Workshop, Istanbul, Turkey (Oral presentation)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description AB International Nidovirus Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Batra, A., Maier, H.J., Britton P., Hiscox, J.A., Fife, M.S., 2014. AKT activation during infectious bronchitis virus infection. XIIIth International Nidovirus Symposium, Salamanca, Spain (Poster presentation)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Chair of organising Committee for Wellcome Trust-Animal Genetics and Diseases 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This meeting brought together specialists working on the interface between genomics, genetic engineering and infectious disease with the aims of improving animal and human health and welfare.

Scientific sessions included:
Genetics of immune responses and disease resistance
Genetically engineered livestock (including genome editing)
Quantitative genetics and epigenetics applied to disease
Epidemiology and pathogen evolution
Bioinformatics, comparative and functional genomics
Precision medicine of animal companions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://coursesandconferences.wellcomegenomecampus.org/events/item.aspx?e=635&dm_i=2SUU,HOGH,4R4AW1,...
 
Description Encouraging women into science and engineering STEM. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact MH Visited Warwick School, Redhill to talk to secondary students about careers in STEM. A very positive outcome and well received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Holt School Surrey. Bee meadow & A-level outreach Talk. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I discussed the importance of pollinators for biodiversity and food security with the younger students. I also discussed careers in science with A-Level students. There was good interaction and many questions surrounding both topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Innovate Guildford Outreach (12th March) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Innovate Guildford Outreach (12th March).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Innovate Guildford Outreach (12th March) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact With amazing exhibits, activities, workshops, talks and competitions, it's FREE to attend. Explore the four zones: Engineering, One Health, Digital Media and Future Living, experience interactive performances, hear inspiring speakers (including leading gaming pioneer Peter Molyneux and animal health pioneer Professor Nick Bacon) and take in an amazing atmosphere. Theatre, music and comedy will feature through the day, with everything from how technology might have affected Shakespeare's plays to risky recycling and photographic secrets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.guildford.gov.uk/innovateguildford
 
Description Kingdown School Warminster Wiltshire talk to 6th form students about career in science. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I presented my career path to the students to engage them on STEM careers. I had a good level of discussion and many questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description MF STEM1 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 'What's My Job?' careers education session on being a BBSRC research scientist. Well received and good interaction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description MF STEM2 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 1200 students from Years 9-13 i.e. pre- and in sixth form. Our exhibits included Vero cells in flasks, plaques, Vero cells viewed down a microscope, 2D real-size models of sequencing kit, virus and DNA models, careers hand-outs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description MF STEM3 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Students from Years 5-6 i. Gave a talk on the Ebola virus outbreak in west Africa. Porvided virus and DNA models, careers hand-outs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description NL Animal Health Research Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ARC will hold up to two dissemination events per annum. The aim of these events is to facilitate the dissemination of the research findings from the grants awarded through ARC to the Industry Members of the Club and other researchers. The dissemination events also provide an excellent opportunity for networking and we encourage delegates to make the most of the time made available for this purpose in the programme. BBSRC staff and the ARC coordinators will be available throughout the day should you have any questions regarding the Club.
Presentations: The presentations are the main opportunity for ARC research groups to present research findings and future plans and for Industrial Members to find out about ARC funded projects and provide feedback. Featured projects have been allocated presentation time as described in the programme and should include at least 5 minutes for questions. Presenters are asked to keep to time and presentations should demonstrate the relevance of the work to animal health and the livestock industry.
Posters: Research groups funded through ARC have been offered the opportunity to provide posters of work which is of relevance to the Industry Members of the Club. This will provide an opportunity to have informal discussions about current progress during networking activities and provide additional project information of relevance to ARC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description NL Next Generation Sequencing applications to improve livestock welfare, food security and socioeconomic stability in Brazil, British research Council, Newton Fund 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation: Next Generation Sequencing applications to improve livestock welfare, food security and socioeconomic stability in Brazil, British research Council, Newton Fund
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description NL Transcriptomics Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 2nd Transcriptomics Workshop, The Jenner Institute. Oxford, UK. 08/05/2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Organiser of the Animal Genetics and Diseases conference 08 - 10 May 2019 Wellcome Genome Campus, UK. Highlighting recent advances in animal genetics and genomic technologies. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I am on the organising committee for this conference. The second conference in this series will highlight recent advances in animal genetics and genomic technologies. It will bring together specialists working on the interface of genomics, genetic engineering and infectious disease with the aims of improving animal and human health and welfare.

Novel genomic technologies, mathematical modelling and quantitative genetics approaches, applied to host animals, as well as their pathogens, have transformed the understanding of animal diseases, host-pathogen interactions and epidemiology and their effects on productivity of farmed animal species and food supply chains.

This year's conference will not only put the spotlight on the immune response of host animals and epidemiology but also cover the genetics and genomics of pathogens and the impact of animal-human relationships.

We encourage registrations from researchers, breeders and technical specialists interested in learning and disseminating the latest cutting-edge techniques and methodologies across model species, wildlife, farmed animals and companion animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://coursesandconferences.wellcomegenomecampus.org/our-events/animal-genetics-diseases-2019/?dm_...
 
Description TW ARC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ARC will hold up to two dissemination events per annum. The aim of these events is to facilitate the dissemination of the research findings from the grants awarded through ARC to the Industry Members of the Club and other researchers. The dissemination events also provide an excellent opportunity for networking and we encourage delegates to make the most of the time made available for this purpose in the programme. BBSRC staff and the ARC coordinators will be available throughout the day should you have any questions regarding the Club.
Presentations: The presentations are the main opportunity for ARC research groups to present research findings and future plans and for Industrial Members to find out about ARC funded projects and provide feedback. Featured projects have been allocated presentation time as described in the programme and should include at least 5 minutes for questions. Presenters are asked to keep to time and presentations should demonstrate the relevance of the work to animal health and the livestock industry.
Posters: Research groups funded through ARC have been offered the opportunity to provide posters of work which is of relevance to the Industry Members of the Club. This will provide an opportunity to have informal discussions about current progress during networking activities and provide additional project information of relevance to ARC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description TW Oxford Interdisciplinary Bioscience Networking Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oxford Interdisciplinary Bioscience Networking Event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Taiwan -UK Partnering Award: Surveillance of influenza viruses 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attended the International Flu Virus Symposium for Celebrating IPM 47th Anniversary" in Tri-Service General Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan.

Tri-Service General Hospital address:
No. 325, Sec. 2, Chenggong Rd., Neihu Dist., Taipei City 114, Taiwan (R.O.C.)

Invited speaker for medical staff and research scientists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.cdc.gov.tw/rwd/english
 
Description Tillingbourne bug hunt. New Rd, Chilworth, Guildford GU4 8NB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research. Good interest and engagement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Winston Churchill Careers Fair. Winston Churchill School, Hermitage Road, St Johns, Woking, Surrey, GU21 8TL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact AS attended and presented at this event to stimulate increased interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018