Studentship: Characterisation of genes involved in the replication-efficiency and transmission of Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 26 and 25

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

IAH studentship: The recently identified bluetongue virus serotypes, BTV-25 and BTV-26, have ‘replication defects’ in certain cell culture systems. Indeed it has so far been impossible to culture BTV-25 in either mammalian or insect cells in vitro. Although BTV-26 replicates in mammalian cells it does not infect/replicate effectively in insect cells.
BTV is usually transmitted between animals by Culicoides (biting midges), but it was recently shown that BTV-26 can be transmitted horizontally between vertebrate hosts (goats) without involving a Culicoides vector. We have established a reverse genetics system for BTV, and have used it to generate mono-reassortants containing individual genome segments of BTV-26 in a BTV-1 background. All BTV-26 segments except Seg-2 (encoding outer capsid protein VP2) have been put into BTV-1, confirming in each case that they can replicate in mammalian cells. One of the reassortants, RG27, which has BTV-26 Seg-7 in BTV-1, was unable to replicate in a Culicoides cell line, whereas the others replicated as well as the BTV-1 parent. Seg-7 encodes the outer core protein VP7. Purified BTV core particles have previously been shown to infect KC cells and adult Culicoides in the absence of the outer capsid proteins that are important for mammalian cell attachment. This indicates that VP7 can mediate infection of insect cells.
BTV-25 and 26 (which show ~98% aa identity in VP7) may not depend on Culicoides vectors for transmission, and may have lost their ability to infect adult Culicoides. The infection/lack of infection in insects may be controlled by VP7, but it is uncertain if VP7 also confers an ability to be transmitted horizontally between vertebrate hosts. This may be controlled by the outer-capsid proteins (particularly VP2) that are considered to be primarily responsible for cell attachment in the mammalian host
 
Description The use of reverse genetics has identified four genome segments that restrict the replication of Bluetongue virus type 26 in Culicoides adults or cell line, but do not inhibit replication in vertebrate host cells. These data contribute significantly to our understanding at the molecular level of the interactions between virus and insect.
Exploitation Route to provide further information concerning the distribution and transmission of these viruses by specific species or populations of vector insects in different geographic regions
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" (PALE-Blu)
Amount € 6,300,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 727393-2 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2016 
End 11/2020
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD)
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Complutense University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Kafkas University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Kimron Veterinary Institute
Country Israel 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation National Veterinary Institute
Country Sweden 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation University Libre Bruxelles (Université Libre de Bruxelles ULB)
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department MRC - University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Veterinary Medicine and Science Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Veterinary School of Alfort
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016