Orange Wheat Blossom Midge

Lead Research Organisation: John Innes Centre
Department Name: Contracts Office

Abstract

Varietal variation for resistance to orange wheat blossom midge (owbm) has been observed in material from different countries. However, there have been very few studies of the genetics of these resistance sources. The most significant study demonstrated that resistance in Canadian material was conditioned by a single major gene, termed Sm1, on wheat chromosome arm 2BS. Additionally, a PCR based molecular marker was developed (Wm1) which was linked to the resistance gene and could be used for marker assisted selection in crosses involving the resistance source. However, there is little information on whether European sources of resistance carry Sm1, if the Wm1 marker is diagnostic in European germplasm or whether there are other, independent, resistance genes.

We have recently shown that three resistant UK varieties carry Sm1 as a major source of owbm resistance (Ellis et al. 2009). We also showed that marker Wm1 is associated with Sm1 resistance in these related pedigrees, but that it is not diagnostic across a more extensive set of UK germplasm (i.e. some susceptible varieties carry the Wm1 diagnostic band; Oakley et al. 2005). As part of a parallel project (Simmonds et al. 2008), we established colinearity between wheat, rice, and Brachypodium across the complete Sm1 interval (Wm1-Xgwm210; Thomas et al. 2005). This allowed us to recently develop over 20 additional markers across this 2BS region.

We now propose to use this knowledge to identify and molecularly characterize the sources of owbm resistance in French wheat varieties. The objectives of the work were to:
a) Identify better markers for Sm1 by genotyping markers across the 2BS region for 96 varieties and phenotyping 96 varieties across France and UK (2011 and 2012)
b) Identify additional OWBM resistances different from Sm1 by using the information from above and mapping additional resistances using available DH populations.

Publications

10 25 50
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Kassa MT (2016) A saturated SNP linkage map for the orange wheat blossom midge resistance gene Sm1. in TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

 
Description • We have fine mapped Sm1 to a defined genetic interval including less than 15 candidate genes based on colinearity with sequenced genomes.
• We have identified close association between two genetic markers and Sm1 in a panel of 192 European varieties.
• We have converted iSelect markers into high throughout SNP assays which can be used by the breeding partners. These markers are a significant improvement over previous markers available to breeders and are now being used within European breeding programmes.
• We have worked with collaborators in Canada and have now cloned the Sm1 gene. This is the sole source of resistance to midge currently being used and its cloning will now allow us to perform allele mining and discover novel sources of resistance.
• We have developed a perfect marker for Sm1 and characterised its allelic diversity. We are currently preparing the manuscript as part of a Canada-UK collaboration.
Exploitation Route European breeders are now using the newly developed markers which have become industry standard.
We have now identified the Sm1 gene.
New varieties have been registered in France using the new markers as evidence of the presence of the Sm1 resistance gene.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description The markers developed within this grant are being used by industrial partners in their breeding programmes. This will allow genetic resistance (instead of chemical control) for this pest. New varieties in France are being registered with the markers generated in this project as evidence of the presence of the Sm1 resistance. We will use the cloning of Sm1 to further understand the mode of action of the gene and thus contribute to genetic control of major pests and pathogens.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description UK Global Food Security Science Advisory Board
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.foodsecurity.ac.uk/
 
Description Bayer 
Organisation Bayer
Department Bayer CropScience Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Wheat genetics and genomics
Collaborator Contribution Wheat breeding and molecular knowledge
Impact joint projects
Start Year 2012
 
Description KWS 
Organisation KWS UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Genetics and genomics
Collaborator Contribution Breeder know how and germplasm
Impact joint projects
Start Year 2009
 
Description Limagrain 
Organisation Limagrain
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Genetics and genomics
Collaborator Contribution Germplasm and breeder know-how
Impact Phd Studentship, field trails, among others
Start Year 2009
 
Description RAGT 
Organisation RAGT Seeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution Genetics and genomics
Collaborator Contribution Wheat germplasm and know how
Impact Shared projects
Start Year 2009
 
Description Agricultural Industries Confederation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Agribusiness Meeting: A step change in plant breeding to achieve a UK competitive advantage
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Discussion Norman Lamb, MP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussion Norman Lamb, MP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with Gov Office Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussion with Gov Office Science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description FSOV-Paris 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Meeting with French breeders to discuss FSOV activities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
 
Description Italian Society of Genetics (SIGA) and Plant Biology (SIBV) Joint meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Keynote at PISA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description JIC Open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact JIC Open Day
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk Aarhus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk at Aarhus University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017