Products and Pathways

Lead Research Organisation: John Innes Centre
Department Name: Contracts Office

Abstract

The exponential rise in the numbers of sequenced genomes of plants and microbes presents unparalleled opportunities to expand and consolidate understanding of the biosynthesis and accumulation of valuable chemicals in Nature. We will exploit these opportunities using JIC’s excellent facilities for research on the synthesis of plant and microbial natural products with high actual or potential value as nutritionally-important components of food, as antibiotics, pharmaceuticals and agrichemicals, and as industrial raw materials. Discoveries in the preceding ISP have opened opportunities for broader and deeper investigations of how different metabolites are made, exploiting new methods of genome mining, systematic approaches to the expression and characterisation of whole metabolic pathways, and the capacity for rational design of new molecules in heterologous systems. Objective 1 explores the origins of chemical diversity in plants and microbes. For both types of organism, we will use our expertise in the identification of gene clusters for natural product pathways and in the transcriptional control of these pathways to uncover new chemical diversity. For bacteria, our focus is on classes of compounds with known on potential antibiotic properties. For plants, our focus is on species of known medicinal value. Objective 2 builds on our world-leading expertise in the synthesis and diversification of terpenes in plants. Its outcomes are relevant for the development of new therapeutics and industrial raw materials. In Objective 3 we seek to understand the assembly of macromolecular storage glucans, building from our deep understanding of the synthesis and turnover of glucan polymers. The outcomes will be used directly in the development of nutritionally improved crops, and have wider relevance for the development of new materials for industrial processes. Objective 4 brings together expertise in the accumulation of zinc and iron in plants to achieve an understanding of the homeostatic mechanisms involved. As in Objective 3, the outcomes feed into the development of nutritionally improved crops.

Publications

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Boobier S (2017) Can human experts predict solubility better than computers? in Journal of cheminformatics

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Boutanaev AM (2018) Multigenome analysis implicates miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in metabolic diversification in eudicots. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Bozhüyük K (2019) Engineering enzymatic assembly lines to produce new antibiotics in Current Opinion in Microbiology

 
Title Glowing oat seedlings 
Description Young oat seedling roots glow under UV due to the accumulation of the antimicrobial triterpene avenacins. Oats naturally produce avenacins exclusively within the root tip epidermal cells, which protects them from soil pathogens. Image supplied by researchers in the Osbourn laboratory at the John Innes Centre on the Norwich Research Park. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Image placed on the Norwich Research Park image library, for free sharing and dissemination. 
URL http://images.norwichresearchpark.ac.uk/imagedetails.aspx?imgid=229
 
Title Image of Nicotiana benthamiana 
Description Nicotiana benthamiana, a relative of the tobacco plant, is commonly used in plant research. Here, the leaf is used as a host organism to produce components of avenacin, a fluorescent antimicrobial produced by oat roots, which protects the roots from soil pathogens. A cluster of genes - the Sad genes - have been identified in oat as the instructions used to produce avenacin. The blue spots indicate the presence of parts of the avenacin compound introduced by inserting some of the Sad genes into the host plant. The other spots are controls to test the expression system. Image supplied by Aymeric Leveau, Osbourn laboratory. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Image placed on the Norwich Research Park Image Library, for free sharing and dissemination. 
URL http://images.norwichresearchpark.ac.uk/imagedetails.aspx?imgid=103
 
Title Interacted with artist 
Description JIC hired an artist to celebrate 50 years of JIC in Norwich. I spent a lot of time interacting with this artist so that she could create an exhibit of our work. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The public saw our research. 
 
Title SAW Antibiotics - Science from the Norwich Research Park - Book published by the SAW Press (2017) - ISBN 978-0-9550180-3-9 
Description A book illustrating research on the Norwich Research Park on antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance, assembled following Science, Art and Writing (SAW) projects led by NRP scientists in local schools 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The book was appreciated by the government chief medical officer Professor Dame Sally Davies, whose comments are on the front - 'I thoroughly enjoyed this stunning book. Educating children in such an interactive way is so important. I am passionate about addressing AMR, as are the researchers, and I hope this can help inspire future generations to engage in the efforts to save modern medicine.' This project is being captured by the University of East Anglia as an example of effective impact for the next REF. 
 
Title Winner of Norwich Research Park Image Library Competition: Dr Thomas Louveau 
Description More than 150 images of work were submitted by researchers, clinicians and scientists who work at the site, for the NRP image library competition. These were narrowed down to 12 finalists - which will form part of a calendar - from which an overall winner was selected. The winning image, entitled A New Planet, was taken by Thomas Louveau, a post-doctoral scientist in the Department of Metabolic Biology at the John Innes Centre. The image show a dried plant extract in a round flask taken from behind on a dark background. The extraction is part of the purification process of new-to-nature metabolites produced by synthetic biology approaches. The new metabolic pathway has been engineered in Nicotiana benthamiana, a relative of tobacco by scientists at the John Innes Centre on the Norwich Research Park who are studying natural products.. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact A calendar was produced from the 12 final images, with "A New Planet" on the cover. The images are also displayed in the Centrum building on the Norwich Research Park. 
URL http://edp24.co.uk/news/tech/sheer_beauty_of_science_showcased_in_competition_at_norwich_research_pa...
 
Description UPDATE 2019 - 2020

OBJECTIVE 1: UNCOVERING NEW CHEMICAL DIVERSITY (WILKINSON, TRUMAN, MARTIN, OSBOURN)
Through our investigation of how the soil bacterium Streptomyces formicae makes three structurally distinct, but biosynthetically related natural product antibiotics we identified a new, non-catalytic role for a well-known family of oxidation enzymes. Using mutagenesis and chemical analysis we showed these proteins can act as fidelity factors, facilitating antibiotic biosynthesis and ensuring that the production of aberrant products is minimised (Qin et al., Nat. Commun. 2019, 10, 3611; doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11538-6).

The discovery of novel antibiotics to tackle the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance is impeded by difficulties in accessing the full biosynthetic potential of microorganisms. The development of new tools to unlock the biosynthesis of cryptic bacterial natural products will greatly increase the repertoire of natural product scaffolds. Here, we report a strategy for the activation of cryptic antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters. This allowed the discovery of a new peptide antibiotic directly from the native host and via heterologous expression. (Vikeli et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2020, 86, e01876-19; doi: 10.1128/AEM.01876-19). Working with colleagues in Spain, we identified a strategy to activate antibiotic and antifungal biosynthetic gene clusters by showing that a 'pathway-specific' transcriptional regulator can activate the expression of other biosynthetic gene clusters in the industrially important strain Streptomyces clavuligerus (Martínez-Burgo, et al., Front. Microbiol., 2019, 10, 580).

We developed a genome mining tool (RiPPER, https://github.com/streptomyces/ripper) to enable the discovery of novel ribosomally synthesised and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). This enables the discovery of new types of RiPP that are overlooked by existing genome mining methodologies. We used this tool to show that thioamidated RiPP natural products are likely to be widely distributed and diverse, despite currently being incredibly rare. To illustrate this, we characterised the structure and biosynthetic pathway to a new natural product family, the thiovarsolins (Santos-Aberturas, et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 2019, 47, 4624; doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz192) and have subsequently used this tool to guide the identification and characterisation of widespread RiPP families, thereby providing an insight into RiPP evolution and diversification (manuscript in preparation).

The triterpenes are one of the largest and most structurally complex groups of plant natural products, with numerous medicinal, agritech and industrial applications. Within the last year we have made major inroads into understanding how these molecules are made (see Objective 2 for further findings associated with triterpenes). Systematic analysis of the genomes of 13 members of the Brassicaceae has shed light on how triterpene pathways evolve and diversify (Liu et al., New Phytologist 2019; doi: 10.1111/nph.16338). Our results indicate that plant genomes are remarkably plastic, and that dynamic genome neighbourhoods generate new biosynthetic pathways in different Brassicaceae lineages by shuffling the genes encoding a core palette of triterpene-diversifying enzymes, presumably in response to strong environmental selection pressure. These results illuminate a genomic basis for diversification of plant-specialized metabolism through natural combinatorics of enzyme families, which can be mimicked using synthetic biology to engineer diverse bioactive molecules.

We reported a high-quality reference genome sequence for Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Zhao, et al., Mol Plant, 2019, 12, 935; doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2019.04.002), an important component in Chinese Traditional Medicine where preparations of dried roots, 'Huang Qin', are used for liver and lung complaints including complementary cancer treatments. Comparison of this sequence to those of closely related species in the order Lamiales revealed how the specialised metabolic pathway for the synthesis of 4'-deoxyflavone bioactives evolved in the genus, Scutellaria. This showed that gene duplications, segmental duplication, gene amplification and point mutations coupled to gene neo- and sub-functionalisations were involved the evolution of 4'-deoxyflavone synthesis. Comparison of the reference genome of S. baicalensis to high-quality genome sequence of two closely related species has allowed us to propose how this new metabolic pathway evolved and revealed that a range of different evolutionary mechanisms have resulted in the emergence of a specialised metabolic pathway within a single genus.

In citrus, the production of anthocyanin pigments requires the activity of the transcriptional activator Ruby. Consequently, loss-of-function mutations in Ruby result in an anthocyaninless phenotype. Several citrus accessions, however, have lost the ability to produce these pigments despite the presence of wild type Ruby alleles. These specific mutants have captivated the interest of botanists and breeders for centuries because the lack of anthocyanins in young leaves and flowers is also associated with a lack of proanthocyanidins in seeds and, most notably, with an extreme reduction in fruit acidity (involving about a three-unit change in pH). These mutants have been defined collectively as 'acidless'. We have identified Noemi, which encodes a bHLH transcription factor, that controls these apparently unrelated processes (Butelli, et al., Curr. Biol., 2019, 29, 158; doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.11.040). This work helps illuminate the path of domestication of Citron, the first citrus species to be cultivated in the Mediterranean.

OBJECTIVE 2: UNDERSTAND AND HARNESS TERPENE DIVERSITY (OSBOURN)
The microbes that grow in and around plant roots can have diverse effects on plant growth and fitness. However, how plants recruit and shape their microbial communities is not well understood. In Huang et al. (Science 2019, 364, eaau6389; doi: 10.1126/science.aau6389) we report that a previously undiscovered specialized metabolic network of plant triterpenes selectively modulates the root microbiota of thalecress (Arabidopsis thaliana). This study paves the way for selectively engineering root microbiota and for further investigations into the functions of root microbiota.

Further advances in understanding triterpenes include: (a) new insights into how structurally diverse triterpene scaffolds are generated (Stephenson et al., Nat. Prod. Rep. 2019, 36, 1044; doi: 10.1039/C8NP00096D); (b) the discovery of the first three steps in the pathway to the biosynthesis of a major class of triterpenes known as limonoids, the best known of which is the potent insect deterrent azadirachtin, produced by the neem tree (Hodgson et al., PNAS 2019, 116, 17096; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1906083116); (c) the characterisation of enzymes that add sugars to the oat triterpenes avenacin A-1, modifications that are critical for antifungal activity and hence plant defence (Orme et al., PNAS 2019, 116, 27105; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1914652116).

OBJECTIVE 3: UNDERSTAND THE ASSEMBLY OF GLUCAN POLYMERS AND GRANULES (SMITH, SEUNG, FIELD)
We have made new discoveries about the role of the amylose component of starch. This linear polymer is synthesised by a specific isoform of starch synthase, Granule Bound Starch Synthase or GBSS. We showed previously that its action requires a partner protein, PTST1, which ensures its location in the starch granule. Although GBSS and amylose have been found in all plants examined thus far, its role is currently unknown. Mutants of crop plants lacking GBSS (selected because of the commercially valuable properties of amylose-free starch) have no apparent phenotypes, and no mutations have been found in non-domesticated species. To explore the role of amylose/GBSS further, we looked for polymorphisms in the GBSS gene in over 1000 sequenced accessions of Arabidopsis. We found three naturally-occurring and independently-derived polymorphisms that result in amylose-free starch (Seung et al., Plant Physiol. 2020, 182, 870; doi: 10.1104/pp.19.01062). This surprising result sheds new light on role and importance of the amylose component of starch.

The Field group have continued their extensive exploration of the development of chemical and enzymatic tools for the production of natural and non-natural carbohydrates, to investigate structure-properties relationships and to assess antimicrobial/anti-biofilm activity (Pal Singh, et al., ChemBioChem, 2020, doi: 10.1002/cbic.201900440; Beswick, et al., Carbohydr. Res., 2019, 488, 107896, doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2019.107896; Kuhaudomlarp, et al., Proteins 2019, 87, 885, doi: 10.1002/prot.25745; Ahmadipour, et al, Org. Lett., 2019, 21, 4415, doi: 10.1021/acs.orglett.9b00967; Kuhaudomlarp, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 2019, 294, 6483, doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.007712). In part, this capitalises on biosynthesis studies, spanning starch granule biogenesis (Raguin, et al., Photosynthesis Research, 2020; doi: 10.1007/s11120-019-00704-y) and the glycobiology of microalgae (Wagstaff, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 2019, 294, 9172; doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.006440). Sugar binding has also been exploited in new approaches to photodynamic therapy for cancer (Hu, et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2019, 11, 22181; doi: 10.1021/acsami.9b06016).

OBJECTIVE 4: ZINC AND IRON HOMEOSTASIS IN PLANTS (BALK, SANDERS, MILLER)
Plants are the primary source of iron in our diet. They take iron up from the soil, and mobilize it into all organs which then serve as food or animal fodder. We have unravelled the function of two regulatory factors (BTSL1 and BTSL2) in iron uptake in plants, where they are expressed in the roots only, and their expression is induced when the plant is iron deficient (Rodríguez-Celma, et al., PNAS, 2019, 116, 17584; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1907971116). BTSL1 and BTSL2 encode proteins that target a key transcription factor, FIT, for degradation. The function of BTSL1 and BTSL2 is particularly critical when iron becomes available again after a period of iron deficiency. When seedlings lacking both BTSL genes were first iron-starved and then resupplied with iron, they accumulated toxic amounts of iron. We found this is because they are unable to switch off the iron deficiency response: genes for iron uptake remained actively expressed in the mutant, even 72 hours after iron resupply, whereas in wild-type plants, iron uptake was switched off within 6 hours after iron resupply. Most of the iron uptake genes are regulated by the transcription factor FIT, which forms a heterodimer with one member of a sub-family of related proteins. We found that the BTSL proteins, in particular BTSL2, targets FIT for degradation, by transferring a ubiquitin tag to FIT. Thus, if FIT is not degraded, then iron uptake continues when there is enough iron. The BTSL proteins have iron-binding domains, and are likely to respond to the iron status of the cell. The accumulation of Fe in weaker mutant alleles of the E3 ligases could be exploited for biofortification of crops.

UPDATE 2018-2019

OBJECTIVE 1: UNCOVERING NEW CHEMICAL DIVERSITY (WILKINSON, TRUMAN, MARTIN, OSBOURN)
We have delineated an unusual ring expansion-contraction mechanism for the biosynthesis of formicamycin polyketides from the fasamycins (manuscript in preparation). This transformation requires a highly unusual two electron reduction with ring contraction step catalysed by a novel flavin dependent oxidoreductase. These two antibacterial chemo-types (fasamycin, formicamycin) have also been shown to interact with two distinct molecular targets, possibly explaining the high barrier for the selection of resistant mutants. We also found that the formicamycin pathway can be naturally shunted to generate a new class of pyridine containing polyketides, meaning a single pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of three distinct polyketide ring types (manuscript in preparation). From our efforts to mine new anti-infective molecules produced by actinomycete strains isolated from fungus farming ant environments, we have isolated a new lantibiotic which has been named kyamicin. The structure, biosynthesis (including regulation) and antibacterial activity of kyamicin have been characterised, and a platform for activating cryptic lantibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters, and diversifying lantibiotic structures has been developed (manuscript in preparation).

As part of our work on developing a platform for the discovery and engineering of actinomycete natural products, we have developed a one-step yeast-based method that enables efficient, cheap, and flexible modifications to biosynthetic gene clusters. Using the gene cluster for the antibiotic bottromycin, we showcase multiple modifications including refactoring, gene deletions and targeted mutations. This facilitated the construction of an inducible, riboswitch-controlled pathway and led to the production of multiple new bottromycin derivatives. This methodology is now being applied with numerous novel actinobacterial pathways to discover new natural products (Eyles et al. 2018). To enable the discovery of novel ribosomally synthesised and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), we have developed a genome mining tool, RiPPER (https://github.com/streptomyces/ripper), which enables the family-independent identification of RiPP precursor peptides (Santos-Aberturas et al. 2018). We used this tool to show that thioamidated RiPP natural products are likely to be widely distributed and diverse, despite currently being incredibly rare. To illustrate this, we characterise the structure and biosynthetic pathway to a new thioamidated natural product family, the thiovarsolins. RiPPER has enabled the bioinformatic identification of many novel gene clusters that are in the process of being investigated.

We reported the identification of two flavone hydroxylases from the S. baicalensis, a plant commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (Zhao et al., 2018a). This work extended our previous work to elucidate the entire biosynthetic pathway for baicalein. It laid a solid foundation for enhancing production of the specific flavones in Scutellaria plants or, alternatively, synthesizing them in novel hosts. We have continued the characterisation of the biosynthetic pathway for bioactive flavones in Scutellaria baicalensis. This work has been submitted to Molecular Plant and is currently under review. We have completed the genome sequence for S .baicalensis (Zhao et al., 2018b) and identified a number of candidate transcription factors regulating the 4'deoxyflavone biosynthetic pathway in roots. We investigated the metabolic origin of the benzenoid moiety of the vital respiratory cofactor, ubiquinone (coenzyme Q), from phenylpropanoid metabolism via b-oxidation of p-coumarate to form 4-hydroxybenzoate (Soubeyrand et al., 2018). A connection between the biosynthesis of ubiquinone and that of flavonoids was uncovered in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato. Collectively, these data indicated that kaempferol contributes to the biosynthesis of a vital respiratory cofactor, resulting in an extraordinary metabolic arrangement where a specialized metabolite serves as a precursor for a primary metabolite.

We have carried out a systematic analysis of gene clusters for terpene biosynthesis in multiple plant genomes and found evidence for a role for Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) in cluster formation in eudicots. Through investigation of the newly sequenced Amborella trichopoda, Aquilegia coerulea and Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi genomes we further show that the 'block' mechanism of founding of biosynthetic gene clusters through duplication and diversification of pairs of terpene synthase and cytochrome P450 genes that is prevalent in the eudicots arose around 90-130 million years ago, after the appearance of the basal eudicots and before the emergence of the super-rosid clade (Boutanaev & Osbourn 2018).

OBJECTIVE 2: UNDERSTAND AND HARNESS TERPENE DIVERSITY (O'CONNOR, OSBOURN)
We have identified all remaining enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the iridiod-derived alkaloid vinblastine in Catharanthus roseus (Caputi et al, 2018). We have also identified all enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of nepetalactone from Nepeta cateria (Lichman et al, 2019). This discovery includes the discovery of a novel helper cyclase that controls the stereoselectivity of the nepetalactone scaffold. Vinblastine has anti-cancer activity and nepetalactone has insect repellent activity, so these compounds have high potential for industrial translation. We have successfully pinpointed protein protein interactions among various enzymes involved in vinblastine biosynthesis (Caputi et al, 2018); these data point the way toward understanding how pathways are organized in planta, and how we may optimize and improve heterologous production platforms by tweaking these interactions. We are currently assembling transcriptomic data across diverse plant species in the Apocynacecea and Rubiaceae families to discover new bioactive iridoid alkaloids, and to uncover novel enzyme activities responsible for their synthesis.

We have elucidated two key steps required for the biosynthesis of the antimicrobial defence compound avenacin, which protects oats against attack by soil-borne pathogens such as take-all disease. These are a C-21beta oxidase required for acylation (Leveau et al. 2019) and an arabinosyltransferase that initiates addition of a glycosyl chain (Louveau et al. 2018). Both of these modifications are critical for antifungal activity and hence disease resistance. We further identify a second arabinosyltransferase potentially implicated in the biosynthesis of saponins that determine bitterness in soybean. Our investigations suggest independent evolution of UDP-arabinose sugar donor specificity in arabinosyltransferases in monocots and eudicots (Louveau et al. 2018). Our investigations of enzymes that make complex triterpene scaffolds that form the basis of an enormous array of diverse starting points for metabolic pathways of agronomic, medicinal and industrial importance have led to the discovery of a novel pentacyclic triterpene orysatinol and identified key residues determining product specificity (Xue et al. 2018). The biosynthetic route to orysatinol appears to correspond to an unprecedented divergence from the traditional dichotomous protosteryl/dammarenyl view of triterpene biogenesis. Not only does this discovery widen the potential scope of triterpene scaffolds that could exist in nature, it could call into question the reliability of stereochemical assignments of some existing triterpene structures that are supported by only limited spectroscopic evidence (Stephenson et al., in press).

OBJECTIVE 3: UNDERSTAND THE ASSEMBLY OF GLUCAN POLYMERS AND GRANULES (SMITH, FIELD)
As part of our work to identify components of the starch-granule initiation machinery and elucidate their functions (Seung and Smith, 2019), we are developing lines of wheat that lack the orthologues of components discovered thus far in Arabidopsis (using TILLING mutants in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat backgrounds). Full mutants for three components have been confirmed thus far. All have pronounced starch granule abnormalities in the grain endosperm, but these are not identical to the starch granule abnormalities in the equivalent Arabidopsis mutants. To probe these differences, the three wheat proteins have been expressed in the equivalent Arabidopsis mutants to discover whether they are able to complement the mutant phenotypes: characterisation of these transgenic lines is underway.

We have defined the activities of isomeric starch debranching isoamylases from cassava (with Limpaseni, Bangkok, Thailand: Panpetch et al, 2018a, Panpetch et al, 2018b) and we have continued our chemical genetics studies, using small molecule probes to uncover new aspects of plant carbohydrate metabolism (with Overkleeft, Leiden, the Netherlands; Svensson, Copenhagen, Denmark: Rugen et al, 2018a, Rugen et al, 2018b). In connection with studies on beta-glucan metabolism in Euglena gracilis, we have discovered a new family of carbohydrate-active enzyme (designated GH149), which encodes a beta-1,3-glucan phosphorylase (with Patron, EI; Henrissat, Marseille, France: Kuhaudomlarp et al, 2018) and we have begun to dissect the molecular basis of substrate recognition by the phosphorylases (with Lawson, JIC protein crystallography platform; Angulo, UEA: Kuhaudomlarp et al, 2019).

Tools and techniques established during this work have been applied to collaborative work on: saponin biosynthesis (with Osbourn: Louveau et al, 2018); glucan polysaccharide formation in Erwinia amylovora (causes Fire Blight in apples) (with Benini, Bolzani, Italy: Polsinelli et al, 2019, Salomone-Stagni et al, 2018) and biotech applications of related enzymes (with Pichyangkura, Bangkok, Thailand: Wangpaiboon et al, 2018); surface protein glycosylation in gut commensal bacteria (with Juge, QIB: Latousakis et al, 2019); cell wall biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (with de Carvalho, Crick Institute and GSK: Craggs et al, 2018); cell surface and toxin glycosylation in relation to harmful algal blooms on the Norfolk Broads (with the Environment Agency: Wagstaff et al, 2018a; Hems et al, 2018a, Hems et al, 2018b,Wagstaff et al, 2018b).

OBJECTIVE 4: ZINC AND IRON HOMEOSTASIS IN PLANTS (BALK, SANDERS, MILLER)
We have developed an iron-regulated reporter for genetic screens which was previously tested using different iron concentrations in the medium (Balk et al, 2019, Bastow et al, 2018, Kruse et al, 2018, Rodríguez-Celma et al, 2019). We have now validated the reporter in two different iron homeostasis mutants, which at the same time provided new insights into the function of the mutant genes. The results were presented at the International Symposium for Plant Iron Nutrition in Taipei (July 2018). Screening of an Arabidopsis mutant population with the iron reporter has identified 5 mutant lines, one with constitutive iron deficiency, and 4 which are deficient in sensing iron deficiency. Work in ferritin concentration in pea along with associated nutritional consequences was also reported (Perfecto et al, 2018, Moore et al, 2018). The promoters of several zinc-responsive genes have been identified, these include candidates that are responsive to both deficiency and excess zinc. Luciferase reporter lines have been made using these promoters and have been chemically mutagenized. These plants are being screened to identify mutants showing unusual responses to changes in zinc supply.

2018-2019 ASSOCIATED PUBLICATIONS
- Balk et al, 2019, Nutr. Bull., in press - Bastow et al, 2018, Plant Physiol. 177, 1267-1276 - Boutanaev and Osbourn 2018, PNAS 115, E6650-6658 - Caputi et al, 2018, Science, 360, 1235-1239 - Craggs et al, 2018, Biochemistry, 57, 3387-3401 - Dangl et al., 2018, Cell 174, 499-500 - Eyles et al, 2018, ACS Synth. Biol. 7, 1211-1218 - Ghosh et al, 2018, Nature Protocols 13, 2944-2963 - Goossens et al, 2018, Trends Plant Sci., 23, 273-276 - Hems et al, 2018a, Chem. Commun., 54, 1223-1227 - Hems et al, 2018b, Carbohydr. Res., 463, 14-23 - Kruse et al, 2018, Biochem. J. 475, 495-509 - Kuhaudomlarp et al, 2018, J. Biol. Chem., 293, 2865-2876 - Kuhaudomlarp et al, 2019, ChemBioChem, 20, 181-192 - Latousakis et al, 2019, Glycobiology, 29, 45-58 - Leveau et al, 2019, New Phytologist, 221, 1544-1555 - Li, et al, 2018, Cell Discovery 4, 29 - Lichman et al, 2019, Nat. Chem. Biol., 15, 71-79 - Louveau et al, 2018, Plant Cell 30, 3038-3057 - Moore et al, 2018, Sci. Rep. 8, 6865 - Panpetch et al, 2018a, Plant Mol. Biol., 96, 417-427 - Panpetch et al, 2018b, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 132, 281-286 - Perfecto et al, 2018, J. Nutr. 148, 1229-1235 - Polsinelli et al, 2019, Int. J. Biol. Macromol, 127, 496-501 - Reed and Osbourn 2018, Plant Cell Rep., 37, 1431-1441 - Rodríguez-Celma et al, 2019, Front. Plant Sci. in press - Rugen et al, 2018a, Meth. Mol. Biol. 1795, 101-115 - Rugen et al, 2018b, Sci. Rep., 8, 16421 - Salomone-Stagni et al, 2018, J. Struct. Biol., 203, 109-119 - Santos-Aberturas, J. et al. 2018, bioRxiv 494286 - Seung and Smith, 2019, J. Exp. Bot., 70, 771-784 - Soubeyrand et al, 2018 Plant Cell, 30, 2910-2921 - Stephenson et al, 2018, J. Visualized Experiments, e58169 - Stephenson et al, 2019, Nat. Prod. Rep. in press - Wagstaff et al, 2018a, J. Biol. Chem., 293, 16277-16290 - Wagstaff et al, 2018b, Biochem. Soc. Trans., 46, 413-421 - Wangpaiboon et al, 2018, Sci. Rep., 8, 8340 - Xue et al, 2018, New Phytologist, 218, 1076-1088 - Zhao et al, 2018a, Mol. Plant, 11, 135-148 - Zhao et al, 2018b, bioRxiv, 398032.

UPDATE 2017-2018

OBJECTIVE 1: UNCOVERING NEW CHEMICAL DIVERSITY (WILKINSON, TRUMAN, MARTIN, OSBOURN)
Using a genomics-guided approach, the Truman group has discovered multiple thioviridamide-like molecules, cytotoxic RiPPs produced by actinomycetes. This discovery will aid our understanding of how these complex natural products are biosynthesised. Truman's group has also discovered the pathways to the metalloproteinase inhibitors actinonin and matlystatin. This aided in the generation of new unnatural matlystatin derivatives.
- Frattaruolo, L., Lacret, R., Cappello, A. R., Truman, A. W. (2017) A Genomics-Based Approach Identifies a Thioviridamide-Like Compound with Selective Anticancer Activity. ACS Chemical Biology, 12, 2815-2822.
- Leipoldt, F., Santos-Aberturas, J., Stegmann, D. P., Wolf, F., Kulik, A., Lacret, R., Popadic, D., Keinhörster, D., Kirchner, N., Bekiesch, P., Gross, H., Truman, A., Kaysser L. (2017) Warhead biosynthesis and the origin of structural diversity in hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors. Nature Communications, 8, 1965.
- Franz, L., Adam, S., Santos-Aberturas, J., Truman, A. W., and Koehnke, J. (2017) Macroamidine Formation in Bottromycins Is Catalyzed by a Divergent YcaO Enzyme. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139, 18158-18161.
- Vior, N. M., Lacret, R., Chandra, G., Dorai-Raj, S., Trick, M., and Truman, A. W. (2018) Discovery and biosynthesis of the antibiotic bicyclomycin in distant bacterial classes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology AEM.02828-17.

The Wilkinson group has identified a new methodology for the Accelerated Evolution of modular biosynthetic gene clusters which leads rapidly to the diversification of chemical space around valuable polyketide natural products. We delineated the biosynthetic pathway to the unusual ?-lactone antibiotic obafluorin in Pseudomonas fluorescens and identified a new family of L-threonine transaldolases involved in ?-hydroxy-?-amino acid biosynthesis. In collaboration with colleagues at UEA we have shown that the conserved actinobacterial two two-component system mtrAB links Streptomyces development to antibiotic production, and that its manipulation leads to increased titres and potentially the induction of cryptic compounds.
- Wlodek, A. et al (2017) Diversity orientated biosynthesis via accelerated evolution of modular gene clusters. Nat. Commun. 8:1206.
- Scott, T.A., et al (2017) An L-threonine transaldolase is required for L-threo-?-hydroxy-?-amino acid assembly during obafluorin biosynthesis. Nat. Commun. 8:15935.
- Som, N.F., et al (2017) The conserved actinobacterial two-component system MtrAB coordinates chloramphenicol production with sporulation in Streptomyces venezuelae NRRL B-65442. Front. Microbiol. 8:1145.

OBJECTIVE 2: UNDERSTAND AND HARNESS TERPENE DIVERSITY (O'CONNOR, OSBOURN)
As part of their studies on iridoid biosynthesis, The O'Connor group has established a number of new, key biosynthetic enzymes in these pathways in the Lamiaceae. These biosynthetic genes will have impact in reconstituting these bioactive compounds in heterologous hosts.
- Sherden, N.H., Lichman, B., Caputi, L., Zhao, D., Kamileen, M.O., Buell, C.R., O'Connor, S.E.. (2018) Identification of Iridoid Synthases from Nepeta species: Iridoid cyclization does not determine nepetalactone stereochemistry. Phytochemistry. 145, 48-56.

The Osbourn group has also discovered a swathe of enzymes for the biosynthesis of sesterterpenes in the Brassicaceae, so opening up the way to access and engineer a previously inaccessible class of plant natural products.
- Diverged Plant Terpene Synthases Reroute the Carbocation Cyclization Path towards the Formation of Unprecedented 6/11/5 and 6/6/7/5 Sesterterpene Scaffolds. Huang AC, Hong YJ, Bond AD, Tantillo DJ, Osbourn A. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 Jan 26;57(5):1291-1295. doi: 10.1002/anie.201711444. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
- Unearthing a sesterterpene biosynthetic repertoire in the Brassicaceae through genome mining reveals convergent evolution. Huang AC, Kautsar SA, Hong YJ, Medema MH, Bond AD, Tantillo DJ, Osbourn A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jul 18;114(29):E6005-E6014. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1705567114. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

OBJECTIVE 3: UNDERSTAND THE ASSEMBLY OF GLUCAN POLYMERS AND GRANULES (SMITH, FIELD)
As part of their exploration of factors that control starch degradation in leaves at night, the Smith group has established that degradation in "natural" light conditions commences before the onset of complete darkness, during a period in which light levels are falling but light-driven starch synthesis is continuing. This overlap between starch synthesis and starch degradation during twilight permits a transition from light to dark without a fall in sugar availability in the leaf. Starch degradation does not commence in response to the same decline in light levels in the middle of the day, implying that this phenomenon is gated and is under the control of the circadian clock. They are investigating the elements of the clock required for this response, and the implications for starch granule surface dynamics of simultaneous synthesis and degradation.
- Fernandez O., Ishihara H., George G. M., Mengin V., Flis A., Sumner D., Arrivault S., Feil R., Lunn J. E., Zeeman S. C., Smith A. M., Stitt M. (2017) Leaf Starch Turnover Occurs in Long Days and in Falling Light at the End of the Day. Plant Physiology 174 2199-2212

In connection with studies on granular beta-glucan metabolism in Euglena gracilis, the Field group has discovered a new family of carbohydrate-active enzyme (designated GH149), which encodes a beta-1,3-glucan phosphorylase. The methodologies that we have devised and implemented have also led to: the identification of unprededented Glc-1-P transferase activity and novel glycoprotein glycan modifications in Euglena; the structural characterisation and exploitation of a bacterial cellulose phosphorylase; rewriting the text book structure of plant cell wall rhamnogalacturonan II; and identification of plant cell wall glycoprotein glycosyltransferases
- Identification of Euglena gracilis ?-1,3-glucan phosphorylase and establishment of a new glycosyl hydrolase family GH 149. S. Kuhaudomlarp, N. J. Patron, B. Henrissat, M. Rejzek, G. Saalbach, R. A. Field, J. Biol. Chem., accepted, doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000936.
- Exploring the glycans of Euglena gracilis. E. C. O'Neill, S. Kuhaudomlarp, M. Rejzek, J. U. Fangel, K. Alagesan, D. Kolarich, W. G. T. Willats, R. A. Field, Biology, 2017, 6, 45 doi:10.3390/biology6040045.
- Fluorescent mannosides serve as acceptor substrates for glycosyltransferase and sugar-1-phosphate transferase activities in Euglena gracilis membranes. I. Ivanova, S. A. Nepogodiev, G. Saalbach, E. C. O'Neill, M. D. Urbaniak, M. A. J. Ferguson, S. S. Gurcha, G. S. Besra, R. A. Field, Carbohydr. Res., 2017, 438, 26-38.
- Cellodextrin phosphorylase from Ruminiclostridium thermocellum: X-ray crystal structure and substrate specificity analysis. E. C. O'Neill, G. Pergolizzi, C. E. M. Stevenson, D. M. Lawson, S. A. Nepogodiev, R. A. Field, Carbohydr. Res., 2017, 451, 118-132.
- Complex pectin metabolism by gut bacteria reveals novel catalytic functions. D. Ndeh, A. Rogowski, A. Cartmell, A. S. Luis, A. Baslé, J. Gray, I. Venditto, J. Briggs, X. Zhang, N. Terrapon, F. Buffetto, S. A. Nepogodiev, R. A. Field, M. A. O'Neill, B. Urbanowicz, G. J. Davies, D. W. Abbott, M.-C. Ralet, E. C. Martens, B. Henrissat, H. J. Gilbert, Nature, 2017, 544, 65-70.
- Identification and evolution of a plant cell wall specific glycoprotein glycosyltransferase, ExAD. S. R. Moeller, X. Yi, S. M. Velásquez, S. Gille, P. L. M. Hansen, C. P. Poulsen, C. E. Olsen, H. H. Wandall, H. Clausen, M. Rejzek, R. A. Field, M. Pauly, J. M Estevez, J. Harholt, P. Ulvskov, B. L. Petersen, Sci. Rep., 2017, 7, 45341. doi: 10.1038/srep45341

OBJECTIVE 4: ZINC AND IRON HOMEOSTASIS IN PLANTS (BALK, SANDERS, MILLER)
As part of the Balk group's efforts to unravel the pathways of metal cofactor assembly in plant cells, they have characterized the early steps of molybdenum cofactor (Moco) biosynthesis. They found a viable mutant in CNX2, the first step in Moco biosynthesis, in which the positioning of the iron-sulfur clusters is likely to be altered. This leads to lower production of the cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate intermediate. A novel mass spectrometry method was developed to detect cyclic pyranopterin.
- Kruse I, Maclean AE, Hill L and Balk J (2018). Genetic dissection of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate biosynthesis in plant mitochondria. Biochem J. 475, 495-509. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20170559

The Miller and Sanders groups have shown that in cereals the endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar zinc accumulation (Menguer et al. 2017). Detailed X-ray fluorescence analysis of longitudinal sections demonstrated evidence of homeostasis with the grain as there was a redistribution of grain Zn from aleurone to endosperm. This study provides the basis of a strategy for biofortification of cereal endosperm with Zn. In another paper an irradiated population of spring wheat was used to show that there is the capacity to increase by 4-fold grain iron and zinc without negatively impacting on crop productivity (Kenzhebayeva et al. 2017).
- Menguer P, Vincent T, Miller AJ, Brown JKM, Vincze E, Borg S, Holm PB, Sanders D, Podar D (2017) Improving zinc accumulation in barley endosperm using HvMTP1, a transition metal transporter. Plant Biotechnology Journal (in press) doi:10.1111/pbi.12749
- Kenzhebayeva SS, Doktyrbay G, Capstaff NM, Sarsu F, Omirbekova NZ, Eilam T, Tashenev DK, Miller AJ (2017) Searching a spring wheat mutation resource for correlations between yield, grain size, and quality parameters. Journal of Crop Improvement 31 (2):209-228. doi:10.1080/15427528.2016.1276990
Exploitation Route All of these findings can be used by the academic community to serve as a springboard for further research in metabolism. The translation of this research is currently being explored via a multitude of different ways, with industry, biotech, breeders, farmers, food researchers and public engagement.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Field has started a biotech company on research underpinned by the ISP funding. Osbourn and O'Connor work with the Norwich research park based LeafSystems to make high value molecules on a practical scale; some of this work is funded by a BBSRC IPA grant. The iron reporter lines were trialed as a tool in an industry-led research project to find the cause of iron deficiency in commercially-grown raspberries. Two companies were involved, the fertilizer company Biotech Solutions and a large soft fruit grower belonging to the Berry Gardens group. The vinblastine and nepetalcatone biosynthetic genes have been filed in a preliminary patent and plans for a spin out company for heterologous production of monoterpene indole alkaloids are being explored. Martin is discussions with a biotechnology park in China (Kotler Medical Park) with money to invest in trials of bioactives from Chinese Traditional Medicine. She has also started discussions with Zhi Zhang of LifeArc, a UK-based company interested in investing in human trials of 4'-deoxyflavones as a therapy complementary to traditional therapies. The work on the evolutionary pathway of 4'-deoxyflavone production in the genus Scutellaria will form part of a closer link with Alan Paton and Melanie Howes at Kew Gardens. Wilkinson extended his collaboration with the biotech company Isomerase to include the production of natural products that inhibit Gram-negative pathogen virulence factors through an MRC funded iCase studentship. He also hosted a visiting PhD student from the University of Milan who successfully identified a natural product responsible for inhibiting the growth of wheat pathogenic Fusarium strains, in addition to a second natural product which does not affect growth of these strains but reduces the production of Fusarium toxins (which might hint at alternative biocontrol strategies). This work may [Brexit dependent] form the basis of a future EU grant application, and a manuscript is in preparation. Osbourn has a joint studentship with Syngenta on anti-insecticidal triterpenes that has led to a high profile publication (Hodgson et al. PNAS 116, 17096 2019). Osbourn has a BBSRC Super Follow-on-Fund award to elucidate the pathway for the vaccine adjuvant QS-21, a triterpene that is currently sourced by extraction from the bark of the Chilean tree Quillaja saponaria. This work also involves the reconstitution of the QS-21 pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana, a wild relative of tobacco, using a powerful and rapid transient expression system developed at JIC, with the aim of developing a heterologous production platform for this important compound. The Osbourn lab has filed two new patent applications during the last year. Additionally, all of the research in this project has been submitted to the public domain and is used by the greater academic community.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Contribution to SAW Antibiotics book
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL http://www.sawtrust.org/buy-the-books/saw-antibiotics/
 
Description Analysis of triterpene biosynthesis and diversity in neem
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Funding ID IE151125 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 02/2018
 
Description BBSRC High Value Chemical from Plants Network Proof of Concept Funds
Amount £57,099 (GBP)
Funding ID POC-OCT15-03 (OSBOURN) 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description Bio-engineering non-sugar modifications of saponins - BBSRC CTP studentship
Amount £41,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R505584/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 10/2021
 
Description Engineering Quillaja saponin biosynthesis pathways for bio-production of QS-21
Amount £1,223,712 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R005508/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 07/2020
 
Description Engineering saponin surfactants
Amount £71,590 (GBP)
Organisation Unilever 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2019
 
Description NRP DTP
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Funding ID MARTIN_J18DTP: Natural blues: structure meets function in plant natural products 
Organisation Norwich Research Park 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description Norwich Research Park Translational Fund
Amount £51,119 (GBP)
Funding ID REF 3.1 - Novel commercial saponins from synthetic biology 
Organisation Norwich Research Park 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2016
 
Description Nybomycin responsive mode follow on
Amount £517,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P021506/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Royal Society Enhancement Award
Amount £99,859 (GBP)
Funding ID RGF/EA/180154 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Description Royal Society Enhancement Award
Amount £170,640 (GBP)
Funding ID RGF\EA\181083 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Royal Society University Research Fellowships Renewal
Amount £363,410 (GBP)
Funding ID URF\R\180007 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2021
 
Description Syngenta
Amount £71,000 (GBP)
Organisation Syngenta International AG 
Department Syngenta Ltd (Bracknell)
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2019
 
Title Establishment of a common syntax for plant synthetic biology 
Description Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonucleasemediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. To this end we have proposed a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts for plant synthetic biology. This is supported by the international community and has been published. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The establishment of a common plant syntax has paved the way for the introduction of an Open MTA for material transfer, now trialled and published (Kahl et al. 2018, Nature Biotechnology 36: 923), simple and open systems for recusrsive fabrication of DNA circuits (Pollak et al. 2018, New Phytologist: https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15625) and for discussions with Addgene, the nonprofit global plasmid repository, archives and distributes plasmids for scientists. These advances are catalytic and we envisage that they will promote and accelerate plant biology research within the UK and internationally. 
 
Title Establishment of a reverse genetics TILLING platform for diploid oat 
Description We have established a TILLING platform for diploid oat (Avena strigosa accession S75) using a sodium azide-generated mutant population that we have generated. The platform has been made available to the international research community through the RevGen platform at the John Innes Centre 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This platform will enable identification of mutants in target genes for scientific research and crop improvement. 
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/research-impact/technology-platforms/genomic-services/reverse-genetics/
 
Title RIPPER genome mining 
Description RiPPER is a command line computational tool that assists in the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters and associated precursor peptides for RiPPs, a large and important class of natural product. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This has assisted in research projects in my group and I have had contact with researchers in other groups who have benefited from the tool and the results we have reported from its use. It assisted in the identification of a new family of natural products, the thiovarsolins, which were characterised by my group. The identification of these natural products and the development of the tool were reported in a BioRxiv pre-print (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/494286v1) and have just been accepted for publication in Nucleic Acids Research. 
URL https://github.com/streptomyces/ripper
 
Title Speed breeding for crop breeding and model plant research 
Description To meet the challenge of feeding a growing population, breeders and scientists are continuously looking for ways to increase genetic gain in crop breeding. One way this can be achieved is through 'speed breeding' (SB), which shortens the breeding cycle and accelerates research studies through rapid generation advancement. The SB method can be carried out in a number of ways, one of which involves extending the duration of a plant's daily exposure to light (photoperiod) combined with early seed harvest in order to cycle quickly from seed to seed, thereby reducing the generation times for some long-day (LD) or day-neutral crops. We have developed glasshouse and growth chamber-based SB protocols with supporting data from experimentation with several crop species. These protocols describe the growing conditions, including soil media composition, lighting, temperature and spacing, which promote rapid growth of spring and winter bread wheat, durum wheat, barley, oat, various members of the Brassica family, chickpea, pea, grasspea, quinoa and the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Points of flexibility within the protocols are highlighted, including how plant density can be increased to efficiently scale-up plant numbers for single seed descent (SSD) purposes. Conversely, instructions on how to perform SB on a small-scale by creating a benchtop SB growth cabinet that enables optimization of parameters at a low cost are provided. We also outline the procedure for harvesting and germinating premature wheat, barley and pea seed to reduce generation time. Finally, we provide troubleshooting suggestions to avoid potential pitfalls. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This methodology opens up opportunities to accelerate and revolutionise crop improvement programmes and the field of plant biology research more broadly. 
URL https://www.nature.com/articles/s41477-017-0083-8
 
Title Transient plant expression technology for triterpene production at preparative scale 
Description We have develop a method for transient heterologous expression of biosynthetic enzymes in N. benthamiana for production of high-value triterpenes. Agro-infiltration is an efficient and simple means of achieving transient expression in N. benthamiana. The process involves infiltration of plant leaves with a suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the expression construct(s) of interest. Co-infiltration of an additional A. tumefaciens strain carrying an expression construct encoding an enzyme that boosts precursor supply significantly increases yields. After a period of five days, the infiltrated leaf material can be harvested and processed to extract and isolate the resulting triterpene product(s). This is a process that is linearly and reliably scalable, simply by increasing the number of plants used in the experiment. We have developed a protocol for rapid preparative-scale production of triterpenes utilizing this plant-based platform. The protocol utilizes an easily replicable vacuum infiltration apparatus, which allows the simultaneous infiltration of up to four plants, enabling batch-wise infiltration of hundreds of plants in a short period of time. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Generation of gram-scale quantities of 98% pure triterpenes and demonstration that we can rapidly carry out combinatorial expression of enzymes from our triterpene toolkit to generate known and new-to-nature compounds. This had attracted considerable interest from industry and led to four new projects directly funded by different companies in the pharma, ag, food and drink and home and personal care sectors. 
URL https://www.jove.com/video/58169/transient-expression-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves-for-triterpene
 
Description A pipeline for antibiotic disovery 
Organisation University of East Anglia
Department School of Biological Sciences UEA
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Natural products chemistry and biosynthesis; actinomycete genetics; genome mining; bioinformatics; anti-infective assays
Collaborator Contribution Entomology; actinomycete biology; genetic regulation; bioinformatics; anti-infective assays
Impact Publications and subseqeunt grant applications
Start Year 2013
 
Description Biosynthesis of natural products from an Australian actinomycete strain library 
Organisation BioAustralis
Country Australia 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Biosynthesis; genome mining; natural products chemistry
Collaborator Contribution Strain and compound provision; data on metabolite profiles; fermentation data
Impact Successful grant applciations
Start Year 2014
 
Description Biosynthesis of natural products from marine microbes, e.g. heronamide biosynthesis 
Organisation University of Queensland
Department Institute for Molecular Bioscience
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Streptomyces genetics; natural products chemistry; biosynthesis; genome mining
Collaborator Contribution Strain isolation and provision
Impact Publication
Start Year 2014
 
Description CDs 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Evaluation of a glycosynthase for novel cyclodextrin production
Collaborator Contribution Provision of clone of wild type enzyme and active site mutant
Impact Too early to judge
Start Year 2017
 
Description Calabria thioviridamides 
Organisation University of Calabria
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We established a project to discovery new thioviridamide-like molecules (TLMs) by the use of a genome mining method. This involved pathway identification, strain fermentation, pathway cloning and mutagenesis, and then purification and chemical analysis of the products of these pathways.
Collaborator Contribution The group of Anna Rita Cappello determined the biological activity of our purified compounds against bacteria, fungi and human cell lines.
Impact Publication: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschembio.7b00677 This collaboration is multi-disciplinary. We carry out microbiology, genetics and chemistry and the partners carry out cell biology assays.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Elucidation of the biosynthesis of anti-insect triterpenoids 
Organisation Syngenta International AG
Department Syngenta Crop Protection
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Joint-funded (JIC KEC/Syngenta) collaborative studentship to elucidate the early steps in the limonoid pathway.
Collaborator Contribution Syngenta have provided co-supervision, a one-week industrial placement for the PhD student and access to screening platforms.
Impact A patent has been filed and a paper published (Hodgson et al. PNAS 116, 17096 2019). A BBSRC IPA proposal with Syngenta has also been submitted.
Start Year 2016
 
Description HIPS Bottromycin Biosynthesis 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research, Saarbrucken
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Using tandem mass spectrometry, we characterised enzymatic transformations to the bottromycin precursor peptide. In addition, we generated mutant forms of the bottromycin producing organism (Streptomyces scabies) to determine the importance of a number of enzyme residues for catalysis. This was assessed by looking at the metabolites produced by these mutants using LC-MS.
Collaborator Contribution They expressed and purified enzymes involved in bottromycin biosynthesis, and then carried out enzymatic assays. The products of these assays were then sent to us for analysis. They also carried out mutagenesis of these enzymes, which guided our mutations in Streptomyces scabies.
Impact Publication: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.7b09898
Start Year 2017
 
Description Kidney glycobiology - Taiwan 
Organisation National Defense Medical Center
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Technical insight on glycan analysis
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to clinical samples
Impact Taiwan Govt funding application - unsuccessful
Start Year 2016
 
Description MD starch 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Experimental evaluation of glycan structure and enzyme sensitivityt
Collaborator Contribution Microsecond molecular dynamics simulation to assess glycan-glycan interactions
Impact Too early
Start Year 2017
 
Description Macquarie University collaboration 
Organisation Macquarie University
Department Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Biosynthetic chemistry and molecular microbiology
Collaborator Contribution Natural products chemistry, structural chemistry
Impact Manuscript in preparation
Start Year 2019
 
Description Nrf2- ligand interactions 
Organisation Government of Taiwan
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of peptide ligand
Collaborator Contribution In vivo assessment of prospective drug delivery agent
Impact too earyl to judge
Start Year 2016
 
Description PPase 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Work up of scalable synthesis of N-glycan analogues
Collaborator Contribution Clone of N-glycan phosphorylase
Impact Too early
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of León Collaboration 
Organisation Fundacion MEDINA
Country Spain 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution This collaboration was started to identify the natural products that were responsible for antifungal activity in Streptomyces clavuligerus following introduction of a regulatory gene into this strain. We also mapped the global changes to metabolism in this strain too using LC-MS. This led to the identification of a wide variety of tunicamycins, where a few specific versions of this molecule exhibited antifungal activity. We helped write the resulting research paper.
Collaborator Contribution The partners led this research project, where they genetically manipulated Streptomyces clavuligerus and assessed changes to gene expression using microarrays. They also assessed the changes in production of other natural products known to be produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus , including the beta-lactam antibiotic cephamycin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. They led the writing of the research paper.
Impact A paper was published in Frontiers in Microbiology that reports this work: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00580/abstract
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of León Collaboration 
Organisation University of Leon
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration was started to identify the natural products that were responsible for antifungal activity in Streptomyces clavuligerus following introduction of a regulatory gene into this strain. We also mapped the global changes to metabolism in this strain too using LC-MS. This led to the identification of a wide variety of tunicamycins, where a few specific versions of this molecule exhibited antifungal activity. We helped write the resulting research paper.
Collaborator Contribution The partners led this research project, where they genetically manipulated Streptomyces clavuligerus and assessed changes to gene expression using microarrays. They also assessed the changes in production of other natural products known to be produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus , including the beta-lactam antibiotic cephamycin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. They led the writing of the research paper.
Impact A paper was published in Frontiers in Microbiology that reports this work: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00580/abstract
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Tübingen Actinonin Biosynthesis 
Organisation Eberhard Karls University of Tubingen
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We sequenced the genome of the actinonin producing organism to identify its biosynthetic gene cluster, as well as identifying the gene cluster of the related compound matlystatin in a different organism. We carried out chemical feeding experiments to determine the biosynthesis of actinonin and also carried out feeding experiments to make novel matlystatin derivatives.
Collaborator Contribution They independently identified the same gene clusters as ourselves. Following this, they cloning the matlystatin gene cluster and investigated its biosynthesis by mutating most genes in the pathway. They also carried out different feeding experiments to ourselves to support biosynthetic proposals.
Impact Publication: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/29213087
Start Year 2017
 
Description VHinman 
Organisation Carnegie Mellon University
Department Department of Biological Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My lab is investigating triterpene biosynthesis in plants. We have collaborated with the US lab to extend our investigations into marine organisms.
Collaborator Contribution The US lab has expertise in handling and investigating marine animals. We have worked with them to carry out gene cloning, transcription analysis and investigation of metabolite content.
Impact A manuscript is in preparation.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Xiamen University Bicyclomycin Project 
Organisation Xiamen University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In the process of fermenting a natural product antibiotic from a Streptomyces strain that will then be purified for use by collaborators in Xiamen University.
Collaborator Contribution Assessing the biological activity and mechanism of action of the Streptomyces antibiotic.
Impact Collaboration started recently so no outputs so far.
Start Year 2016
 
Title Metabolic engineering 
Description Genes and polypeptides which have utility in engineering or modifying quillaic acid production or hydrolysis in host cells. 
IP Reference WO2019122259 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact This patent has been pivotal to the development of a large collaboration with a major pharma company.
 
Title Scaffold modification 
Description he present invention relates generally to methods and materials for use in glycosylation of chemical scaffolds, such as triterpenes. 
IP Reference GB1808617.3 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact This patent is pivotal to the pending establishment of a spin-out company
 
Company Name Persephone Bio Ltd 
Description Persephone Bio is a plant natural products company (Company Number 9128375) producing bioactive compounds for the cosmetics and skin therapeutics sector. It was spun-out by CM and Eugenio Butelli supported by their prize money for the BBSRC's most promising innovation of 2014. Its mission is to establish routes to market for non-food ingredients produced in tomato, in particular for cosmetics 
Year Established 2014 
Impact Proprietary TomPro production system for making extracts from tomatoes without use of chemicals
Website http://persephonebio.co.uk/
 
Description "Meet the Scientist" Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact During the Norwich Science Festival we organised a "meet the scientist" event where scientists who had won a space to have their images exhibited in a display were invited to come and give a 5 minute presentation next to their image about their work. This was a free ticketed event for a maximum of 50 people, all tickets went and the audience response was excellent with everyone staying behind after the presentations to chat to the scientists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description "You can't judge a book from its cover". A series of 15 workshops for different ages/groups run for SAW Trust by Jenni Rant and Sami Stebbings. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The first project was on 11.05.18, for elderly people. The writing and artwork was displayed at the Norwich Science Festival in October 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Biodiversity Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact New SAW workshop delivered at Bignold Primary School on World Biodiversity Day to introduce year 4 children to the importance of biodiversity for people and the planet and to some of the factors that are causing species decline across the globe. The children were amazed by the wealth of species, their importance in the ecosystem and how humans utilise natural products and shocked by the driving forces to extinction, a term they believed to only apply in the past, linked to dinosaurs, and not something that was ongoing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.sawtrust.org/in-schools/world-biodiversity-day-at-bignold-primary-school/
 
Description CEPAMS Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Symposium reporting CEPAMS activities with International guest speakers as well
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Centre Of Excellence For Plant And Microbial Science (CEPAMs) Symposium 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented at the Centre Of Excellence For Plant And Microbial Science (CEPAMs) Symposium 2019, held in Shanghai, China. This led to interactions with numerous researchers at Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) Institutes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Chair and Organiser for RSC Directing Biosynthesis V Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chaired the organising committee and conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.rsc.org/events/detail/22912/Directing%20Biosynthesis%20V
 
Description Chaired inaugural meeting of EPSO working group on Nutritional Security 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chaired inaugural meeting of EPSO working group on Nutritional Security
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Curriculum Hacks event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented a large display on engagement activities developed and run by the SAW Trust for OpenPlant at a variety of events to share ideas with other people working in synthetic biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description DNA Dave Presentation at the Biomakers Fayre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We were awarded Biomaker and biochemical society funding to progress ideas for creating resources and designing a workshop for schools to build their own robot and presented our prototype teaching kit at the Biomakers Fayre in Cambridge in November 2020. We will be running pilot workshop for secondary schools in 2020 to test the resources and we will follow each schools progress as they work towards building their own biology-themed robots before hosting a sharing event for students to bring their robots along to present and to discuss their experiences during the process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sawtrust.org/news/dna-dave-at-the-biomakers-fayre/
 
Description DNA workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We delivered a Science Art and Writing workshop on the theme of DNA at a local Junior school in a deprived area who were hosting a visiting group of Chinese children. Due to the language barriers, the local children paired up with a Chinese child to work through the activities together which meant they had to first understand the required process before helping their partner to complete tasks. This gave a new depth to the learning process which was reinforced by the local children having to take on the role of the instructor in their pair. This built confidence in the children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Dubrovnik Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I provided a seminar and led multiple small group discussions as part of the Dubrovnik Summer School in Applied Molecular Microbiology. This was attended by 45 postgraduate and post-doctoral researchers from around the world to learn about concepts and methods in natural product biosynthesis. Following the summer school, I have been contacted by multiple attendees regarding various aspects of the work I discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/training-careers/summer-schools/applied-molecular-microbiology/
 
Description EPSO/FESPB Joint Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I was chair of the scientific advisory committee for this biennial meeting held in Copenhagen in 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Early Years Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Set up an exhibition stand at the Early Years conference to showcase SAW materials and in particular our Plant Growth and Development lesson plan developed for OpenPlant. We had a lot of interest from early years educators and we are now working with a local nursery school to trial some new plant-themed activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Engaging Images Competition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We ran an image competition for researchers across the Norwich Research Park to win a spot in an image exhibition at the Norwich Science Festival. Entrants were asked to upload high quality images of their work with accessible legends to the NRP Image Library Website. A mixed judging panel comprised of representatives from business, the media and the arts were brought together to judge the images and decide on the final 11 winning entries. The winning images were put on display in the Forum building in the centre of Norwich for 2 weeks and the images were also featured in print in a double-page spread in the Eastern Daily Press as well as on their website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://images.norwichresearchpark.ac.uk/
 
Description Evaluation Committee Laureat program Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Reviewing applications for the Irish Laureat Program which assigns funding to individual scientists as a primer for ERC applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Exhibit at Cereals 2017, Boothby Graffoe, Lincolnshire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Exhibit on the NIAB stand with demonstrations of wheat tissue culture and the effect of takeall fungus infection on wheat roots, plus preliminary project results. This provided an excellent visual demonstration of a project which uses genetic modification to tackle a disease in wheat for which there is no resistance which can be bred in traditionally. Visitors to the stand were very interested to see the impact of the fungus on roots and to discuss the strategy and progress made in the project with the NIAB staff involved. Whilst this is primarily a national event, there were also a good number of international visitors (wheat breeders and scientists) who were interested and engaged with us over the two day event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Faculty member at Summer School for Applied Molecular Biology 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The 2018 Summer Schools in Applied Molecular Microbiology took place at the Inter-University Centre in Dubrovnik, from 8 - 16 September. It was designed to bring together some pf the mos. talented PhD students and postdocs from around the world and engage with them - we aimed to make them aware of the work done and the John Innes Centre, and to evaluate them as potential future leaders in the field and therefore potential postdocs or faculty members.

The focus for this meetingwas 'Microbial Specialised Metabolites: From Genome to Molecule' and recognises the recent development of interest in microbial metabolites that has resulted from the sequencing of small molecule-producing microorganisms, coupled with the explosive development of sequencing technology, bioinformatics and chemical analysis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/training-careers/summer-schools/applied-molecular-microbiology/
 
Description Gardeners Question Time Display 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The John Innes Centre hosted Gardeners Question time for BBC Radio 4 and as part of the event put up several displays for the audience to view before and after the recorded event. We put a display up about the Global Garden workshop we have been running to showcase the outputs and to raise awareness for future workshops.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Global garden 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following on from the pilot of the Global Garden workshop in 2017 we ran a public workshop as part of the Norwich Science Festival that invited anyone to explore plant natural products and the regulations and ethics around access and benefit sharing. We then ran another session for a group of scientists which provided an interesting contrast of opinions around ethics compared to those shared by members of the public. This is an ongoing project that seeks to raise awareness of these issues as well as to get people thinking and talking about the importance of plants. In 2019 we took the Global Garden workshop to Cambridge as part of the Festival of Ideas and ran the workshop at the Cambridge Botanic Gardens. We also had garden curator Dr Sam Brockington attend and give a presentation on the importance of plant collections for research as well as for enjoyment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description H2020 TomGEM Project meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Second Annual Meeting of the TomGEM H2020 Collaborative project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description I was keynote speaker at the Chenshan Meeting on specialised metabolism in plants 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was keynote speaker at the Chenshan Meeting on specialised metabolism in plants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description I was keynote speaker at the Hainan first National Meeting on specialised Metabolomics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I was a keynote speaker at the Hainan Meeting on metabolomics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Research Alliance for Antibiotic Discovery and Development (IRAADD) Workshop Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attendance and presentation as part of the International Research Alliance for Antibiotic Discovery and Development (IRAADD) Workshop Meeting (Saarbruecken, Germany), which is a Europe-wide network of researchers and industry partners involved in antibiotic discovery and development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International education visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Hosted a group of teachers from Shanghai and took them to visit a range of science-themed SAW workshops running in local schools to
show how the academic research community can provide enrichment to the curriculum for children and opportunities for teachers to access
information and new activities based on current research straight from the lab. Also organised a sharing event for teachers and representatives
from the County Council to hear about how SAW is being embedded in Chinese schools and the impact it has on teaching and learning. All parties took
new ideas away from the experience to try and implement in their own settings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interview with BBC Radio Five Live for a podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with BBC Radio Five Live for a podcast relating to the science of weather. In particular, the smell and role of bacterial metabolites.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview with science writer (Kat Arney) about antibiotic discovery and combating antimicrobial resistance. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with science writer (Kat Arney) about antibiotic discovery and combating antimicrobial resistance. In particular a focus on the re-purposing of old antibiotics for treating multi-drug resistant infections. This was in relation to an in-depth article she is preparing on AMR and antibiotic discovery, which was later published in the Daily Mail.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-5623417/Could-antibiotics-mens-beards-soil-weapons-battle...
 
Description Invited Seminar at Bristol University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar speaker at Bristol University - title 'The Plant Lytic Vacuole: Space-Filler, Garbage Bag, or Something More Interesting?'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited speaker at York University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker to York University: Plant Biology Seminar - The Plant Lytic Vacuole: Space-Filler, Garbage Bag, or Something More Interesting?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk at China-UK AMR Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A UKRI-funded workshop held in Beijing to discuss ongoing and recent UK-China research projects on AMR (antimicrobial resistance), as well as future directions and prospects for this research area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk at Environmental Genomics and Advanced Microbiological Techniques Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented a talk about using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in microbiology to PhD students attending an Environmental Genomics and Advanced Microbiological Techniques Workshop at the University of East Anglia. I received multiple questions after the seminar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk at the University of Ghent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk on natural product discovery at the University of Ghent (Belgium).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk at the University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk for the seminar series in the School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds. Participation in a discussion about my research with a group of MSc students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description JIC 50 Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Outreach stand for Department of Molecular Microbiology as part of an Open Day in relation to the 50th anniversary of the John Innes Centre in Norwich.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news-and-events/blog-copy/2017/09/open-day/
 
Description JIC50 public open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open Day at JIC celebrating 50 years on the Norwich site. Soil columns featuring the N sensors were displayed to the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news-and-events/blog-copy/2017/08/john-innes-celebrates-50-years-norwich-2017
 
Description John Innes Centre 50th Anniversary Open Day. (16 September 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 3000 people attended. The support of our local community, and allowing as many people as possible to find out more about what we do is important to us, so in the build-up to the event we were delighted to welcome both BBC Look East and BBC Radio Norfolk onto the site, to chat to scientists and preview the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news-and-events/blog-copy/2017/09/open-day/
 
Description Keynote Speaker Future Food Festival Toowoomba Queensland Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was a Keynote Speaker at the Future Food Festival Toowoomba Queensland Australia, giving 3 presentations to scientists, two to school kids and one grand discovery presentation at Queensland University of Technology to the general public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Keynote Speech: Plants and Human Health at the Wellcome Trust China-UK Life Science Summit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote Speech: Plants and Human Health at the Wellcome Trust China-UK Life Science Summit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description London International youth science Forum 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact About 30 students visited the John Innes Centre. I presented a short talk about starch research, followed by a discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description London international science forum visit. 16-21 yr olds 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 23 undergraduate students from around the world came to the John Innes Centre as part of the London International Science Forum. I delivered a talk and led a discussion about the importance of starch research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Member of the Synthetic Biology Leadership Council 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of the Synthetic Biology Leadership Council
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Member of the UK Science Partnership for Animal and Plant Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of the UK Science Partnership for Animal and Plant Health - quarterly meetings are held
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Member of the interviewing panel for Herchel Smith Professorship of Biochemistry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of the interviewing panel for Herchel Smith Professorship of Biochemistry position - University of Cambridge
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Membership of Scientific Advisory Committee to the Plant Energy Biology ARC Centre of Excellence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Membership of Scientific Advisory Committee to the Plant Energy Biology ARC Centre of Excellence. An Australian National Centre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description NIAB Directors Day display 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Exhibit in the NIAB marquee covering a number of BBSRC funded projects using crop transformation. Demonstrations of wheat tissue culture and the effect of takeall fungus infection on wheat roots provided an excellent visual demonstration of a project which uses genetic modification to tackle a disease in wheat for which there is no resistance which can be bred in traditionally. Other exhibits demonstrated our implementation of gene editing techniques and its use in a number of wheat and rice projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description NIAB Open Day display 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Exhibit in the NIAB marquee covering a number of BBSRC funded projects using crop transformation. Demonstrations of wheat tissue culture and the effect of takeall fungus infection on wheat roots provided an excellent visual demonstration of a project which uses genetic modification to tackle a disease in wheat for which there is no resistance which can be bred in traditionally. Other exhibits demonstrated our implementation of gene editing techniques and its use in a number of wheat and rice projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description NUBPL fundraising event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation on progress in research on the NUBPL gene, for a patient group and clinicians. The main outcome is fundraising by the patient group for this research (to labs in the US, not my own lab).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description New Phytologist Next Generation Scientists meeting - Open Address 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Opening Address at New Phytologist Next Generation Scientists meeting - Scientific meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Norwich Science Festival Training week 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Parties of school children from across the region visited the Norwich Science Festival held in the Forum in Norwich city centre on the 18/19 October 2017. We displayed zinc staining of various different types of food grains to show the zinc rich parts of the seed. The display was also visited by members of the public who passed through the Forum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Norwich and Norfolk Science Festival - Starch Stall 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of my laboratory, led by a postdoctoral scientist in my group, set up a stall to discuss the importance of starch research with the general public at the Norwich Science Festival. This involved several demonstrations and posters, aimed at both young children as well as adults. Questions from the general public about starch were answered.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Opening address at Breeders Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Opening address at Breeders Day at the John Innes Centre
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Oral presentation at the Monogram (small grain cereals) meeting in Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation by Emma Wallington on "Engineering wheat for take-all resistance" given at the Monogram (small grain cereals) meeting at the University of Bristol, 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2017
 
Description Panel Meeting of Severo Ochoa and Maria de Maeztu Committee - Madrid, Spain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Panel Meeting of Severo Ochoa and Maria de Maeztu Committee - Madrid, Spain
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Panel discussion for the Royal Society for Hay Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Hay Festival - panel discussion for the Royal Society
exploring the public attitudes to the range of applications that genetic technologies might have, and the differences in such attitudes depending on context. This might look at the difference in public opinion in areas like food and medicine, for example, or explore concepts like 'naturalness'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Plenary Speaker IAPB Congress Dublin Ireland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I was a Plenary Speaker at the IAPB Congress Dublin Ireland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Plenary Speaker SEB Meeting Florence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary speaker at SEB Meeting in Florence. England beat Colombia on penalties in the World Cup.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Plenary Speaker at Foods of the Future Workshop in Koln 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I was a Plenary Speaker at Foods of the Future Workshop in Koln
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Plenary speaker, International meeting on plant genomics, Verona Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I was a Plenary speaker, at the International meeting on plant genomics, Verona Italy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Podcast following publication of "Natural polymorphisms in Arabidopsis result in wide variation or loss of the amylose component of starch" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I presented a GARNet podcast discussing the key findings of the paper: Seung D., Echevarría-Poza A., Steuernagel B., Smith A. M.(2019) Natural polymorphisms in Arabidopsis result in wide variation or loss of the amylose component of starch. Plant Physiology

The primary audience was students and research staff working in plant sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Post Doctoral Retreat 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented career pathways in science communication to a large group of Post Doctoral Researchers and led a discussion on the need and importance of engaging society with research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster and Oral Presentation by Ingo Appelhagen Colour bio-factories: towards scale-up production of anthocyanins in plant cell cultures 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations by Ingo Appelhagen at the 3rd Conference of the International Society for Molecular Farming, Helsinki, 11-16 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at BISON workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented synthetic biology-themed science engagement approaches to a group of academics for a BISON workshop in Norwich.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://bison.ceitec.cz/
 
Description Presentation at Science for Innovation Showcase Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Provided presentation entitled "Discovery and biosynthesis of bacterial peptides with antibacterial and anticancer activities" to an audience of industry and research council representatives invited to the John Innes Centre. Participated in a follow-up panel discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at Xiamen University (China) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited presentation given to faculty, post-docs and students at Xiamen University in China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation to the Norfolk Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) and the Patient Participation Group at Oak Street Surgery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We were invited to present our work on the SAW antibiotics book to the Norfolk CCG who are interested in working with us to improve understanding on AMR in communities but also on other health-related topics. We also presented our work to the PPG at a local GP surgery who are interested in running an AMR-themed workshop for patients and potentially developing subsequent workshops on topics such as flu and norovirus to help limit the spread of infection. The work we are developing here is being fed back to Public Health England representatives from the Healthcare-Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance Unit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description PrimeAg visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Eight visitors from PrimeAg visited JIC for half a day. Prime Agriculture LLP is a consultancy partnership of 11 BASIS and FACTS qualified agronomists, working with growers in in Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Northamptonshire and Hertfordshire. http://www.primeag.co.uk/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.primeag.co.uk/
 
Description Public art and poetry competition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Using a collection of 11 science images featuring our research on display as part of the Norwich Science Festival we invited the public to create art or poetry inspired by the images. We had a judging panel choose favourites from several catagories and the winners work was put on display at the Sainsburys Centre for Visual Arts during December.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Royal Norfolk Show plant science stand 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We designed and delivered science activities in the Discovery Zone at the Royal Norfolk Show for visiting children to learn about the properties
of gluten in wheat and the use of insect predators as biocontrol for crop protection. Hundreds of children participated in our activities and most had heard
of gluten as it is commonly mentioned now in terms of food allergies so we were able to give them some context around what gluten actually is, where its
found and the properties it has. Many children were surprised by this!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Royal Society Meeting for New Fellows introductory presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented my research that underpinned my election as a Fellow of the Royal Socity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Society fact finding visit to Beijing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Royal Society fact finding visit to Beijing, 22 to 26 October for Royal Society's genetic technologies programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SAW Project on DNA and Cells 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Delivered a SAW project with a year 6 class at a local primary school on DNA and cells and also talked about careers in science with the children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description SAW Seminar - Sowing the seeds for science outreach 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented creative outreach projects and ways to capture impact at the department seminar to encourage scientists to be bold with their outreach plans and to demonstrate the value of documenting the process and the outcomes for reporting, reflection and to improve the method.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description SAW Training Workshop for PhD Students 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact We provided a SAW Training workshop for PhD Students from Cambridge and Germany who are working on an EU collaborative project entitled PlaMatSu to help them think creatively about how to communicate their research topics to diverse audiences. They completed practical tasks in science, art and writing and made presentations in small groups. The students undertook this training as part of their studentships to prepare them for designing and developing an installation to be put on display at the Cambridge Botanic Garden and in a host venue in Germany. The day concluded with a brainstorming session where the students pulled together their ideas and mapped out next steps as they work to progress their designs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.plamatsu.eu/About-Us/Events/Training-Workshop-4
 
Description SAW workshop at Barford Primary School 11 March 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Saw (Science, Art and Writing) project in Barford primary school together with Jenni Rant, Gemma Farré Martinez, James Reed, Chris Hann (artist) and Mike O'Driscoll (writer). We spent an entire day at school, explaining my project (Engineer wheat for "Take all" resistance) and opening a dialog about GMOs with 10 to 11 years old pupils. This project took place on the Tuesday 11th of March 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description STEMM Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Helped to set up a STEMM conference aimed at sixth form students and provided a workshop on plant breeding, nodulation and working towards reduced toxicity in grass pea for consumption in Africa. The session was well attended (students got to choose from a range of sessions) and the pupils enjoyed the hands-on activities but also liked hearing about the research into grass peas and its potential impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description School Science week presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Gave a one hour talk on the role that microbes and insects play in the carbon cycle and bioremediation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description School Visit at Sir Isaac Newton sixth form science day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A postdoctoral scientist in my laboratory organised and led a stall about starch at Sir Isaac Newton sixth form, for their Science day. The stall had hand-on activities, displays and posters for demonstrating the importance of starch, and the goals of starch research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description School visit (Cambourne Cambs) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Deliver a Science, Arts and Writing workshop event on the topic 'Antibiotics: what they are and where they come from'. Delivered a one day event, to two Year 6 classes (one each day).

The event generated significant discussion, and involved hands on learning.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://sawtrust.org/buy-the-books/saw-antibiotics/
 
Description School visit (Cambourne Cambs) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Spent two days presenting a cross curriculum presentation to two classes of Year 6 pupils at a primary school in collaboration with the SAW Trust (http://sawtrust.org/ ). Much debate and discussion about the topics of microbes, antibiotics, ecology and antimicrobial resistance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://sawtrust.org/buy-the-books/saw-antibiotics/
 
Description Science Communication Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Delivered a science communication workshop on the Science Art and Writing (SAW) methodology for third year science undergraduates at the University of East Anglia to show how they can design accessible science activities for non-specialists and can extend into creative writing and arts to provide a rich, memorable experience for participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Science Museum Superbugs Late Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Antibiotic Hunters" exhibit at a Science Museum Superbug Late Event. This was an adult-only event held in the evening at the Science Museum in London and attended by thousands of people. The exhibit was organised jointly between members of my research group and members of the Wilkinson group (also at JIC).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scientific Advisory Board Centre for Agricultural Genomics (CRAG) Barcelona 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I chaired the Scientific Advisory Board Centre for Agricultural Genomics (CRAG) Barcelona, and compiled the report for the institution. I also set up the twinning program between JIC and CRAG through liaison with the director, Jose-Luis Reichmann
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scientific Advisory Board Meeting, on Banana Biofortification Gates project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I advised on scientif direction for the Biofortification of Banana project funded by BMGF in Kampala Uganda
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scientific Advisory Board Member for Max PIanck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Golm, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific Advisory Board Meeting for Max PIanck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Scientific Advisory Board Plant and Food Research, New Zealand 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I attended the Scientific Advisory Board Meeting Plant and Food Research, New Zealand, listened to and advised their emerging scientists and advised on scientific policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Seminar: Transcription factors as gateway for metabolic engineering 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact OpenPlant Forum seminar entitled Transcription factors as gateway for metabolic engineering
Presenter Ingo Appelhagen
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Synbio and bioinformatics workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A lesson plan was developed to cover how bioinformatics is used in research and how this links to synthetic biology and delivered in a secondary school to a group of science sixth form students. Synthetic biology is not well represented in the curriculum and so we worked with a teacher to create a session that enabled students to learn about the processes and to see real examples of how this is being used to create products of use to society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.sawtrust.org/news/saws-latest-intern/
 
Description Synthetic Biology: 4th New Phytologist Workshop, Bristol, UK June 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity Scientific meeting (conference/symposium etc.)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Participants in your research or patient groups
Results and Impact Synthetic biology. Published in New Phytologist, Wiley; 0028-646X

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://0028-646X
 
Description Talk at Kew Gardens 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A Kew organized event called "State of the World's Plants"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at MfN joint workshop with Rothamsted Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Speaker at a joint MfN workshop with Rothamstead Research on Discovery and bioenginnering of plant triterpene pathways
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk given at the 1st International RiPPS Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given on natural product discovery at the 1st International RiPPS Conference, held in Granada, Spain
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.rippsconference.org/
 
Description Talk to JIC All by ingo Appelhagen From colourful mysteries to natural blues 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact JIC All presentation on use of Metabolomics by Ingo Appelhagen From colourful mysteries to natural blues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talking Plants Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a workshop at the Talking Plants Conference at Cambridge Botanic Garden. This conference takes place at a different botanic garden nationally each year and brings together garden staff and other organisations that work with plants and the public. Our workshop showcased some of the best plant-themed outreach projects we have delivered to share ideas and activities that provide a platform to engage people with plants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://bgen.org.uk/conferences/talking-plants-2018-conference-proceedings/
 
Description University of Cambridge, Dept. of Plant Sciences student visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Oral presentation with exhibits of some of our wheat and rice GM projects for two groups of undergraduate plant science students from University of Cambridge. The students were able to see all of the tissue culture stages in the wheat transformation process from immature embryo to transgenic wheat plants. The takeall project was presented as an example of a project which uses genetic modification to tackle a disease in wheat for which there is no resistance which can be bred in traditionally. New developments such as CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing were discussed, and the rationale for its implementation in a number of wheat and rice projects. The students were interested and engaged with our team to discuss the technologies, the practical applications and the regulatory landscape. We subsequently received applications for summer placements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description University of Geneva - PhD Retreat 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact University of Geneva - PhD Retreat, participation in a debate: " Technological advances - A new chance for changing public perception on GMOs". Also speaker title: 'The plant lytic vacuole: space-filler, garbage bag, or something more interesting'. A two-day retreat for PhD students in molecular plant sciences at universities in French-speaking Switzerland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop on UN Sustainable Development Goals 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop organised by EPSO on UN SDGs and how Plant Science could contribute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshops and conference presentation in Shanghai 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We visited Shanghai to deliver some training workshops for teachers new to the SAW methodology and also for teachers who have been working with SAW for several years. We introduced the Plant growth and development lesson plan to teachers at our hub school and we also presented SAW at a large international education conference showcasing a plant natural products projects to describe the process,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.sawtrust.org/news/saw-returns-to-shanghai/
 
Description Year 10 Science Camp Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A talk on natural product discovery to attendees of the year 10 Science Camp at the John Innes Centre. This was followed by questions on antibiotic and anticancer compound discovery.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/training-careers/work-experience/year-10-science-camp/
 
Description co-cahired borden research conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I organised and fund-raised the 2015 Plant metabolic engineering gordon research conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description sense about science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I am a panel member for sense about science- they forward me questions from the genera public about science and I provide answers in plain english.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016