Recognition

Lead Research Organisation: John Innes Centre
Department Name: Contracts Office

Abstract

Plants’ perception of molecular signatures from beneficial or pathogenic microbes and pests is critical for the establishment of symbioses or initiation of immunity. Typically, these molecular signatures are sensed by receptors at either the cell surface (PRRs) or inside cells (NLRs). Diverse microbial or pest-derived molecules can be recognised, including complex oligosaccharides, nucleotides, peptides, and proteins. Some recognition events involve direct interactions between microbial or pest molecules and plant receptors. However, indirect interactions also occur and receptors can detect changes in host molecular complexes, or the activity of a microbial molecule on host factors.

To discover components involved in perception, we will investigate the genetic and molecular basis of recognition. In addition, we will use synthetic biology approaches to develop new capabilities in nature’s toolkit. Screening diverse germplasm, or preparing diverse receptor libraries, coupled with gene editing technologies (e.g. CRISPR) to introduce and test candidate genes in target plants, is critical for identifying or expanding plant recognition repertoires both at the cell surface and inside cells. The expansion in the number of genes encoding potential cell surface PRRs in plant genomes suggests we currently underestimate the full complement of recognition specificities in the plant kingdom. Discovery and functional characterisation of these specificities will further our understanding of how plants and microbes communicate with each other at the cell surface. Natural variation in wild populations, and in close and distant crop relatives, provides a rich diversity of sources for developing as-yet unexploited resistance for crops. Although the molecular mechanisms of non-host resistance, a form of asymptomatic immunity often deployed in crop breeding, are still poorly understood, both PRR and NLR receptors are likely to contribute. An emerging but critical question is to understand how levels and localisation of PRR and NLR receptors are controlled, and how they are organised in complexes competent for the perception of microbial- or pest-derived signals.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title A biologist's poem 
Description This 'real and singular thing'. A piece of code in its own genome. A copy from the past, multipliable, repeatable, yet mutable. You couldn't help feeling that you had stolen this sequence from its owner. You had transferred a piece of life into the human consciousness. with apologies to Wim Wenders /w @SaskiaHogenhout 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Positive feedback on social media 
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/170774045435/a-biologists-poem
 
Title I Will Survive (biotroph remix) 
Description A plant pathology inspired song. I Will Survive (biotroph remix) [with apologies to Gloria Gaynor] Oh, no, not I I will survive Oh, as long as I know how to infect you I'll stay alive I've got all my life to live I've got all my spores to give And I'll survive I will survive, hey, hey 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact >15K impressions on social media and ~250 engagements 
URL https://twitter.com/KamounLab/status/1098214166723215361
 
Title Video animation: Plants have an immune system and it's complicated 
Description Just like humans, plants have an immune system that they use to fend off pathogens and pests. Research involving plant immunity was guided by Harold Flor's influential "gene-for-gene" model but this model is now supplanted by a more complex view of pant immunity. Disease resistance genes appear to work together in intricate networks that enable plants to detect and resist parasites more effectively. An in-depth understanding of the immune system can help us breed disease resistant crops. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact ~10K views on YouTube 511 engagements and >20K impressions on Twitter 
URL https://youtu.be/mlp2mQTEVtQ
 
Description Obj 1.1: We previously identified three genes that confer nonhost resistance to wheat yellow rust. We previously fine-mapped Rps7 and found it was in coupling with the barley powdery mildew resistance locus, Mla. Candidate genes for the other two loci are currently being resolved with additional fine-mapping.

Obj 1.1: We identified the causal gene (an NLR) for Rps6 using map-based cloning and transformation. Work is currently underway to test this gene in wheat. A patent that is under review has been published (see Outputs).

Obj. 1.1: We made excellent progress with the identification of small aphid peptides that elicit Arabidopsis thaliana defense responses in a BAK1-dependent manner. Aphid cysteine protease activity is involved in generating the aphid peptide elicitors. A prioritized list of about 30 aphid peptides are considered candidate elicitors and are being synthesized to be tested for plant defense response activation. This is a collaboration with Jan Sklenar of TSL and PhD student James Canham conducted the majority of the work..

Obj. 1.1: We have contributed to the identification of several novel elicitors and PRRs, as well as receptor kinases contributing to the function of plant PRRs.

Obj. 1.1: We identified suppressors of plant immunity from oomycete and nematode pathogens that interfere with R-gene mediated resistance and thus alter classical gene-for-gene recognitions; we made progress in understanding the mechanisms by which these effectors suppress specific immunity

Obj. 1.1: We have generated transgenic lines of barley that contain candidate genes for Rps6, a major locus that contributes to immunity in barley to wheat stripe rust

Obj. 1.1: We demonstrated that the movement of the nucleus is required for Rhizobial infection in M. truncatula.

Obj 1.1: We have reported the isolation of Rpi-amr3 (Witek et al 2016). We have since completed the isolation and definition of an allelic series of Rpi-amr1e. These alleles show only ~90% identity to each other. We also recently identified the recognized effectors for these two Rpi- genes. Mapping and further characterization of Rpi-amr4 and Rpi-amr10 are in progress.

Obj 1.1: We have defined multiple Arabidopsis genes that confer resistance to Brassica juncea-infecting Albugo strains (Cevik et al 2019)

Obj 1.1: We are currently developing appropriate promoter/terminator systems for expression in wheat, as existing native promoters and terminators were found to be inadequate.

Obj. 1.2: We have unveiled mechanisms that control the assembly of PRR complexes or the abundance of key downstream signaling components (e.g. BIK1).

Obj 1.2: We made progress with the identification of plant pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of aphid peptide elicitor(s). So far ±6000 M2 generation seedlings of a EMS mutagenized reporter line were screened and 50 showed altered responses to aphid elicitor peptides. The F1 of these 50 plants will be retested and taken forward for identification of mutant loci using the MutMap approach.

Obj. 1.2: New insights were obtained into how the RPS4/RRS1 NLR complex converts effector recognition into defence activation; a publication has been submitted.

Obj. 1.2: We have isolated an allelic series of a new resistance gene (Rpi-amr1e) against potato late blight from the potato relative, Solanum americanum, and in 2017 undertook field trials of transgenic lines carrying this gene. A paper reporting RPi-amr1e is being prepared.

Obj. 1.2: We unravelled the molecular mechanistic basis of how the allelic rice Pik-1/Pik-2 NLR pair recognises polymorphic pathogen proteins (effectors) from the rice blast pathogen.

Obj. 1.2: We have found that the rice NLR pair Pik-1/Pik-2 form homo- and hetero-interactions in both the presence and absence of pathogen effector proteins. We are investigating how these interactions change on effector perception to initiate signalling.

Obj. 1.2: We discovered that a "mis-matched" effector from the rice blast pathogen (AVR-Pia) can be recognised by the NLR pair Pikp-1/Pikp-2. By defining the structure and affinity of this interaction we have informed the engineering of bespoke NLR receptor recognition specificities.

Obj. 1.2: We reconstructed the evolutionary history of the immune receptor Pik-1, and its integrated HMA domain, and tested hypotheses about adaptive evolution of the integrated HMA. We have evidence that the integrated domain is an ancient event that dates back to at least 50 million years

Obj 1.2: We have confirmed that Mla8 confers resistance to wheat yellow rust using complementation in barley. A paper detailing this result is under review.

Obj 1.2: We confirmed that Mla7 confers immunity to wheat stripe rust in barley using complementation. This demonstrates that Mla genes have a broad capacity to recognize highly divergent pathogens (mildew and rust).

Obj. 1.3: We have demonstrated that the PRR EFR can be used to engineer anti-bacterial disease resistance in potato and Medicago. In addition, we showed that EFR expression in Medicago, while conferring resistance to a bacterial pathogen, does not impede on Rhizobium symbiosis.

Obj. 1.3: Based on in vitro and protein structural studies we have successfully engineered expanded recognition profiles of the Pikp NLR pair of rice to include previously unrecognised effectors. This was achieved via two approaches (single amino acid mutations and whole domain engineering). We are awaiting the results of transgenic rice, transformed with our engineered receptors, to see if these deliver improved disease resistance profiles.

Obj 1.3: We have discovered that an NLR at the Mla locus exists as a trans-species polymorphism that has been maintained for 24 million years. The polymorphism includes the presence or absence of an integrated Exo70F1 gene, which is involved in exocytosis and is a known target of pathogen effectors. A paper has been placed on the preprint server bioRxiv and is currently under review.

Obj 1.3: We identified novel HMA-targeting effectors from rice and wheat blast fungus, and initiated experiments to engineer NLR immune receptors to recognize and respond to these effectors

Obj 1.3: We have generated transgenic lines of wheat that contain candidate genes for Rps6, a major locus that contributes to immunity in barley to wheat stripe rust

Obj 1.3: We have generated transgenic lines of wheat that contain Mla8 (=Rps7), a major locus that contributes to immunity in barley to wheat stripe rust. Work is underway to confirm expression of the transgene. We are currently developing promoter/terminator systems to drive high expression in wheat.
Exploitation Route Too early to give details
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment

 
Description We (Zipfel) have started in 2017 a multi-year partnership with the Two Blades Foundation and Monsanto to identify PRRs that can be deployed in corn to engineer resistance to fungal pathogens. We (Hogenhout) have a LINK-award and iCASE studentship with SESVanderHave, a Industrial Partnership Award with Syngenta and an iCASE studentship with Oxitec. Knowledge generated in these project have contributed to the development of products and technologies and for assessing future directions in these companies. Some of our findings are being used for patent applications. I (Hogenhout) am the leader of BRIGIT, a consortium project co-ordinated by the John Innes Centre, that brings together ten leading UK research organisations, in a £4.85m programme aiming to improve methods of diagnosis and detection of the insect-transmitted plant parasite Xylella fastidiosa, to identify factors that could lead to its spread, and to prepare to minimise the risk of the pathogen to the UK. The project includes communication of information to diverse stakeholders, such as airport and harbour inspectors and nursery owners. Results from investigating the evolution of the Mla locus (Moscou Lab) have been essential and led directly to an industrial partnership. Growing the future is a report from the UK Plant Sciences Federation (UKPSF), a special advisory committee of the Royal Society of Biology. Launched in January 2019, the report highlights to policymakers and others the excellence of plant science in the UK, and its importance to the biosciences, the economy, and society both at home and around the world. In Growing the future, the UKPSF describes the potential of plant science to improve fundamental knowledge, enable better diet quality, increase crop productivity, enhance environmental sustainability and create new products and manufacturing processes. The report section on Plant health highlighted our research on potato late blight which dates back to the 1990s and has established the fundamental knowledge that has now enabled commercialisation of the first GMO potato plants among various applications. The report also highlighted our work on gene editing in tomato, notably the development of the fungus resistant tomato line Tomelo, which was highlighted by a picture taken from our publication Nekrasov, V., Wang, C., Win, J., Lanz, C., Weigel, D., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Rapid generation of a transgene-free powdery mildew resistant tomato by genome deletion. Scientific Reports, 7:482. We (Kamoun) used open science platforms and crowdsourced community responses to address the appearance in Bangladesh of a destructive new fungal disease wheat blast. We helped recruit a team of multidisciplinary experts to apply cutting-edge genomics methods to identify the precise source of the outbreak and help to guide disease management responses. This work continues with the near-complete genome sequences of four Bangladeshi isolates from 2016 and 2017, which provide a high-resolution genome map to precisely define genetic changes in the Bangladeshi clonal lineage and monitor population changes.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Advisory Committee Chair, International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP18) in Boston, MA
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact ICPP 2018 adopted the theme "Plant Health is Earth's Wealth" for ISPP 2013-2018 recognising that plant pathogens don't just threaten food security and well-being. They also affect, forest and fibre systems, natural ecosystems, biodiversity and environmental harmony, and impede trade and market access. And, phytopathology research has also been a central focus for discovery and development in biotechnology and plant-microbial molecular biology. For our profession - people are the pivotal element, and while in the coming years, the ISPP will maintain a focus on plant disease impacts on food security, it should and will also foster attention to all facets of our profession through our Congresses, subject matter committees and our website, newsletter and Journal. In this light, the ISPP taskforce on global food security which has more than achieved it objectives will now become a Commission working in the same way as other ISPP Subject Matter Committees. https://www.isppweb.org/newsletters/pdf/48_8.pdf One of the major outcomes was the proposal for a code of ethics for plant health emergencies: * to foster ethical conduct * to support communication and collaboration * to ensure that decisions are based on the best available evidence See https://www.isppweb.org/newsletters/pdf/48_12.pdf
URL https://www.isppweb.org/newsletters/pdf/48_8.pdf
 
Description CABANA External Advisory Committee
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact What is CABANA? CABANA is a capacity strengthening project for bioinformatics in Latin America. It aims to accelerate the implementation of data-driven biology in the region by creating a sustainable capacity-building programme focusing on three challenge areas - communicable disease, sustainable food production and protection of biodiversity. CABANA is orchestrated by an international consortium of ten organisations - nine in Latin America and one in the UK. CABANA is funded by the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) - part of the UK Aid Budget - from October 2017 to December 2021.
URL http://www.cabana.online
 
Description Comment on Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruling-Organisms obtained by mutagenesis are GMOs and are, in principle, subject to the obligations laid down by the GMO Directive
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact This ruling ignores advances in plant bioediting that make this technology more precise than so-called "conventional mutagenesis". Bioediting can be also be used to recapitulate natural variations into cultivated varieties of crops. This ruling closes the door to many beneficial genetic modifications such as breeding of disease resistant plants that require much less pesticide input. A sad day for European plant science. Disseminated via Science Media centre and social media.
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/176262512395/comment-on-court-of-justice-of-the-european-union
 
Description Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology Science Advisory Board
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The GMI is part of the Vienna BioCenter (VBC), one of the leading international biomedical research centers worldwide that has established itself as the premier location for life sciences in Central Europe.
URL https://www.oeaw.ac.at/gmi/
 
Description Inst. Plant and Microbial Biology (IPMB), Academia Sinica, Taiwan, Science Advisory Board.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Academia Sinica is Taiwan's premier government-supported academic research institution, with 31 institutes and centers representing a wide range of disciplines in the sciences and humanities. It is located in the Nankang district, on the outskirts of metropolitan Taipei. One of the Life Sciences Institutes, The Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology (IPMB) has 26 fellows (professor equivalents) whose research follows one of two central themes: the mechanisms of plant functioning or plant-microbial interactions. Some 300 support staff consisting of specialists, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, Research Assistant and administrative personnel work under the research fellows. IPMB has modern infrastructure and equipment. An active education program is also set up, with Ph.D. students from the Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, or from their adjunct programs with National Taiwan University and National Central University. IPMB research fellows have previously made landmark discoveries in such areas as rice breeding and genomics, regeneration via tissue culture, virus satellite RNA, microbial circadian rhythm, etc. For a long time goal, we aim to improve the quality and quantity of research performance and achieve visibility in international scientific community. Over the past decade, IPMB has undergone a major reorganization and rejuvenation, and has added a number of outstanding junior fellows.
 
Description Journals 2.0: a roadmap to reinvent scientific publishing
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Promoted preprints and open science and a different, more sustainable, form of scientific publishing therefore accelerating the dissemination of science and reducing the exorbitant costs of scientific publishing. This vision describes a radically different publishing model that would reinvent the concept of a scientific journal into a live and open forum of scientific debate and analysis. This model centers on a full integration of the preprint ecosystem into the journal interface. The journal would only accept submission of articles that have been posted as preprints. All evaluations and commissioned reviews of submitted articles would be published as soon as received on the journal website and linked to the preprint version. Editors would operate as always sifting through submitted papers and seeking external reviewers when necessary. But they will also consider author-led and community crowdsourced reviews, which would be appended to the preprint. As the reviews accumulate and revisions are submitted, the journal editors would initiate a consultation process, and when satisfied with a given version promote it to a formal article. The editor's role becomes more akin to moderator than gatekeeper. The process doesn't have to be static. As the community further comments on the article and follow-up studies are published, editors may decide to commission synthetic review or commentary articles to address emerging issues. I would also envision that the paper is linked to related articles in a "knowledge network" database, and that article tags are revised to reflect new knowledge, e.g. "independently validated". The journal would therefore become less of a static repository of scientific articles, and more of a moderated forum of scientific discussion.
URL https://zenodo.org/record/1466784#.XH2SPi2cawQ
 
Description Point of view: wither pre-publication peer review to reinvent scientific publishing
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Promoted open science and preprints among the research community therefore resulting in more rapid dissemination of scientific findings.
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/178573217080/point-of-view-wither-pre-publication-peer-review
 
Description Project Leader of BRIGIT, a UK-wide consortium to mitigate the risks of Xylella fastidiosa outbreaks in the UK
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact The BRIGIT consortium includes people from various layers of government, charities, research institutes and industry. The writing of the BRIGIT proposal and activities within BRIGIT so far increased the knowledge of the consortium members about the Xylella pathosystem and how Xylella fastidiosa may spread in the UK and harm the environment. This is likely to influence future regulations to maximize protection of the UK environment.
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/brigit/
 
Description Defining and deploying Rpi gene diversity in S. americanum to control late blight in potato
Amount £777,912 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P021646/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Dissecting Multiple Pathogen Resistance in Barley
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Perry Foundation 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2019
 
Description ERC Advanced Investigator
Amount € 2,500,000 (EUR)
Funding ID BLASTOFF 743165 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2022
 
Description Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
Amount $2,000,000 (USD)
Organisation Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 03/2015 
End 06/2019
 
Description NLR-SEEK: Building a trait discovery platform in wheat
Amount £187,514 (GBP)
Organisation 2Blades Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2021
 
Description The Royal Society International Exchanges Cost Share 2017 Japan (JSPS) award for overseas travel between collaborators in the UK and Japan
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description iCASE PhD studentship
Amount £12,400 (GBP)
Organisation Oxitec Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Title Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining for Rubisco is an appropriate loading control for western blots from plant material 
Description Background - Having an adequate loading control for a western blot is essential for the interpretation of the results. There are two common loading control methods for western blots of proteins from plant material: (i) using specific antibodies to detect for a reference protein, such as actin, tubulin, or GAPDH (Li et al. 2011); and (ii) treating the membrane with Ponceau or Coomassie stains to assay the levels of a constitutively expressed protein, such as Rubisco (Zhang et al. 2017; Lim et al. 2018; Zhuo et al. 2014). Comparative studies in the mammalian biology field have determined that these loading control methods-antibody detection versus staining-are roughly equivalent in their linearity (Romero-Calvo et al. 2010; Wilender and Ekblad, 2011), and thus serve as comparable quality controls. In the plant biology field, it is sometimes debated as to whether staining for Rubisco is an appropriate loading control, due to the high abundance of this protein in the cell. Results - We undertook an experiment to determine whether the range of detection of staining for Rubisco is similar to that of antibody-based detection of a reference protein. We loaded total protein extract from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently expressing GFP into a gel at a range of effective sample volumes, and the resulting western blot was treated with anti-GFP antibodies as well as stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) (Fig. 1a). Quantification of the GFP bands in the western blot and the Rubisco bands in the CBB stained membrane indicated that these detection methods have similar linear correlations between the loading volumes of total protein extract and the detectable band intensities (Fig. 1b). In addition, quantification of a random protein of lower abundance in the CBB stained membrane also showed similar linearity (Fig. 1b). Conclusions - These results indicate that CBB staining for Rubisco can be an appropriate loading control for western blots from plant material. This representative experiment is consistent with results from other western blot experiments that we routinely perform in our laboratory. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Feedback from social media indicates it is useful to many others. 
URL https://zenodo.org/record/2557821#.XH2gji2cbYI
 
Title Golden-Gate compatible Magnaporthe oryzae transformation vectors 
Description Golden-Gate compatible vectors for Magnaporthe oryzae transformation. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact 1/ Pennington, H.G., Youles, M., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Golden-Gate compatible Magnaporthe oryzae protoplast transformation vectors. Figshare. 2/ Pennington, H.G., Youles, M., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Golden-Gate compatible Magnaporthe oryzae protoplast transformation vectors. Figshare. Plasmids are available via AddGene. 
URL https://www.addgene.org/Sophien_Kamoun/
 
Title Nanopore sequencing of genomic DNA from Magnaporthe oryzae isolates from different hosts 
Description We report long-range sequencing of eight isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae(Syn. Pyricularia oryzae) from wheat, rice, foxtail millet and goosegrass using nanopore MinION. Our aim is to obtain chromosome-level genome assemblies that are freely available for public access to be scrutinized for genome rearrangements and structural variation. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New collaborations. Others used the open data for their own research. Data shared openly prior to publication in formal journals. 
URL https://zenodo.org/record/2564950#.XH2f5y2cbYI
 
Title Protein-protein interaction assays 
Description Protein-protein interaction assays to identify effector-host protein interactions 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Petre, B., Win, J., Menke, F.L.H., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Protein-protein interaction assays with effector-GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana. In "Wheat Rust Diseases: Methods and Protocols", S. Periyannan, ed. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1659:85-98. 
 
Title The RenSeq method 
Description Sequence capture of R genes (RenSeq) is being broadly applied across multiple plant species to expand knowledge of plant immune repertoires. In updated methodology, we combined RenSeq with PacBio sequencing to achieve even better definition of angiosperm immune receptor repertoires 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Many genes that confer stem rust resistance in wheat have been cloned using this method. There was also a recent submission to Bioarxiv detailing the pan NLRome of Arabidopsis thalian- the corresponding paper has now been submitted to Cell - see https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/537001v1 
 
Description Collaboration with Chatchawan Jantasuriyarat, Kasetart University, Thailand 
Organisation Kasetsart University
Country Thailand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Shared research project, joint publications, grant applications, student exchange
Collaborator Contribution Shared research project, joint publications, grant applications, student exchange
Impact student exchange, joint publication
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Hiromasa Saitoh, Tokyo University of Agriculture 
Organisation Tokyo University of Agriculture
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint publications, sharing research materials, intellectual contribution, grant applications
Collaborator Contribution Joint publications, sharing research materials, intellectual contribution, grant applications
Impact This is a new collaboration, developed from a previous collaboration. No direct outcomes yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Jack Vossen 
Organisation University of Wageningen
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise
Impact Wu, C.-H., Abd-El-Haliem, A., Bozkurt, T.O., Belhaj, K., Terauchi, R., Vossen, J.H., and Kamoun, S. 2017. NLR network mediates immunity to diverse plant pathogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 114:8113-8118.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Lab of Ryohei Terauchi at IBRC in Iwate and Kyoto University, Japan 
Organisation Iwate Biotechnology Research Centre
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Leading collaborative research project on Structure/function studies of rice blast disease and host resistance.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborative work on research project.
Impact Research publications and BBSRC grant funded (M02198X).
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Ryohei Terauchi 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise. Exchange of visits. The collaboration includes Mark Banfield, John Innes Centre.
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise. Exchange of visits.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration: genetics, plant pathology, plant biology, biochemistry, biophysics, genomics, bioinformatics. Royal Society International Exchanges. 2018. "Retooling rice immunity for resistance against rice blast disease". £12,000 Varden, F.A., Saitoh, H., Yoshino, K., Franceschetti, M., Kamoun, S., Terauchi, R., and Banfield, M.J. 2019. Cross-reactivity of a rice NLR immune receptor to distinct effectors from the blast pathogen leads to partial disease resistance. bioRxiv, doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/530675. Valent, B., Farman, M., Tosa, Y., Begerow, D., Fournier, E., Gladieux, P., Islam, M.T., Kamoun, S., Kemler, M., Kohn, L.M.8., Lebrun, M.H., Stajich, J.E., Talbot, N.J., Terauchi, R., Tharreau, D., Zhang, N. 2019. Pyricularia graminis-tritici is not the correct species name for the wheat blast fungus: response to Ceresini et al. (MPP 20:2). Molecular Plant Pathology, 20:173-179. De la Concepcion, J.C., Franceschetti, M., Maqbool, A., Saitoh, H., Terauchi, R., Kamoun, S., and Banfield, M.J. 2018. Polymorphic residues in rice NLRs expand binding and response to effectors of the blast pathogen. Nature Plants, 4:576-585. Bialas, A., Zess, E.K., De la Concepcion, J.C., Franceschetti, M., Pennington, H.G., Yoshida, K., Upson, J.L., Chanclud, E., Wu, C.-H., Langner, T., Maqbool, A., Varden, F.A., Derevnina, L., Belhaj, K., Fujisaki, K., Saitoh, H., Terauchi, R., Banfield, M.J., and Kamoun, S. 2018. Lessons in effector and NLR biology of plant-microbe systems. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 31:34-45. Fujisaki, K., Abe, Y., Kanzaki, E., Ito, K., Utsushi, H., Saitoh, H., Bialas, A., Banfield, M., Kamoun, S., and Terauchi, R. 2017. An unconventional NOI/RIN4 domain of a rice NLR protein binds host EXO70 protein to confer fungal immunity. bioRxiv, doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/239400. Kobayashi, M., Hiraka, Y., Abe, A., Yaegashi, H., Natsume, S., Kikuchi, H., Takagi, H., Saitoh, H., Win, J., Kamoun, S., and Terauchi, R. 2017. Genome analysis of the foxtail millet pathogen Sclerospora graminicola reveals the complex effector repertoire of graminicolous downy mildews. BMC Genomics, 18:897. Bialas, A., Zess, E.K., De la Concepcion, J.C., Franceschetti, M., Pennington, H.G., Yoshida, K., Upson, J.L., Chanclud, E., Wu, C.-H., Langner, T., Maqbool, A., Varden, F.A., Derevnina, L., Belhaj, K., Fujisaki, K., Saitoh, H., Terauchi, R., Banfield, M.J., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Lessons in effector and NLR biology of plant-microbe systems. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions Tamiru, M., Natsume, S., Takagi, H., White, B., Yaegashi, H., Shimizu, M., Yoshida, K., Uemura, A., Oikawa, K., Abe, A., Urasaki, N., Matsumura, H., Babil, P., Yamanaka, S., Matsumoto, R., Muranaka, S., Girma, G., Lopez-Montes, A., Gedil, M., Bhattacharjee, R., Abberton, M., Kumar, P.L., Rabbi, I., Tsujimura, M., Terachi, T., Haerty, W., Corpas, M., Kamoun, S., Kahl, G., Takagi, H., Asiedu, R., and Terauchi, R. 2017. Genome sequencing of the staple food crop white Guinea yam enables the development of a molecular marker for sex determination. BMC Biology, 15:86. Wu, C.-H., Abd-El-Haliem, A., Bozkurt, T.O., Belhaj, K., Terauchi, R., Vossen, J.H., and Kamoun, S. 2017. NLR network mediates immunity to diverse plant pathogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 114:8113-8118. Yoshida, K., Saunders, D.G., Mitsuoka, C., Natsume, S., Kosugi, S., Saitoh, H., Inoue, Y., Chuma, I., Tosa, Y., Cano, L.M., Kamoun, S., and Terauchi, R. 2016. Host specialization of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is associated with dynamic gain and loss of genes linked to transposable elements. BMC Genomics, 18:370.
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Ryohei Terauchi 
Organisation University of Kyoto
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborator is involved in a research project of a PhD student in the lab
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator provided transgenic plant lines for screening
Impact Progress made with research goals of PhD student project
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Ryohei Terauchi 
Organisation University of Kyoto
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise. Exchange of visits. The collaboration includes Mark Banfield, John Innes Centre.
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise. Exchange of visits.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration: genetics, plant pathology, plant biology, biochemistry, biophysics, genomics, bioinformatics. Royal Society International Exchanges. 2018. "Retooling rice immunity for resistance against rice blast disease". £12,000 Varden, F.A., Saitoh, H., Yoshino, K., Franceschetti, M., Kamoun, S., Terauchi, R., and Banfield, M.J. 2019. Cross-reactivity of a rice NLR immune receptor to distinct effectors from the blast pathogen leads to partial disease resistance. bioRxiv, doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/530675. Valent, B., Farman, M., Tosa, Y., Begerow, D., Fournier, E., Gladieux, P., Islam, M.T., Kamoun, S., Kemler, M., Kohn, L.M.8., Lebrun, M.H., Stajich, J.E., Talbot, N.J., Terauchi, R., Tharreau, D., Zhang, N. 2019. Pyricularia graminis-tritici is not the correct species name for the wheat blast fungus: response to Ceresini et al. (MPP 20:2). Molecular Plant Pathology, 20:173-179. De la Concepcion, J.C., Franceschetti, M., Maqbool, A., Saitoh, H., Terauchi, R., Kamoun, S., and Banfield, M.J. 2018. Polymorphic residues in rice NLRs expand binding and response to effectors of the blast pathogen. Nature Plants, 4:576-585. Bialas, A., Zess, E.K., De la Concepcion, J.C., Franceschetti, M., Pennington, H.G., Yoshida, K., Upson, J.L., Chanclud, E., Wu, C.-H., Langner, T., Maqbool, A., Varden, F.A., Derevnina, L., Belhaj, K., Fujisaki, K., Saitoh, H., Terauchi, R., Banfield, M.J., and Kamoun, S. 2018. Lessons in effector and NLR biology of plant-microbe systems. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 31:34-45. Fujisaki, K., Abe, Y., Kanzaki, E., Ito, K., Utsushi, H., Saitoh, H., Bialas, A., Banfield, M., Kamoun, S., and Terauchi, R. 2017. An unconventional NOI/RIN4 domain of a rice NLR protein binds host EXO70 protein to confer fungal immunity. bioRxiv, doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/239400. Kobayashi, M., Hiraka, Y., Abe, A., Yaegashi, H., Natsume, S., Kikuchi, H., Takagi, H., Saitoh, H., Win, J., Kamoun, S., and Terauchi, R. 2017. Genome analysis of the foxtail millet pathogen Sclerospora graminicola reveals the complex effector repertoire of graminicolous downy mildews. BMC Genomics, 18:897. Bialas, A., Zess, E.K., De la Concepcion, J.C., Franceschetti, M., Pennington, H.G., Yoshida, K., Upson, J.L., Chanclud, E., Wu, C.-H., Langner, T., Maqbool, A., Varden, F.A., Derevnina, L., Belhaj, K., Fujisaki, K., Saitoh, H., Terauchi, R., Banfield, M.J., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Lessons in effector and NLR biology of plant-microbe systems. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions Tamiru, M., Natsume, S., Takagi, H., White, B., Yaegashi, H., Shimizu, M., Yoshida, K., Uemura, A., Oikawa, K., Abe, A., Urasaki, N., Matsumura, H., Babil, P., Yamanaka, S., Matsumoto, R., Muranaka, S., Girma, G., Lopez-Montes, A., Gedil, M., Bhattacharjee, R., Abberton, M., Kumar, P.L., Rabbi, I., Tsujimura, M., Terachi, T., Haerty, W., Corpas, M., Kamoun, S., Kahl, G., Takagi, H., Asiedu, R., and Terauchi, R. 2017. Genome sequencing of the staple food crop white Guinea yam enables the development of a molecular marker for sex determination. BMC Biology, 15:86. Wu, C.-H., Abd-El-Haliem, A., Bozkurt, T.O., Belhaj, K., Terauchi, R., Vossen, J.H., and Kamoun, S. 2017. NLR network mediates immunity to diverse plant pathogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 114:8113-8118. Yoshida, K., Saunders, D.G., Mitsuoka, C., Natsume, S., Kosugi, S., Saitoh, H., Inoue, Y., Chuma, I., Tosa, Y., Cano, L.M., Kamoun, S., and Terauchi, R. 2016. Host specialization of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is associated with dynamic gain and loss of genes linked to transposable elements. BMC Genomics, 18:370.
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Tofazzal Islam 
Organisation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University
PI Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise. Professor Islam's group is working on genomic and postgenomic analyses of wheat blast fungus, which recently emerged as a devastating pathogen of wheat in Bangladesh. He is leading a dream project titled "Mining biogold from Bangladesh"where they identified more than 600 plant probiotics potential for using as biofertilizer and biopesticides. Another important focus of Prof. Islam's group is to analyze the genomes of a number of plant probiotic bacteria potential for biocontrol of major phytopathogens and biofertilization of rice and wheat. In collaboration with Prof. Sophien Kamoun, Prof. Islam is dedicated to the promotion of open science and open data sharing (e.g., open wheat blast www.wheatblast.net) which they think very critical for rapidly addressing the emerging plant diseases.
Impact #OpenWheatBlast http://openwheatblast.net https://twitter.com/search?q=%23OpenWheatBlast&src=typd Win, J., Chanclud, E., Reyes-Avila, C.S., Langner, T., Islam, T., and Kamoun, S. 2019. Nanopore sequencing of genomic DNA from Magnaporthe oryzae isolates from different hosts. Zenodo, http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2564950. Valent, B., Farman, M., Tosa, Y., Begerow, D., Fournier, E., Gladieux, P., Islam, M.T., Kamoun, S., Kemler, M., Kohn, L.M.8., Lebrun, M.H., Stajich, J.E., Talbot, N.J., Terauchi, R., Tharreau, D., Zhang, N. 2019. Pyricularia graminis-tritici is not the correct species name for the wheat blast fungus: response to Ceresini et al. (MPP 20:2). Molecular Plant Pathology, 20:173-179. Gupta, D.R., Reyes Avila, C., Win, J., Soanes, D.M., Ryder, L.S., Croll, D., Bhattacharjee, P., Hossain, S., Mahmud, N.U., Mehebub, S., Surovy, M.Z., Rahman, M., Talbot, N.J., Kamoun, S., and Islam, T. 2018. Cautionary notes on use of the MoT3 diagnostic assay for Magnaporthe oryzae Wheat and rice blast isolates. Phytopathology, in press. Islam, T., Croll, D., Gladieux, P., Soanes, D., Persoons, A., Bhattacharjee, P., Hossain, S., Gupta, D., Rahman, Md.M., Mahboob, M.G., Cook, N., Salam, M., Surovy, M.Z., Bueno Sancho, V., Maciel, J.N., Nani, A., Castroagudin, V., de Assis Reges, J.T., Ceresini, P., Ravel, S., Kellner, R., Fournier, E., Tharreau, D., Lebrun, M.-H., McDonald, B., Stitt, T., Swan, D., Talbot, N., Saunders, D., Win, J., and Kamoun, S. 2016. Emergence of wheat blast in Bangladesh was caused by a South American lineage of Magnaporthe oryzae. BMC Biology, 14:84.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Vivianne Vleeshouwers 
Organisation University of Wageningen
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise
Impact Pais, M., Yoshida, K., Giannakopoulou, A., Pel, M.A., Cano, L.M., Oliva, R.F., Witek, K., Lindqvist-Kreuze, H., Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Gene expression polymorphism underpins evasion of host immunity in an asexual lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 5:93. Domazakis, E., Wouters, D., Visser, R., Kamoun, S., Joosten, M.H., and Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. 2018. The ELR-SOBIR1 complex functions as a two-component RLK to mount defense against Phytophthora infestans. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 31:795-802. Derevnina, L., Dagdas, Y.F., De la Concepcion, J.C., Bialas, A., Kellner, R., Petre, B., Domazakis, E., Du, J., Wu, C.-H., Lin, X., Aguilera-Galvez, C., Cruz-Mireles, N., Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. and Kamoun, S. 2016. Nine things to know about elicitins. New Phytologist, 212:888-895. Giannakopoulou, A., Bialas, A., Kamoun, S., and Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. 2016. Plant immunity switched from bacteria to virus. Nature Biotechnology, 34:391-392. Du, J., Verzaux, E., Chaparro-Garcia, A., Bijsterbosch, G., Keizer, L.C.P., Zhou, J., Liebrand, T.W.H., Xie, C., Govers, F., Robatzek, S., van der Vossen, E.A.G., Jacobsen, E., Visser, R.G.F., Kamoun, S., and Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. 2015. Elicitin recognition confers enhanced resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato. Nature Plants, 1:15034.
 
Description Collaboration with the Lab of Frank Takken 
Organisation University of Amsterdam
Department Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise
Impact Publication in New Phytologist
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with the Lab of Paul Birch 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of materials/expertise
Impact N/A at this time
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaborations with The Sainsbury Laboratory 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Department The Sainsbury Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provide knowledge on the aphid-plant interactions experimental system.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Frank Menke and Dr. Jan Sklenar have contributed knowledge and expertise to a PhD student project in my lab.
Impact The PhD student made good progress with achieving research goals of his PhD project.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Formal research collaboration with SESVanderHave 
Organisation Sesvanderhave
Country Belgium 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution My research group has provided advise on strategies to obtain aphid resistant sugar beet, exchanged knowledge on research progress in plant-insect interactions of the lab, and wrote BBRSC-LINK award to fund research.
Collaborator Contribution SESVanderHave provides access to sugar beet breeding lines, genome sequence resources for these lines and insecticide-free field sites for collection of aphid populations in UK and Europe. They also funded a postdoctoral researcher in my group for one year, contributed 50% in-kind funds for the BBSRC-LINK award and funds a iCASE studentship in my group. PhD student Roland Wouters was recruited for the iCASE project. Roland is making good progress.
Impact Generated knowledge on plant-insect interactions. Organized visits of the SESVanderHave team to JIC (two times per year) and my group at JIC to SESVanderHave headquarters in Tienen, Belgium (two times per year). Organized regular Skype calls to discuss research progress and ideas for future research.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Partnership with 2Blades Foundation 
Organisation Two Blades Foundation
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Discovery program for plant immune receptors
Collaborator Contribution know-how, biological material and plant transformation
Impact Scientific and economic outputs, incl. patents.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Plant Response Biotech 
Organisation Plant Response Biotech S.L.
Country Spain 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution This is an iCASE studentship with Plant Response Biotech. We have generated transgenic tomato homozygous lines expressing individual Arabidopsis receptor kinases belonging to the sub-family XII of LRR-RLKs. We have generated single and multiple insertional Arabidopsis mutants for LRR-RLK sub-family XII members.
Collaborator Contribution The lines generated above will be tested at the end of year at Plant Response Biotech by the student employed in this project for disease resistance. The partner will provide lab space, consumable costs, access to growth chambers, access to relevant pathogens, and access to proprietary plant-derived and microbial elicitors.
Impact not applicable yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Structural studies of plant NLRs by cryo-EM 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As part of a project to investigate the potential of using plant expression systems to produce plant intracellular immune receptors (NLRs) for structural studies, we expressed and purified the plant NLRs NRC4 and Pikp-1 from N. benthamiana. This was accomplished through epitope tagging and gel filtration. This material was then tested for suitability for structural studies by cryo-EM using the equipment and expertise at the University of Leeds
Collaborator Contribution Our partners in Leeds provided expert advice and experimental knowledge towards optimising our experiments and access to the relevant equipment.
Impact A BBSRC grant application has been submitted that, in part, built on the data acquired during this collaboration. We are awaiting a decision.
Start Year 2017
 
Title Cold shock protein receptors and methods of use 
Description We report the development of a new biochemical method to identify novel plant immune receptors, and describe the use of this method to identify a tobacco immune receptor, CSPR, that recognises a conserved bacterial protein and the use thereof to improve disease resistance against pathogenic bacteria. 
IP Reference US Patent App. number 62/239,403 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed No
Impact Discussions in progress with companies, as well as massive interest from the community to implement this approach to identify additional novel immune receptors.
 
Title LATE BLIGHT RESISTANCE GENE FROM SOLANUM AMERICANUM AND Methods of Use 
Description We map-based cloned the Rpi-amr3 gene from Solanum americanum that confers late blight resistance in potato 
IP Reference WO 2016182881 A1 17th Nov 2016 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact None yet, beyond licensing to Simplot We are using Rpi-amr3 in our HAPI grant
 
Title LATE BLIGHT RESISTANCE GENES AND METHODS OF USE 
Description Compositions and methods and for enhancing the resistance of plants to a plant disease caused by a Phytophthora species are provided. The compositions comprise nucleic acid molecules encoding resistance (R) gene products and variants thereof and plants, seeds, and plant cells comprising such nucleic acid molecules. The methods for enhancing the resistance of a plant to a plant disease caused by a Phytophthora species comprise introducing a nucleic acid molecule encoding an R gene product into a plant cell. Additionally provided are methods for using the plants in agriculture to limit plant disease. 
IP Reference WO2018112356 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Yes
Impact we have carried out field trials with Rpi-amr1e
 
Title METHODS OF ENHANCING THE RESISTANCE OF PLANTS TO BACTERIAL PATHOGENS 
Description Methods are provided for enhancing the resistance of plants to bacterial pathogens. The methods involve transforming a plant with a polynucleotide molecule comprising a plant promoter operably linked to a nucleotide sequence that encodes a plant receptor that binds specifically with bacterial elongation factor-Tu. Further provided are expression cassettes, transformed plants, seeds, and plant cells that are produced by such methods. 
IP Reference WO2010062751 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2010
Licensed Yes
Impact several crops expressing EFR are now being generated across the world, with some of them being son tested in field trials.
 
Title METHODS, MEANS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR ENHANCING AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED PLANT CELL TRANSFORMATION EFFICIENCY 
Description Higher eukaryotes sense microbes through perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The flagellin receptor FLS2 represents so far the only known pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis plants detect a variety of PAMPs including specific epitopes of the bacterial proteins flagellin and EF-Tu. Here, we show that flagellin and EF-Tu activate a common set of signalling events and defence responses, but without clear additive or synergistic effects. Treatment with either PAMP results in increased receptor sites for both PAMPs, a finding employed in a reverse-genetic approach to identify the receptor kinase EFR as the EF-Tu receptor. Transient expression of EFR in Nicotiana benthamiana results in formation of specific binding sites for EF-Tu, and responsiveness to this PAMP. Arabidopsis efr mutants show a higher frequency of T-DNA transformation by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, revealing a role for EF-Tu perception in restricting this plant pathogen. These results demonstrate that EFR is the receptor for EF-Tu and that plant defence responses induced by PAMPs like EF-Tu reduce transformation by Agrobacterium. 
IP Reference WO2007068935 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2007
Licensed Yes
Impact not applicable at this stage
 
Title POTYVIRUS RESISTANCE GENES AND METHODS OF USE 
Description Compositions and methods and for enhancing the resistance of plants to plant diseases caused by potyviruses are provided. The compositions comprise nucleic acid molecules encoding resistance (R) gene products and variants thereof and plants, seeds, and plant cells comprising such nucleic acid molecules. The methods for enhancing the resistance of a plant to plant disease caused by a potyvirus comprise introducing a nucleic acid molecule encoding an R gene product into a plant cell. Additionally provided are methods for using the plants in agriculture to limit plant disease. 
IP Reference WO2019023587 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2019
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact we have a manuscript published in bioarxiv and under review at plant biotech journal
 
Title WHEAT STRIPE RUST RESISTANCE GENES AND METHODS OF USE 
Description Compositions and methods for enhancing the resistance of wheat and barley plants to wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici are provided. The compositions comprise nucleic acid molecules encoding resistance (R) gene products and variants thereof and plants, seeds, and plant cells comprising such nucleic acid molecules. The methods for enhancing the resistance of wheat and barley plants to wheat stripe rust comprise introducing a nucleic acid molecule encoding an R gene product into a wheat or barley plant cell. Additionally provided are methods for using the wheat and barley plants in agriculture to limit wheat stripe rust. 
IP Reference US2018320195 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Yes
Impact Identification of a functional resistance gene from barley against wheat stripe rust, a major pathogen of wheat. The gene is currently being tested in wheat for function, with the plan to include it in resistance gene cassettes.
 
Title QKbusco 
Description A set of scripts that merge BUSCO orthologous genes for phylogenetic analysis. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Development of the most comprehensive phylogenetic tree of the Poales. Scripts can be used by anyone seeking to develop a phylogenetic tree from diverse data sets (genome or transcriptome). 
URL https://github.com/matthewmoscou/QKbusco
 
Title QKcartographer 
Description A set of scripts for preparing data, for QTL analysis using QTL Cartographer 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact These scripts predominantly enable researchers to utilise command line-based QTL Cartographer, coupled with R, to generate ggplot2-based plots. 
 
Title QKdomain 
Description A set of scripts that can be used for protein domain analysis. The majority of which are developed to process files for input/output to/from InterProScan, MEME Suite, and phylogenetic analysis. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Used in several manuscripts to analyse protein domain structure. Broadly useful to anyone seeking to study proteins with complex domain structure. 
URL https://github.com/matthewmoscou/QKdomain
 
Title QKgenome 
Description A set of scripts for converting genomes based on resequencing information. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Used in several manuscripts in preparation to analyze intraspecific variation. The scripts are being used by a number of collaborators to analyze population level data. 
URL https://github.com/matthewmoscou/QKgenome
 
Title QKphylogeny 
Description A set of scripts for phylogenetic tree assessment and editing. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Used by several groups and other software packages as dependencies for the analysis of multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees. 
URL https://github.com/matthewmoscou/QKphylogeny
 
Description #OpenWheatBlast 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Wheat blast is a fearsome fungal disease of wheat. It was first discovered in Paraná State of Brazil in 1985. It spread rapidly to other South American countries such as Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina, where it infects up to 3 million hectares and causes serious crop losses. Wheat blast was also detected in Kentucky, USA, in 2011. Wheat blast is caused by a fungus known as Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae). There is a risk that wheat blast could expand beyond South America and threaten food security in wheat growing areas in Asia and Africa.

In February 2016, wheat blast was spotted in Bangladesh- its first report in Asia. Wheat is the second major food source in Bangladesh, after rice. The blast disease has, so far, caused up to 90% yield losses in more than 15000 hectares. Scientists fear that the pathogen could spread further to other wheat growing areas in South Asia.

The Twitter hashtag #openwheatblast serves as a communication tool to provide the latest on this fearsome disease and update a broad audience of news related to the ongoing pandemic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/search?q=kamounlab%20openwheatblast&src=typd
 
Description A biologist's poem 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A poem to inspire about biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/170774045435/a-biologists-poem
 
Description ActualFruitVeg: Los tomates y la diversidad 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact News article in Spanish magazine about genome edited tomato Tomelo.

Sophien Kamoun, estudia las enfermedades de las plantas en el Laboratorio de Sainsbury en Inglaterra, y en marzo su equipo publicó un documento que describía un tomate que habían modificado. Utilizando la técnica de edición de genes Crispr / Cas9 , el grupo de Kamoun cortó un trozo de un gen llamado Locus O resistente a los hongos, o Mlo. Esa eliminación hace que el tomate sea resistente al mildiu polvoriento, un grave problema agrícola que requiere una gran cantidad de productos químicos para controlar.

El "Tomelo" de Kamoun se parece mucho a un tomate natural, un mutante con la misma resistencia. "Al menos en las plantas de tomate que tenemos, no hubo diferencia detectable entre el mutante y el tipo salvaje", dice Kamoun.

El trabajo de Kamoun está detenido. Las regulaciones europeas convierten a las plantas genéticamente modificadas en ilegales. Los investigadores como Kamoun pueden tener conocimientos y hacer ensayos científicos para modificar la genética de las plantas pero no pueden llevarlos a ensayarlos en el campo. No pueden registrar estas plantas y comercializar variedades de tomates genéticamente modificados. En EEUU hay más oportunidades en ésta actividad científica. En Europa hay un gran signo de interrogación; "estoy muy frustrado por esto, tengo que ser honesto. Científicamente, esta planta, el "Tomelo" no es diferente de cualquier mutante que obtengamos de la reproducción tradicional o la mutagénesis tradicional, explica Kamoun
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://actualfruveg.com/2018/06/09/los-tomates-y-la-diversidad/
 
Description Appointed to Deputy Chair BBSRC Responsive mode committee B 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Appointed to Deputy Chair BBSRC Responsive mode committee B - committee reviews responsive mode grants for scientific projects, awarding funding for successful applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BBC Farming Today Interview 25th October 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for BBC Farming Today on the CJEU ruling on Genome Editing as a form of genetic modification, subject to the same regulation as transgenic crops, and the likely effect of this ruling on agricultural innovation in Europe. The interview covered genome editing technologies, the potential for crop improvement, the details of the ruling, the contrast with other international jurisdications, and the potential effect on agriculture in Europe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBC Look East Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed about the potential impact of Brexit on scientific research at The Sainsbury Laboratory and the Norwich Research Park. The interview covered the type of research carried out across the NRP, the degree of international collaboration, and the importance of European Commission funding to research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBC Radio Norfolk Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed on the potential effects of Brexit on research at The Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre and across the Norwich Research Park. The interview covered the type of research underway across the institutes, the international nature of research at TSL and JIC and the importance of European Commission funding to research programmes in Norwich.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BMC Series blog: Phenotypic plasticity in a pandemic lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In a paper recently published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, an international team of scientists describes how evasion of host immunity by a clonal variant of the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans is associated with variation in gene expression without any apparent underlying genetic changes. We asked the senior authors of the study, Vivianne G.A.A. Vleeshouwers, Hannele Lindqvist-Kreuze and Sophien Kamoun, to tells us about their work.

What did you find?


Wild potato
We studied two different races of the Irish potato famine pathogen, and we discovered that the difference invirulence between these races could not be ascribed to a genetic difference but rather to a difference in the expression of the underlying virulence gene. This adds to our knowledge of how this important scourge on world agriculture evolves to evade plant immunity.

Why is this work important?

As our colleague Mark Gijzen tweeted, "is this a rare and unusual curiosity or another example of a widespread biological phenomenon?" Indeed, there are few other examples in related plant pathogens, including the soybean root rot pathogen that Mark studies. This finding has far reaching implications. It indicates that these pathogens can evolve even more rapidly than anticipated thus counteracting the efforts of plant breeders to deploy disease resistant crops.

Are potato varieties resistant to the pathogen available?

Yes, there are. But there are several examples of potato cultivars that were initially resistant to late blight when farmers started to grow them, but succumbed to the disease a few years later. The ability to switch on and off virulence genes such as we found in this research may partly explain why the pathogen is so effective at overcoming the plants defense barriers.

There are potato varieties initially resistant to Phytophthora infestans that have succumbed to late blight a few years later.
What is currently done to control the disease?

Susceptible potato cultivars must be protected by repeated applications of fungicides. If left unchecked, the disease will destroy the leaves and stems in a matter of days as in the pictured trial plot of potato varieties in the highlands of Peru.

Is chemical protection the only way to control late blight?

In nature, there are wild relatives of the cultivated potato and many of them can withstand the disease (see image of potato variety field trial). Breeders identify the genes in these plants and introduce them to cultivated potato through crosses or genetic transformation.

How did you put this project together?

We studied an Andean lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen known as EC-1 so the project had an international flavor from day one. Ours was a wide reaching multinational collaboration bringing together scientists based in the UK, Japan, Netherlands, USA, Philippines, and Peru. It's how science often goes on these days. Experts from all over the world team up to solve problems, make new discoveries and advance our knowledge.

Anything you would have done differently?

DNA sequencing technology develops so fast that by the time the paper gets published you wish you could apply a different method. It also takes more time to analyze the data, write up the paper etc. than to generate the sequence data. This can be frustrating.

You posted the paper in bioRxiv before submission. Why?

Why not? Posting the article on bioRxiv enabled us to share our findings with our colleagues and hear about it from the community as soon as possible. The tweet by Mark Gijzen we referred to above is an example of such feedback. Posting a preprint relieves some of the delays associated with publishing. It's a liberating feeling to finish writing up a paper and immediately share it with anyone who's interested.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcseriesblog/2018/07/09/phenotypic-plasticity-pandemic-lineage-iris...
 
Description Chair of Insectary Platform Steering Committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chair of committee that ensures that the JIC Insectary/Entomology Technology Platform is well managed, proactive, effective, state of the art and resourced to meet the Institutes' science needs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description Chair of Technical Platform Oversight Committee (TPOC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chair the committee that ensures that all JIC Technology Platforms are collectively well managed, proactive, effective, state of the art and resourced to meet the Institutes' science needs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description Conference Talk - An 'integrated' approach to improving disease resistance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 3rd International Conference "Plant Biotic Stresses & Resistance Mechanisms", Vienna, Austria - opportunity for researchers in the field to network, collaborate and exchange ideas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description CropLife FoodHeroes Series: What inspires plant scientists and why is their job so important? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Why did you want to be a plant scientist?

I became a scientist because I grew up being extremely curious about the natural world. I wanted to know how living organisms function. How they became the way they are. Plant pathology came later after realized that I may as well study a field of biology that is important to the human condition. This inspires me to narrow the gap between fundamental and applied research. My aim is to perform cutting-edge research and significantly advance knowledge on economically important plant pathogen systems. In contrast, much research focuses on model systems and is therefore further steps away from practical applications.

Can you explain what your job involves?

As an academic scientist, I am in the business of knowledge. My job is to generate new knowledge to advance science, and to influence others to pursue new directions, generate more knowledge and apply it to address practical problems. My job is also to communicate scientific knowledge and discoveries to my peers and to a broader audience, including the general public.

What are the plant diseases that you are working on?

I work primarily on blight and blast diseases. Throughout my career, I have worked primarily on the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. More recently, I was inspired by the sense of urgency brought upon by the February 2016 Bangladeshi wheat blast epidemic to expand my research to blast fungi. I aim to apply the concepts and ideas I developed throughout my career to a problem with an immediate impact on global food security.

Can you describe how damaging these diseases can be for farmers?

Plant diseases are a major constraint for achieving food security. Losses caused by fungal plant pathogens alone account for enough to feed several billion people. Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of blast disease of cereals, is among the most destructive plant pathogens, causing losses in rice production that, if mitigated, could feed up to 740 million people. This pathogen has emerged since the 1980s as an important pathogen of wheat seriously limiting the potential for wheat production in South America. In 2016, wheat blast was detected for the first time in Asia with reports of a severe epidemic in Bangladesh. The outbreak is particularly worrisome because wheat blast has already spread further to India, and is threatening major wheat producing areas in neighboring South Asian countries. Global trade and a warming climate are contributing to the spread and establishment of blast diseases as a global problem for cereal production and a present and clear danger to food security.

Why is your profession important in the challenge to feed the world?

Plant pathology delivers science-driven solutions to plant diseases. In particular, genetic solutions through disease resistant crop varieties can be sustainable and environmentally friendly.

What inspires you about your job?

Knowledge and people. The thrill of learning something new every day is addictive. Sharing the experience with others -be they students, colleagues, stakeholders or members of the public - is priceless.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://croplife.org/industry-profile/sophien-kamoun/
 
Description Dhaka Tribune: Fighting the fungi that destroy wheat 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Newspaper article following interview by Bangladeshi science reporter Reaz Ahmed.

The article was on the front page of the Dhaka Tribune.

Scientists in UK, Bangladesh join hands in applying genome editing to develop a novel variety capable of withstanding the fearsome fungal disease - wheat blast


An international scientific collaboration is employing genome editing techniques to develop novel blast resistant wheat to save the second most important food crop in South Asia from a future devastation.

The move comes at a time when authorities in Bangladesh and in the Indian state of West Bengal are pursuing 'wheat holiday' policy - restricting wheat cultivation for a stipulated time in targeted areas - in a desperate attempt to curb the spread of deadly wheat blast disease.

This fungal disease has long been confined largely within the wheat growing regions of South America. But in 2016, it struck wheat fields of Bangladesh, in its first outbreak in Asia, causing colossal crop damage and sending alerts in bordering regions of India.

Scientists from United Kingdom and Bangladesh, involved in the process of developing blast resistant wheat through genome editing, told Dhaka Tribune that they have already identified the wheat gene where they are going to apply 'molecular scissors' and do the editing, thereby effectively driving away the fungi responsible for the blast in wheat fields.

"Once we're done with the task in our laboratory (in UK), hopefully by the end of this year we'll be sending the edited version to Bangladesh for Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) lab to do the necessary probing prior going for field test," Prof Dr Sophien Kamoun, Group Leader, Sophien Kamoun Group at the UK's The Sainsbury Laboratory (TSL) told this correspondent on Tuesday.

Tunisian-born Dr Sophien, a British Royal Society Fellow, made the science jargons easy for a layman's understanding as he explained, "The fungi hold a key and wheat has a lock and every time fungi get favourable weather they apply the key to unlock wheat thereby feasting on the plant. What essentially we'll do is fortify the lock system failing fungi's key in opening it."

Dr Sophien, a former plant pathology professor of Ohio State University, had joined hands with his TSL colleague Prof Nicholas J Talbot and other co-scientists in discovering the genome sequence of pathogen responsible for wheat blast when it first struck in Asia invading eight major wheat growing districts in Bangladesh in 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/agriculture/2019/03/02/fighting-the-fungi-that-destroy-wheat
 
Description Engagement with BBSRC as part of the BRIGIT project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Have weekly meetings with policy makers at BBSRC about new policies that may be developed to reduce the risk of Xylella fastidiosa outbreaks in the UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Engagement with Defra, Forest Research and APHA as part of the BRIGIT project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Have weekly meetings with policy makers at Defra about new policies that may be developed to reduce the risk of Xylella fastidiosa outbreaks in the UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Engagement with Fera as part of the BRIGIT project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Have weekly meetings with Fera about status of Xylella fastidiosa diagnostics that may influence new policies for reducing risk of X. fastidiosa outbreaks in the UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Engagement with Oxitec 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Regular meetings with Neil Morrison for supervisory meetings and discussing research progress of the iCASE studentship.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
 
Description Engagement with Syngenta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Regular meetings with colleagues at Syngenta, Jealott's Hill, UK, and Switserland and USA to discuss project proposals and research progress on aphids.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Engagement with the Royal Horticulticultural Society as part of the BRIGIT project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Have weekly meetings with staff member of RHS to develop a stakeholder engagement plan for BRIGIT
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description European Research Council@10: the impact on science and scientists 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Scientists at the John Innes Centre and The Sainsbury Laboratory reflect on the success of the ERC over the last ten years and the impact that ERC grants have had on their science and their careers. Category: Science & Technology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://youtu.be/qEgjYaMG0tQ
 
Description External Assessor for academic Tenure process at University of Dundee, UK. 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact External Assessor for academic Tenure process at University of Dundee, UK. 2018 - part of panel assessing suitability of candidate to become permanent research leader at University of Dundee
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Food Thinkers Series: 'Dysfunctional regulation of GM crops; scope for improvement post-Brexit?', Presentation for Food Research Collaboration, Centre for Food Policy (CFP) City University London, February 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Food Thinkers Series: 'Dysfunctional regulation of GM crops; scope for improvement post-Brexit?', Presentation for Food Research Collaboration, Centre for Food Policy (CFP) City University London, February 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://foodresearch.org.uk/food-thinkers-dysfunctional-regulation-of-gm-crops-scope-for-improvement-...
 
Description Growing the Future-a UK Plant Sciences Federation and a Royal Society of Biology report 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Growing the future is a report from the UK Plant Sciences Federation (UKPSF), a special advisory committee of the Royal Society of Biology. Launched in January 2019, the report highlights to policymakers and others the excellence of plant science in the UK, and its importance to the biosciences, the economy, and society both at home and around the world. In Growing the future, the UKPSF describes the potential of plant science to improve fundamental knowledge, enable better diet quality, increase crop productivity, enhance environmental sustainability and create new products and manufacturing processes.

The report section on Plant health highlighted our research on potato late blight which dates back to the 1990s and has established the fundamental knowledge that has now enabled commercialisation of the first GMO potato plants among various applications.

The report also highlighted our work on gene editing in tomato, notably the development of the fungus resistant tomato line Tomelo, which was highlighted by a picture taken from our publication Nekrasov, V., Wang, C., Win, J., Lanz, C., Weigel, D., and Kamoun, S. 2017. Rapid generation of a transgene-free powdery mildew resistant tomato by genome deletion. Scientific Reports, 7:482.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/ukpsf/about-ukpsf/growing-the-future-report
 
Description Horizon The EU Research and Innovation Magazine: AGRICULTURE--Can CRISPR feed the world? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact As the world's population rises, scientists want to edit the genes of potatoes and wheat to help them fight plant diseases that cause famine.

By 2040, there will be 9 billion people in the world. 'That's like adding another China onto today's global population,' said Professor Sophien Kamoun of the Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, UK.

Prof. Kamoun is one of a growing number of food scientists trying to figure out how to feed the world. As an expert in plant pathogens such as Phytophthora infestans - the fungus-like microbe responsible for potato blight - he wants to make crops more resistant to disease.

Potato blight sparked the Irish famine in the 19th century, causing a million people to starve to death and another million migrants to flee. European farmers now keep the fungus in check by using pesticides. However, in regions without access to chemical sprays, it continues to wipe out enough potatoes to feed hundreds of millions of people every year.

'Potato blight is still a problem,' said Prof. Kamoun. 'In Europe, we use 12 chemical sprays per season to manage the pathogen that causes blight, but other parts of the world cannot afford this.'

Plants try to fight off the pathogens that cause disease but these are continuously changing to evade detection by the plant's immune system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://horizon-magazine.eu/article/can-crispr-feed-world_en.html
 
Description Hosted and led discussion about GM crops after public screening of Food Evolution during Norwich Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hosted and led discussion about GM crops after public screening of Food Evolution during Norwich Science Festival
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://norwichsciencefestival.co.uk/events/food-evolution-the-movie/
 
Description Hosting of Milind Sood, BSc student, University of Oxford, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Will do a research project in my lab as part of the JIC/TSL/EI International Undergraduate Summer School programme at JIC, Jun-Aug 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description IS-MPMI Interactions: Fat Cats Can Jump Over The Wall: Plant Biotic Interactions Workshop in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On a cloudy Norwich day in 2011, post-docs Sebastian Schornack, Sylvain Raffaele, and Tolga Bozkurt were having a typical British lunch of fish and chips with mushy peas with their supervisor Sophien Kamoun. Somehow, the discussion turned to the importance of sustained productivity. Kamoun, in his usual hyperbolic style, pointed out that now that each one of them had just published notable papers (Schornack et al., 2010; Raffaele et al., 2010; Bozkurt et al., 2011), they should beware of not behaving like "lazy fat cats" and think hard about their next papers. Not everyone left the lunch in the happiest mood. One day later, after discussion with another post-doc, Mireille van Damme, Schornack and colleagues decided to found the Lazy Fat Cat Club (#LFCats). Schornack drafted a chart and was appointed as Chairman Féi mao (fat cat in Mandarin). The #LFCats ethos is that productive research requires a significant amount of communication and knowledge exchange, and informally discussing research is a perfect way of solving roadblocks and laying paths for the future. Casual meetings took place on a regular basis at The Sainsbury Laboratory, mainly on afternoon coffee breaks. The club continued to loosely grow and several other researchers joined the #LFCats. As the members moved on to start their own labs, the #LFCats "brand" helped nurture a lasting bond. Suomeng Dong, now a professor in the Department of Plant Pathology at Nanjing Agricultural University, coined the Chinese proverb "Fat cats cannot jump over the wall" to challenge the #LFCats to work collaboratively to solve problems and "jump over the wall."

It should be noted that the #LFCats are neither lazy (well, maybe a bit sometimes) nor overweight (no comments...). Instead the club's name relates to the initial discussion and stands for the importance of moving out your comfort zone and looking forward to the next goal in science or in life. It also grew to reflect the importance of informal interactions as a means to enhance efficiency and creativity. To promote such interactions, Schornack organized the first #LFCats research meeting at the Sainsbury Laboratory Cambridge University in 2013. Dong (Nanjing Agricultural University, China) and Ruofang Zhang (Inner Mongolia University, China) led a second meeting in August 2017 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia. The local host, Zhang, is the director of the Potato Research Center at Inner Mongolian University and the Plant Protection section in the Chinese Modern Agricultural Industry Technology System. Indeed, the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia is the largest potato production area in China and has contributed to making this country the leading potato producer in the world.

In this report, we summarize the key findings presented at the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ismpmi.org/members/Interactions/Lists/Posts/Post.aspx?ID=165
 
Description IS-MPMI Interactions: InterViews: Sophien Kamoun by Jixiang Kong 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This InterView with Sophien Kamoun, John Innes Centre, was performed by one of the 2016 IS-MPMI student travel awardees, Jixiang Kong, Gregor Mendel Institute.

JIXIANG KONG: What led you to study biology? More specifically plant-pathogen interactions.

SOPHIEN KAMOUN: I grew up with a passion for nature. As a teenager I collected insects and became fascinated by their incredible diversity. Later I took this "hobby" more seriously and I specialized in studying tiger beetles. I even published a few papers on this topic.

After high school in Tunisia, I went to Paris with the firm intention of studying biology and becoming an entomologist. However, I was disappointed by how badly taught zoology was-too much emphasis on taxonomy and little mechanistic thinking. Instead, I became drawn to the more rigorous methods and approaches of molecular biology, and I ended up majoring in genetics. I reconciled this major with my natural history interests by taking multiple modules in evolution and reading a lot on the subject.

Plant pathology came later when I moved from Paris to the University of California-Davis for my Ph.D. The fellowship I received stipulated that I should study plant biology. It wasn't by choice but rather by accident. But I quickly became engrossed in molecular plant pathology and I really liked that this science involves interactions between multiple organisms. However, for many years I missed a direct connection between the lab work and the field.

JK: If you would not have chosen the topic of plant-pathogen interactions, what would you choose?

SK: Definitely, entomology. I'm still fascinated by insects, especially beetles. I feel we know so little about their biology, especially from a mechanistic angle. They are so diverse and yet most insect research focuses on a few species, such as Drosophila. There are so many fascinating questions, for example, about the evolution of insect behavior and the underlying genes. Also, insects can be important crop pests and disease vectors. This is a very fertile area of research that I highly recommend to early career scientists.

JK: How do you envision large-scale "omics" approaches in studying plant immunity?

SK: Omics are just another tool. They're powerful tools but they're still methods we use to answer questions. I advise everyone to frame their research based on questions and then look for the best methods to answer these questions.

This said, genomics has transformed biology in a fundamental way. It's a new way of doing business. We now have catalogs of plant and pathogen genes, so the challenge is to link genes to function rather than discovering the genes per se. Another key aspect is that genomics is a great equalizer. Model systems are less important than in earlier days. One can make a lot of progress with a genome and a few functional assays. For example, consider the progress made in discovering effectors in obligate parasites. This would have been almost unthinkable in the pre-genomics age. This is why I wish to see more early career scientists explore the diversity of pathogen systems rather than working on established model systems.

JK: Social media is changing the way of communication rapidly. However, the scientific communication on social media is just emerging. How do you see the direction of social media in the future regarding the impact on science? Will social media replace or minimize some conventional communication such as conferences?

SK: Communication is an essential function of being a scientist. We're not only in the business of producing new knowledge but it's also our obligation to communicate knowledge to our peers and the public. These days social media became a major medium for communication in science. It's an efficient way to filter through the incessant flow of information, stay up to date, and broadly broadcast new knowledge. It also enables us to expand our network way beyond traditional colleagues. I interact on Twitter with teachers, farmers, journalists, etc. I also use it, of course, to communicate with colleagues and share information and insights. I also find Twitter immensely entertaining. Scientists have a lot of humor.

I don't think social media will replace the need for direct contact and interaction between peers. I think we still would want to break off our daily routine and meet in person with colleagues. However, I wish we could start rethinking the format of scientific conferences. Both the fairly detailed oral presentations and poster sessions could be improved if they were combined with some sort of Internet interaction. Twitter is already transforming how scientists interact at conferences but we could do better.

JK: What advice would you provide to young researchers who are in their early scientific career?

SK: Don't follow the herd. Take chances. Look beyond the current trends both in terms of experimental systems and questions, and ask provocative questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ismpmi.org/members/Interactions/Lists/Posts/Post.aspx?ID=152
 
Description IS-MPMI conference, Glasgow, Scotland - Local organising committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of local organising committee for IS-MPMI conference, Glasgow, Scotland to take place in July 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ismpmi.org/Congress/2019/Pages/default.aspx
 
Description Interview for BBC News on fighting wheat stem rust 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Gave a telephone interview on a recent article from Science, which was a perspective piece on two major studies. Provided information related to the impact of this work on epidemiology of wheat stem rust and current challenges in countering this deadly pathogen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-42446795
 
Description Interview on Talking Biotech podcast with Paul Vincelli 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact http://www.talkingbiotechpodcast.com/065-plant-r-genes-and-their-applications/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.talkingbiotechpodcast.com/065-plant-r-genes-and-their-applications/
 
Description Interview with Matthew Gudgin on BBC Radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sophien Kamoun's interview with Matthew Gudgin on BBC Radio following election as Fellow of the Royal Society. This includes a discussion of plant blindness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/173740235230/sophiens-interview-with-matthew-gudgin-on-bbc
 
Description Keynote lecture at ICPP 2018: The Edge of Tomorrow - Plant Health in the 21st Century 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ICPP2018 International Congress of Plant Pathology Plenary Session - Plant Health is Earth's Wealth, Boston, USA, Monday, July 30, 2018

The talk was broadcast on a live stream and is available on YouTube https://youtu.be/MYysIKSYY_8
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/176385835530/the-edge-of-tomorrow-plant-health-in-the-21st
 
Description Le Professeur tunisien Sophien Kamoun intègre la prestigieuse Royal Society de Londres 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact News article in the North African media https://www.huffpostmaghreb.com
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/entry/le-professeur-tunisien-sophien-kamoun-integre-la-prestigieuse-...
 
Description Member Scientific Resources Committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of a committee that decides on purchases of all types of scientific equipment and organization of JIC infrastructure.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description Norwich Science Festival 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Sainsbury Laboratory, including members of my research group, actively participated in the Norwich Science Festival, which showcases research currently going on at The Sainsbury Laboratory. Several hands on activates promote the general public engagement in science, including stamp a leaf in agar and Nicotiana infiltrations. Our booth is highly visited, with over 1,000 interactions experienced during the breadth of the Festival.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://norwichsciencefestival.co.uk/about/norwich-science-festival-2017/
 
Description Norwich Science Festival 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Sainsbury Laboratory, including members of my research group, actively participated in the Norwich Science Festival, which showcases research currently going on at The Sainsbury Laboratory. Several hands on activates promote the general public engagement in science, including stamp a leaf in agar, a late blight demonstration, child-friendly microscopy, and Nicotiana infiltrations. Our booth is highly visited, with over 1,000 interactions experienced during the breadth of the Festival.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://norwichsciencefestival.co.uk/
 
Description Presented talk at JIC "Science for Innovation Showcase" event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented a talk at the JIC "Science for Innovation Showcase" event, Norwich, UK, 7-8 Feb '18. I explored opportunities to collaborate with industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press release for research paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release about a research publications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press release to announce BRIGIT project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Engaged with JIC Public Engagement Officer to launch press release 'UK consortium to combat serious threat to plant health' to announce the start of the BRIGIT project and the BRIGIT project website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/press-release/uk-wide-consortium-to-combat-serious-threat-to-plant-health/
 
Description Press release to announce new appointment for the BRIGIT project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Engaged with JIC Public Engagement Officer to launch press release 'New appointment for UK-wide Xylella pathogen consortium' for the BRIGIT project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.jic.ac.uk/news/new-appointment-for-uk-wide-xylella-pathogen-consortium/
 
Description Roundtable debate on Genome Editing for Crop Improvement with Rt Hon Michael Gove MP, Secretary of State for the Environment. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Took part in round table debate with the Secretary of State for the Environment to discuss the CJEU ruling on Genome Editing and how this was a potential impediment to innovation in crop improvement. The debate was co-ordinated by Tom Allen-Stevens and the NFU on 11th February 2018. The meeting solicited views from the science community, the soil association, the organic farming movement, Beyond GM, plant breeders, the AgBiotech industry, and the broader farming community.

There is likely to be a follow-up discussion and ongoing work to advise government on genome editing and its potential use in crop improvement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Scoop.it page "Plants and Microbes" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Everything related to the science of plant-microbe interactions. Curated by Kamoun Lab @ TSL

>450K page views.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016,2017
URL https://www.scoop.it/topic/mpmi
 
Description SlideShare: Pathogenomics of emerging plant pathogens: too little, too late 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Slides: Pathogenomics of emerging plant pathogens: too little, too late. Presented at the conference "Building resilience against crop diseases: A global surveillance system", February 14, 2018, Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.slideshare.net/SophienKamoun/pathogenomics-of-emerging-plant-pathogens-too-little-too-la...
 
Description Stranger in a strange land: the experiences of immigrant researchers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Published in Genome Biology: Continuing with our Q&A series discussing issues of diversity in STEM fields, Genome Biology spoke with three researchers on their experiences as immigrants.

International collaborations are key to advancing scientific research globally and often require mobility on the part of researchers. Migration of scientists enables the spread of ideas and skills around the world, giving researchers the opportunity to follow the best resources. Of course, migration adds a new set of challenges to the already monumental task of starting and running a lab. Genome Biology spoke to Sophien Kamoun, Rosa Lozano-Durán, and Luay Nakhleh about their personal experiences.

What influenced your choice to move to your current country?

SK: There is this old German expression "wo die Musik spielt"-you go where it's happening, where the "music is played". I think that sums it up. When I was a student in the 1980s, almost everyone wanted to do a Ph.D. in the USA. I felt that to have the best training and to be among the best, I had no choice but to study in the USA. I think that was a pretty correct assessment of the state of affairs in the 1980s. Indeed, I had a fantastic experience at the University of California, Davis. Also, at that time, Europe wasn't really open to non-Western scientists, and international mobility wasn't recognized like it is today [1]. Later, I moved to the Netherlands and then back to the USA before landing in my current position at The Sainsbury Laboratory (TSL) in Norwich, UK. I moved to Norwich exactly 10 years ago, primarily because of the reputation of the laboratory as a center of excellence for plant pathology research and the generous support provided by David Sainsbury through the Gatsby Foundation. I have had a phenomenal time at TSL these past 10 years, where I have had the opportunity to work with outstanding scientists from perhaps about 30-40 countries. An interesting point is that when TSL was founded in 1988, all the group leaders were British [2], but currently our principal investigators are from all over the world [3]. I think TSL truly reflects the emergence of the #ScienceisGlobal movement on social media [4], which is so evident in the UK and other corners of Europe.

RL-D: Three years ago, having worked as a postdoctoral researcher for almost four years, I was eager to establish my own laboratory. I had known what I wanted to devote my research to for a long time and could not wait to get started. Unfortunately, the economic climate in Europe, where I am originally from and where I was working at the time, was not particularly propitious for science in academia, with research budgets being slashed and increasing competition-not the most favorable situation for new group leaders, I heard over and over again. My partner was also a scientist at the same career stage, and so we needed to find two positions, not just one, complicating matters even more. One day, just by chance, we came across a job advertisement for group leader positions at the Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology in China. We had heard about the place-a new institute with the ambition to become a powerhouse for plant sciences. I was very excited at the prospects of leading my own research group, and that excitement overrode any qualms or self-imposed geographical restrictions. I am also fortunate enough to have an incredibly supportive family and friends who unconditionally encouraged me to pursue my scientific career, even if that involved moving far away; they may not always understand the nitty-gritty details of what I do, but they know how important it is for me.
It was my first job application, and I was offered the position following an interview at the center. They were willing to support me and give me the freedom to develop my own research program-it was an unbeatable opportunity to start my independent career. And the fact that I would be living in Asia, with the immense chance to broaden my experience that entailed, added some extra appeal (despite the slight vertigo I also felt). There was not much to think about, really-it was a deal I simply could not turn down.

LN: I was born to a Christian Arab family in Israel and did my undergraduate studies at the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology). Although I was an atheist by the time I started my studies at the Technion, I still considered myself to be "culturally" Christian, in that I celebrated Christmas and New Year with my family (eating and drinking, not going to church!). However, almost every year, my exams were scheduled on December 25th and January 1st (the Fall semester in Israel starts in October and ends in February). Being unable to take exams on different dates affected my performance in my studies and my interest in pursuing graduate studies at the same institution. Also, more generally, I was the only Christian Arab student in my class, and one of a handful of Arab students; I never felt comfortable at the time. So, I decided to pursue graduate studies in computer science outside Israel. The choice to come to the USA was an easy one because the USA had (and still has, in my opinion) the best graduate programs in computer science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-017-1370-4
 
Description Talking Biotech Podcast - Plant Disease Networks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Plant disease resistance is a complicated arms race between the plant and pathogens. Bacteria, viruses and fungi evolve in lock-step with plants, creating new ways to overcome new disease resistance strategies. Resistance to disease has a foundation in the gene-for-gene model, a model that hypothesizes that plants and pathogens have a molecular relationship with each other that mediates pathogenicity. Today's podcast features Drs. Lida Derevnina and Chih-Hang Wu, postdoctoral researchers with Sophien Kamoun (@KamounLab) at the Sainsbury Laboratory (@TheSainsburyLab) in Norwich, England. They describe the new thinking of disease resistance as a number of complex layers that integrates many gene-for-gene interactions with other mechanisms in mediating plant defense. Hosted by Paul Vincelli (@pvincell).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.talkingbiotechpodcast.com/146-plant-disease-networks/
 
Description Taproot Episode 1, Season 1: Extreme Open Science and the Meaning of Scientific Impact 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Taproot is the podcast that digs beneath the surface to understand how scientific publications in plant biology are created. In each episode, co-hosts Liz Haswell and Ivan Baxter take a paper from the literature and talk about the story behind the science with one of its authors.

This episode features Sophien Kamoun, a Senior Scientist at the Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, UK. He was born in Tunisia, and got his Maitrise from Pierre & Marie Curie Univ., Paris, France. He then moved to the United States where he did both a Ph.D. and postdoc at the University of California, Davis. He then went to Wageningen University in The Netherlands, where he was a Senior Research Scientist for three years. Sophien started as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Plant Pathology at Ohio State University, Wooster, where he rose through the ranks to Full Professor before moving in 2007 to the Sainsbury Lab where he has been ever since. During this time he was Head of the Laboratory for several years. He has received many awards, and is an elected member of AAAS and EMBO, and has served on many editorial boards.

In this episode, the hosts and Sophien discuss a recent collaborative paper (Islam et al., 2016, BMC Biology) that really embodies the concepts of open science. It addresses the source and characterization of a newly discovered wheat blast in Bangladesh. Wheat blast is a fungal disease that affects grasses that are a huge threat to food security. The authors report the geographical distribution of this new disease, characterize the disease symptoms of affected plants, and isolate and validate the causal fungus. Most strikingly, they performed RNA sequencing on symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves and show that RNA from these infected leaves aligns to the genome of a Brazilian wheat blast strain. They conclude that the Bangladesh isolate of wheat blast is phylogenetically related to the Brazilian wheat blast, rather than an unknown or new lineage.

Listen to this episode to hear Sophien, Ivan, and Liz discuss the science in this paper, how the project started, and how it developed into a peer-reviewed publication. Also discussed is the importance of redefining what is meant by scientific "impact", and new ways to do science in the plant pathology community and beyond
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://plantae.org/taproot-episode-1-season-1-extreme-open-science-and-the-meaning-of-scientific-im...
 
Description Television interview with BBC World News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A video interview with BBC World News discussing the impact of wheat stem rust on worldwide wheat production, the impact of two recent studies on understanding the epidemiology of the pathogen, and the future outlook for crop protection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description VISCEA - Plant Biotic Stresses and Resistance Mechanisms III, International organising committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact VISCEA - Plant Biotic Stresses and Resistance Mechanisms III, International conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description What's up with preprints? And why I'm bothering with them. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact What's up with preprints? And why I'm bothering with them. A few answers to @hormiga post about why he's not bothering with preprints.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://kamounlab.tumblr.com/post/163409024195/whats-up-with-preprints-and-why-im-bothering
 
Description Wired: Who Wants Disease-Resistant GM Tomatoes? Probably Not Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact ENGINEERING A TOMATO resistant to a pernicious fungal disease doesn't seem like it'd be the easiest part of a plant pathologist's job. But compared to getting that tomato to market? It's a snap.

At least, that's how Sophien Kamoun sees it. Kamoun studies plant diseases at the Sainsbury Laboratory in England, and in March his team published a paper describing a tomato they'd tweaked. Using the gene-editing technique Crispr/Cas9, Kamoun's group snipped out a piece of a gene called Mildew Resistant Locus O, or Mlo. That deletion makes the tomato resistant to powdery mildew, a serious agricultural problem that takes a lot of chemicals to control.

Kamoun's "Tomelo" actually looks a lot like a naturally occurring tomato, a mutant with the same resistance. "At least in the tomato plants we have, there was no detectable difference between the mutant and the wild type," Kamoun says. "Obviously we'd need to do more detailed field trials, but there was certainly nothing obvious."

But for now, that's where Kamoun's work stops. European regulations make the tomato essentially illegal-he and others can do the science, but probably can't get it to field trials, and certainly can't get it to market. "There's more clarity in the US. One could probably get approval. But in Europe, it's a big question mark," he says. "I'm very frustrated by this, I have to be honest. Scientifically this plant is no different from any mutant we'd get from traditional breeding or traditional mutagenesis. I really don't understand what the problem is."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.wired.com/2017/05/wants-disease-resistant-gm-tomatoes-probably-not-europe/?mbid=social_t...
 
Description YouTube: BLASTOFF - Keeping Up With A Cereal Killer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Via UC Berkeley Events. Center for Emerging and Neglected Diseases (CEND) at UC Berkeley facilitates innovative solutions for infectious disease challenges. Berkeley, CA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://youtu.be/FCS5y_qX8n0