IKC in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Photonics and Electronics - Exploiting Molecular and Macromolecular Materials [MMM]

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

A transformation is currently underway in a large range of computer and sensing technologies, displays and communication systems with the introduction of new low cost, flexible molecular and macromolecular materials. These materials, which encompass polymers, advanced liquid crystals, and nanostructures, including carbon and silicon nanowires, are set to have a disruptive impact on current technologies not only because of their cost/performance advantages, but also because they can be manufactured in more flexible ways, provide more functionality and be engineered for a wider range of applications. The new materials have a strong research base in the UK, are suitable for a wide range of commercial concerns, both large and small, and hence provide an important opportunity for UK plc. At Cambridge there has been considerable research and development into these materials in recent years, with a range of world leading results having been achieved, which have in turn been exploited, in more than 15 spin-outs to date. The market penetration of soft materials into microelectronics and photonics however has only just begun, and with a market estimate measured in $10's of billion per annum, it is certain that the UK must capitalise on its strength in the basic science. There is an urgent need for the development of advanced manufacturing technologies using new macromolecular material systems and valid exploitation models. What the UK lacks is a dedicated centre of excellence that can act as a repository of expertise, developing both clear and differentiated core competencies, together with providing a knowledge development and transfer role. Success here will critically depend upon early traction between those in research and those in commercial exploitation. It will also rely on funding of products right through to pilot production for the first time, the lack of which has been a barrier to commercialisation and hence has limited exploitation in this field in the past. This proposal therefore seeks to create a new molecular and macromolecular materials (MMM) IKC. This will bring together the main research activities in the field at Cambridge, namely in the Electrical Engineering Division (in particular within the Centre for Advanced Electronics and Photonics, CAPE) and in the Cavendish. Together this research spans the MMM field and is recognised as having a world-leading position. A key to this proposed IKC however is that it will also allow much greater interaction and collaboration with those in business than has previously been possible for EPSRC funded research activities. Hence the IKC, if awarded, would allow the creation of tightly focussed commercialisation activities jointly with the Judge Business School, the Institute of Manufacturing (including the EPSRC Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre) and the Centre for Business Research. These will allow the creation of a range of innovative knowledge transfer activities spanning business research, training and specific product exploitation. Finally, the Centre will also allow the secondment of researchers from industry and other universities to the IKC, specifically for knowledge transfer (as opposed to research), and in its later stages make use of the provision of pilot manufacturing lines for prototyping. Reciprocal arrangements will also ensure that academics learn the key features of and improve their effectiveness in exploitation themselves.

Publications

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Alan Hughes (Author) (2009) Universities and the Commercialisation of Science: Retrospect and Prospect in DRUID Society Summer Conference 2009 on INNOVATION, STRATEGY and KNOWLEDGE

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Andrew Flewitt (Author) (2009) Advances in ZnO based devices in Transistors on Plastic 2009

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Andrew Flewitt (Author) (2008) Zinc Oxide: Transparent Electronics on Plastic in Transistors on Plastic 2008

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Andrew Flewitt (Author) (2010) Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors: Materials and Devices in Transistors on Plastic 2010

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Bamiedakis N (2008) Optical interconnect applications for multimode siloxane components in 2nd International Symposium on Photonics Packaging

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Bamiedakis N (2010) Hybrid-integrated optical transceiver on an OE PCB in ECIO 2010

 
Description This grant funded the initial period of the Cambridge Integrated Knowledge Centre (CIKC) to form a centre of excellence for low temperature processing using macromolecular materials, such as polymers, liquid crystals and nanostructures, for applications in computer technologies, displays and communications. The work of CIKC has continued to develop beyond the end of the award. CIKC facilitates the commercial exploitation of emerging research and technology in flexible and distributed electronics through the provision of infrastructure for scalable manufacturing processes, funding of application demonstrators to validate commercial concepts and reduce the technical risk of transfer to industry, and provision of business development resource to identify the best opportunities for exploitation.

CIKC combines macromolecular materials research in Electrical Engineering and the Cavendish Laboratory with the expertise of the Judge Business School, the Institute for Manufacturing and the Centre for Business Research, to create innovative knowledge exchange activities spanning business research, training and technology exploitation.

The technology developed by CIKC, in collaboration with industry partners, includes

• a scalable manufacturing process for organic transistors using self-aligned inkjet printing with high yield (90-100%) and good uniformity over an array of 70 TFTs, allowing the fabrication of simple circuits.

• a technology to "integrate" polymer waveguides, electronics and optoelectronics on a circuit board, and the realisation of a 10Gb/s transceiver circuit and an on-board 4x10Gb/s link using this approach

• a roll-to-roll printing process technology for organic photovoltaic devices which led to the formation of a spin-off company to exploit the technology.

• a lamination process for reflective liquid crystal displays on plastic panels up to A4 sizes, together with UV durable colourants and the production of stacked cells allows full colour plastic displays.

• novel sputtering processes to deposit high quality transparent metal oxide materials at temperatures compatible with using plastic substrates for large area electronic devices.

• a state of the art fabrication line for liquid crystal on silicon devices which was commissioned and produced phase-only holography devices for video projection and telecommunications.

CIKC also sought to improve the process of commercialising early stage research through our "Commercialisation Laboratory" which addressed structural issues in our sector in the UK and surveyed best practice in intermediate organisations worldwide - a key policy input in the launch of the Catapult centres.
CIKC projects made 98 invited presentations and 52 peer reviewed papers, over half with industry authors. 25 new projects were initiated from CIKC projects and we also funded 13 small scale feasibility studies. 39 postdoctoral researchers and 9 PhD students were involved in CIKC projects and 215 young researchers attended CIKC training in entrepreneurship and innovation.


CIKC has had a very strong interaction with industry with 45 industrial partners involved in CIKC projects and 28 others involved in follow-up projects. The CIKC model is effective in generating economic value from academic science and technology and producing high-calibre young scientists and engineers for industry. CIKC projects have produced significant intellectual property, transferred technology to industry partners and contributed to the formation of two spin-off companies with others under consideration.
Exploitation Route CIKC has had a very strong interaction with industry with 45 industrial partners involved in CIKC projects and 28 others involved in follow-up projects. The CIKC model is effective in generating economic value from academic science and technology and producing high-calibre young scientists and engineers for industry. CIKC projects have produced significant intellectual property, transferred technology to industry partners and contributed to the formation of two spin-off companies with others under consideration.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy

URL http://www.cikc.org.uk
 
Description CIKC has had a very strong interaction with industry with 50 industrial partners involved in our projects and 31 others involved in follow-up projects. CIKC funded projects have led to the creation of two spin-off companies: Eight19 (2010) from the organic PV project and CamLase (2011) from a small grant project on an ultra fast fibre laser, with the formation of another four potential companies under active consideration. In total 23 patent applications had been filed as a result of CIKC projects by the end of 2012. Examples of CIKC's technology transfer activities include: • licensing deal concluded with materials partner in reflective displays project • self-aligned gate and CMOS processes for OTFTs transferred to UK industry partner • Materials partner in polymer waveguide project scaling up to pilot production • Commercial support to UK start-up through supply of LCoS device prototypes • LCOS partner scaling to production using University of Cambridge IP and know-how • 609 man-days of equipment use by industry There are also numerous projects involving academics and industrialists embedded in the Centre with 19 man years of embedded researcher effort in the Centre. including - PragmatIC Printing Limited: 7-10 employees, following small grant and a TSB project - 3T Technologies: 1 employee and patterning equipment, following small grant project - NanoInk: equipment loan - Dow Corning: 2 years of secondment to CIKC The Centre has embraced a breadth and multiplicity of applications and markets that will benefit potentially from the electronics and photonics technologies developed within the CIKC, and it has risen to the challenge of identifying prime opportunities.
First Year Of Impact 2008
Sector Electronics,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Citation in Hauser Review
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact A working paper setting out key findings was published and results presented at the Hauser Review Workshop and the team were involved in provision of evidence to the Review report. Members of the team took part in discussions including the Prime Minister, Secretaries of State for Business Innovation and Skills, and for Science and the Universities, the Director General for Innovation and senior officials in BIS, TSB and the OECD Innovation Policy Review Secretariat. Target Audience: Research Council / Institute;Government Department
URL https://www.innovateuk.org/documents/1524978/2139688/The+Current+and+Future+Role+of+Technology+and+I...
 
Description Requirement for new intermediate technology and innovation organisations
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Presented at the Hauser Review Workshop and the team were involved in provision of evidence to the Review report. Members of the team took part in discussions including the Prime Minister, Secretaries of State for Business Innovation and Skills, and for Science and the Universities, the Director General for Innovation and senior officials in BIS, TSB and the OECD Innovation Policy Review Secretariat. Led to the establishment on Catapult Centres to optimize the commercial impact of UK research base Target Audience: Research Council / Institute;Government Department
 
Description COLAE
Amount £347,390 (GBP)
Funding ID 288881 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2011 
End 08/2014
 
Description COPOS II
Amount £1,198,859 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/H022384/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2010 
End 08/2015
 
Description ENLIGHTEN - Enabling Organic Electronics by Design
Amount £144,470 (GBP)
Funding ID TS/I001980/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2011 
End 03/2013
 
Description FIPS
Amount £233,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 100833 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2011 
End 01/2013
 
Description FIREBIRD
Amount £205,858 (GBP)
Funding ID TS/G001960/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2009 
End 01/2011
 
Description FLEXIC
Amount £425,664 (GBP)
Funding ID TS/I001158/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2010 
End 04/2012
 
Description Liquid Crystal Photonics
Amount £903,168 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/F00897X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2008 
End 03/2013
 
Description ORAMA
Amount £409,015 (GBP)
Funding ID 246334 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2010 
End 09/2014
 
Description PASSBACK Proof of concept
Amount £38,250 (GBP)
Funding ID 6665 
Organisation East of England Development Agency 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2008 
End 10/2008
 
Description PASSBACK Proof of concept
Amount £38,250 (GBP)
Funding ID 6665 
Organisation East of England Development Agency 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2008 
End 08/2008
 
Description PICWIN
Amount £183,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 130306 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2010 
End 03/2012
 
Description Supergen Excitonic Solar Cell Consortium
Amount £338,465 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/G031088/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2009 
End 09/2013
 
Description The 'ACCESS' Project: Network Access in Optical Communications Systems
Amount £150,068 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/H007571/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2010 
End 03/2011
 
Description UK Innovation Research Centre at Cambridge and Imperial College (UK~IRC)
Amount £2,424,875 (GBP)
Funding ID RES-598-28-0001 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2009 
End 12/2013
 
Description ALPS Electric 
Organisation Alps Electric
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution ALPS Electric has supported CIKC through its participation in the Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics. ALPS has been the main industry partner for the PASSBACK project developing fabrication processes for liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices for phase-only holography with applications in video projection and telecommunications
Collaborator Contribution ALPS has been the main industry partner for the PASSBACK project developing fabrication processes for liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices for phase-only holography with applications in video projection and telecommunications
Impact Pilot supply of LCOS devices was made by the University to the successor company to ALPS UK in this technology assisting them with bringing product to marktet
Start Year 2007
 
Description Avago 
Organisation Avago Technologies
Country Singapore 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Avago have closely supported the CIKC project PIES, which developed environmentally stable low-cost polymer interconnects for optical data transmission on PC boards, through the provision of staff time, materials and funding.
Collaborator Contribution The provision of staff time, materials and funding for the PIES project
Impact A number of research papers were published as a result of the project
Start Year 2009
 
Description Carbon Trust 
Organisation Carbon Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Carbon Trust supported the CIKC project 3PV (Printed Polymer Photovolatics), through its funding of the Cambridge Photovoltaic Research Accelerator. This partnership led to the formation of the spin-off company eight19 Ltd in 2010
Collaborator Contribution Funding of the Cambridge Photovoltaic Research Accelerator.
Impact Formation of Eight19 Ltd a spin-off company to commercialize organic photovoltaics
Start Year 2011
 
Description Dow Corning 
Organisation Dow Corning
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Dow Corning has partnered with CIKC though its participation in the Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics. It has been the lead industry partner for the CIKC projects PIES, which was developing environmentally stable low-cost polymer interconnects for optical data transmission on PC boards, and PLACORD and the subsequent project LEAF which focussed on the fabrication of large area, low power reflective displays using bistable Smectic A liquid crystal materials laminated between plastic substrates. The intial Director of the CIKC, Dr Terry Clapp, was seconded from Dow Corning for the first 2 years of the centre.
Collaborator Contribution Dow Corning has partnered with CIKC though its participation in the Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics. It has been the lead industry partner for the CIKC projects PIES, which was developing environmentally stable low-cost polymer interconnects for optical data transmission on PC boards, and PLACORD and the subsequent project LEAF which focussed on the fabrication of large area, low power reflective displays using bistable Smectic A liquid crystal materials laminated between plastic substrates. The intial Director of the CIKC, Dr Terry Clapp, was seconded from Dow Corning for the first 2 years of the centre.
Impact A number of publications, conference papers and patents resulted from the projects, in addition further project fnding was received from Dow Corning through the CAPE partnership and a collaborative TSB project
Start Year 2007
 
Description DuPont Teijin Films 
Organisation DuPont Teijin Films
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution DuPont Teijin has been a strong participant in CIKC. As well as providing support through membership of our management committee and technology panel, DTF has directly supported CIKC projects MIPE, PRIME and LEAF through the provision of substrate materials
Collaborator Contribution Membership of our management committee and technology panel, DTF has directly supported CIKC projects MIPE, PRIME and LEAF through the provision of substrate materials
Impact A number of publications and conference presentations resulted from the projects that were supported by DuPont Teijin
Start Year 2007
 
Description Heriot Watt 
Organisation Heriot-Watt University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Ajoy Kar from Heriot Watt University led the CIKC small grant project FIPSIP which aimed to combine the unique properties of the optical polymer materials used in the CIKC PIES project with a femtosecond laser waveguide writing technique at Heriot Watt to produce high performance integrated optical devices
Collaborator Contribution Professor Ajoy Kar from Heriot Watt University led the CIKC small grant project FIPSIP
Impact None to date
Start Year 2008
 
Description Hitachi 
Organisation Hitachi
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Hitachi was the industry partner for the CIKC project ROOT - Reliability of Organic transistors. As well as providing matched funding a Hitachi researcher was seconded to the project. Hitachi have an embedded laboratory in the Physics Department of the University.
Collaborator Contribution Hitachi was the industry partner for the CIKC project ROOT, providing matched funding and a Hitachi researcher was seconded to the project.
Impact Publications and conference presentations resulted from the project. Hitachi continues to base an embedded laboratory in the University
Start Year 2008
 
Description Merck 
Organisation Merck
Department Merck R&D UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Merck has supported the CIKC projects MIPE and PRIME on printing organic transistors through the provision of state of the art organic semiconductor materials. Merck also supported an industrial CASE studentship associated with the project.
Collaborator Contribution The provision of state of the art organic semiconductor materials and an industrial CASE studentship associated with the project
Impact A number of scientific and publications and conference presentations were made on the results of the projects supported by Merck
Start Year 2007
 
Description Nokia 
Organisation Nokia Research Centre Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Nokia Research Labs were the industry partner for the CIKC small grant CWT (Coupled Nanowire Transistors). This project aimed to demonstrate a novel nano-scale FET device based on carbon nanowires that is achievable by a self-aligned, cheap and scalable fabrication process
Collaborator Contribution Nokia Research Labs were the industry partner for the CWT project and provided matching funding
Impact Scientific publications and conference presentations
Start Year 2009
 
Description Plasma Quest Ltd 
Organisation Plasma Quest
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution PlasmaQuest Ltd was the industrial partner on the HipZOT project, which used novel PQL HiTUS sputtering equipment to develop transparent microelectronics using low temperature deposition processes for transparent conducting oxides on flexible substrates
Collaborator Contribution PlasmaQuest Ltd was the industrial partner on the HipZOT project, using HiTUS sputtering equipment partly funded by PlasmaQuest
Impact A number of scientific publications and conference presentations resulted from the project and the results also assisted PQL in making further sales of equipment to other customers
Start Year 2007
 
Description Plastic Logic 
Organisation Plastic Logic
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Plastic Logic has an established partnership with University of Cambridge and has been the industry partner for the CIKC projects PRIME and MIPE which targeted the development of scalable manufacturing processes for organic CMOS transistor circuits using self-aligned inkjet printing.
Collaborator Contribution Plastic Logic has an established partnership with University of Cambridge and has been the industry partner for the CIKC projects PRIME and MIPE providing project funding, equipment and in-kind staff time
Impact A number of scientific publications, conference papers and IP resulted from the projects supported by Plastic Logic as well as continued project collaborations including through TSB -funded projects and staff secondments
Start Year 2007
 
Description PragmatIC Printing Ltd 
Organisation Pragmatic Printing Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution PragmatIC were project partners in a small grant on oxide transistors Subsequently Pragmatic Printing have continued to collaborate with CIKC as project partners on the TSB funded project FLEXIC and through the secondment of 2 researchers from the company to work with the University, supported through the KTS. The company is now based in Cambridge, had an embedded laboratory within the Electrical Engineering Division for 2 years and has made a donation of equipment to the University.
Collaborator Contribution PragmatIC were project partners in a small grant on oxide transistors proviiding funding and in-kind contributions
Impact As well as scientific publications and conference presentations, several TSB-funded collaborative projects resulted and PragamatIC researchers were embedded in the department for 2 years. This assisted Pragmatic with their technology development which has now resulted in pilot production at the HVM Catapult
Start Year 2012
 
Description Toshiba Research Europe 
Organisation Toshiba Research Europe Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Toshiba were project partners in the CIKC small grant CaPro (Carbon Spintronics: A Prototype device) to demonstrate a spintronic device using graphene between highly spin-polarized manganite electrodes
Collaborator Contribution Toshiba were project partners in the CIKC small grant CaPro providing facilities access and staff time
Impact not known
Start Year 2009
 
Description University College London 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Arokia Nathan led the CIKC small grant project NiSP (Nanocrystalline Silicon Phototransistors) with the objective to develop the underlying technology kernels and building blocks for a low cost, large area, and wide-spectral-response photo-thin film transistors (TFTs) array for massively-parallel (very high throughput) readout of fluorescence-based bio-assays.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Arokia Nathan led the CIKC small grant project NiSP, UCL provided staff time and facilities
Impact Scientific publications and conference presentations
Start Year 2009
 
Description University of Manchester 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Aimin Song from Manchester was a co-Investigator on the CIKC small grant IZONANO. The aim of this project was to test the feasibility of using highly resistive, semiconducting, amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the channel material in a novel, two dimensional transistor structure originally invented by Prof Song. Manchester University characterised the 2D transistors produced in CIKC.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Aimin Song from Manchester was a co-Investigator on the CIKC small grant IZONANO. Manchester University provided staff time and resources to characterize the 2D transistors produced in CIKC.
Impact Project eventually resulted in a close collaboration with PragmatIC Printing (which is a successor company to one that was a spin-off from Prof Song's research) including funding for collaborative projects, participation in several TSB-funded projects and the embedding of company researchers in the department.
Start Year 2009
 
Title LIQUID CRYSTAL FORMULATIONS AND STRUCTURES FOR SMECTIC A OPTICAL DEVICES 
Description The present invention relates to liquid crystal compositions having a smectic A structure for use in an optical device in which the composition is sandwiched between a pair of electrodes (12-15). In essence the composition includes a siloxane oligomer (component (a)) which may be seen to construct a layered SmA system of particular spacing and "strength". Within this structure a low molar mass nematic mesogen (component (c)) is provided that may be considered to be that of a "plasticiser" which moderates the layer "strength", while simultaneously providing tuneability to the properties of the composition, e.g. its refractive index or dielectric anisotropy. The addition of a side chain liquid crystal polysiloxane (component (d)) allows such systems to be further moderated since they can be considered as binding together the layers, both within a given layer and between layers. An ionic dopant (component (b)) is also included in the composition that migrates through the composition when low frequency electric fields are applied to the composition by the electrodes, thereby disrupting the order to the composition. Order in the composition can be restored by applying a higher frequency field that does not allow the dopant time to migrate significantly. Chromophores may also be included in the formulation. 
IP Reference WO2011115611 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2011
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact NA
 
Title LIQUID CRYSTAL FORMULATIONS AND STRUCTURES FOR SMECTIC A OPTICAL DEVICES 
Description The present invention relates to liquid crystal compositions having a smectic A structure, cells containing such a composition sandwiched between a pair of electrodes, an optical device containing multiple cells and a method of switching the optical properties of the composition by applying an electric field thereto 
IP Reference EP2547749 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2014
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact NA
 
Title OPTICAL BEAM STEERING 
Description The invention relates to optical beam steering. There is described an optical beam steering apparatus, comprising: a splitter arranged to split an optical beam into at least a first part having a first polarisation and a second part having a second polarisation, said first and second polarisations being substantially mutually orthogonal; a first liquid crystal device region arranged to receive said first part and to have director orientation substantially aligned to said first polarisation; and a second liquid crystal device region arranged to receive said second part and to have director orientation substantially aligned to said second polarisation. 
IP Reference WO2010055350 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2010
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact NA
 
Title OPTICAL BEAM STEERING 
Description This invention generally relates to an optical beam steering apparatus and a method of manufacturing an optical beam steering apparatus, and more particularly to an optical add drop multiplexer (OADM) such as a reconfigurable OADM (ROADM) comprising the optical beam steering apparatus. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a slab and a plurality of optical elements in or on a first surface of said slab, the plurality of optical elements including at least one liquid crystal on silicon element, the apparatus being arranged such that at least one optical beam can propagate freely in the slab from one of said plurality of optical elements to another one of said plurality of optical elements via a reflection from a second surface of the optical beam steering apparatus. 
IP Reference WO2010055351 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2010
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact NA
 
Company Name CamLase Ltd 
Description CamLase Ltd is a spin-out company from Engineering Department, University of Cambridge. It is dedicated to the development of a new generation of compact, low-cost and powerful ultrafast fibre lasers (i.e. lasers that can generate light pulses lasting less than a few picoseconds) for a wide range of scientific and commercial applications. An ultrafast laser employs a component known as a saturable absorber (SA) to generate a train of short-duration and high-peak-power pulses. CamLase's patent-protected technology is based on the intriguing optoelectronic properties of carbon nanomaterials, i.e. graphene and carbon nanotubes. Compared with conventional approaches, this breakthrough nanotechnology not only provides a simpler and more cost-effective fabrication method, but at the same time allows ultrashort laser pulses to be generated over a greatly extended spectral range (i.e. wavelength beyond 1.5 _m), therefore greatly expands the market opportunity for ultrafast lasers. The research behind CamLase spin-off was supported through a CIKC Small Grant (Nanolase). The company co-founder Dr Frank Wang was funded by CIKC to attend entrepreneurship (Ignite) and business skills courses (Technology and Innovation Management 2009) to help him develop the business plan for the spin-off. Two of the the other co-founders of the company, Prof Andrea Ferrari and Prof Bill Milne, are co-Investigators on the CIKC grant. 
Year Established 2011 
Impact The company is currently dormant (2014)
 
Company Name Eight19 Ltd 
Description Eight19 Limited, a new solar energy company, has spun out from Cambridge University to develop and manufacture high performance, low cost plastic solar cells for high-growth volume markets. The company is backed by a £4.5m investment from the Carbon Trust and leading international specialty chemicals company Rhodia. Eight19, so called as it takes 8 minutes and 19 seconds for light to travel from the sun to the earth, will focus its efforts on developing product prototypes utilising techniques for fabricating large scale plastic electronic devices using roll-to-roll processes developed in the CIKC?s 3PV project. The company will continue to be actively engaged with CIKC and its innovative research output through the CIKC ?3PV+? project. The company has been created by a partnership of Professor Sir Richard Friend, Professor Henning Sirringhaus and Professor Neil Greenham with technology development company TTP through the Carbon Trust?s Advanced Photovoltaic Research Accelerator. Solar cells made with semiconducting plastics (also known as organic photovoltaics, or OPV) offer potentially very low cost production enabled by low temperature and high throughput processing typical of plastic films, ease of installation for construction companies and simplified manufacturing integration. The market for organic solar cells has the potential to reach $500 million by 2015 and to grow four fold to $2 billion by 2020 (Nanomarkets, 2009) driven by applications such as building-integrated photovoltaics, and could save up to 900 million tonnes of CO2 by 2050 ? some 1.5 times the UK?s current annual emissions. 
Year Established 2010 
Impact In 2012 Eight19 announced the launch of Azuri Technologies Limited to develop its internationally recognised Indigo 'pay-as-you-go' solar technology for off-grid markets. Eight19 will concentrate on development of its printed plastic solar technology and Azuri will focus on expanding the Indigo product family and market reach. In 2012, Eight19 was crowned 'Small Business of the Year' and won the 'Renewable Energy Project of the Year' award at the BusinessGreen Leaders Awards, for its work on the Indigo pay-as-you-go solar system which provides clean and affordable electricity to off-grid rural communities. The company was also awarded the prize for "Best Business Case" at the Investor Forum at the annual LOPE-C Organic Electronics conference in Munich.
Website http://www.eight19.com
 
Company Name ROADMap Systems Ltd 
Description RoadMap Systems is a spin-out from the University of Cambridge. Professor Daping Chu's group have significant expertise in Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) technology developed over the last 15 years. With exclusive access to key IP and know-how, ROADMap Systems is developing Wavelength Selective Switch (WSS) technology for use in agile optical telecom networks. A seed round of £500,000 was completed in August 2014 
Year Established 2013 
Impact NA
Website http://www.roadmapsystems.co.uk/