# Analysis of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

Lead Research Organisation:
University of Oxford

Department Name: Mathematical Institute

### Abstract

Partial differential equations (PDEs) are equations that relate the partial derivatives, usually with respect to space and time coordinates, of unknown quantities. They are ubiquitous in almost all applications of mathematics, where they provide a natural mathematical description of phenomena in the physical, natural and social sciences, often arising from fundamental conservation laws such as for mass, momentum and energy. Significant application areas include geophysics, the bio-sciences, engineering, materials science, physics and chemistry, economics and finance. Length-scales of natural phenomena modelled by PDEs range from sub-atomic to astronomical, and time-scales may range from nanoseconds to millennia. The behaviour of every material object can be modelled either by PDEs, usually at various different length- or time-scales, or by other equations for which similar techniques of analysis and computation apply. A striking example of such an object is Planet Earth itself.Linear PDEs are ones for which linear combinations of solutions are also solutions. For example, the linear wave equation models electromagnetic waves, which can be decomposed into sums of elementary waves of different frequencies, each of these elementary waves also being solutions. However, most of the PDEs that accurately model nature are nonlinear and, in general, there is no way of writing their solutions explicitly. Indeed, whether the equations have solutions, what their properties are, and how they may be computed numerically are difficult questions that can be approached only by methods of mathematical analysis. These involve, among other things, precisely specifying what is meant by a solution and the classes of functions in which solutions are sought, and establishing ways in which approximate solutions can be constructed which can be rigorously shown to converge to actual solutions. The analysis of nonlinear PDEs is thus a crucial ingredient in the understanding of the world about us.As recognized by the recent International Review of Mathematics, the analysis of nonlinear PDEs is an area of mathematics in which the UK, despite some notable experts, lags significantly behind our scientific competitors, both in quantity and overall quality. This has a serious detrimental effect on mathematics as a whole, on the scientific and other disciplines which depend on an understanding of PDEs, and on the knowledge-based economy, which in particular makes increasing use of simulations of PDEs instead of more costly or impractical alternatives such as laboratory testing.The proposal responds to the national need in this crucial research area through the formation of a forward-looking world-class research centre in Oxford, in order to provide a sharper focus for fundamental research in the field in the UK and raise the potential of its successful and durable impact within and outside mathematics. The centre will involve the whole UK research community having interests in nonlinear PDEs, for example through the formation of a national steering committee that will organize nationwide activities such as conferences and workshops.Oxford is an ideal location for such a research centre on account of an existing nucleus of high quality researchers in the field, and very strong research groups both in related areas of mathematics and across the range of disciplines that depend on the understanding of nonlinear PDEs. In addition, two-way knowledge transfer with industry will be achieved using the expertise and facilities of the internationally renowned mathematical modelling group based in OCIAM which, through successful Study Groups with Industry, has a track-record of forging strong links to numerous branches of science, industry, engineering and commerce. The university is committed to the formation of the centre and will provide a significant financial contribution, in particular upgrading one of the EPSRC-funded lectureships to a Chair

### Publications

Iyer G
(2012)

*Coercivity and stability results for an extended Navier-Stokes system*in Journal of Mathematical Physics
Hudson T
(2014)

*Existence and Stability of a Screw Dislocation under Anti-Plane Deformation*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Hudson T
(2015)

*Analysis of Stable Screw Dislocation Configurations in an Antiplane Lattice Model*in SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis
Herrmann M
(2012)

*Kramers and Non-Kramers Phase Transitions in Many-Particle Systems with Dynamical Constraint*in Multiscale Modeling & Simulation
Herrmann M
(2009)

*Self-similar solutions with fat tails for a coagulation equation with nonlocal drift*in Comptes Rendus Mathematique
Herrmann M
(2009)

*Self-similar solutions for the LSW model with encounters*in Journal of Differential Equations
Herrmann M
(2010)

*Action Minimising Fronts in General FPU-type Chains*in Journal of Nonlinear Science
Herrmann M
(2011)

*On selection criteria for problems with moving inhomogeneities*in Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics
HERRMANN M
(2012)

*OSCILLATORY WAVES IN DISCRETE SCALAR CONSERVATION LAWS*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Helmers M
(2014)

*CONVERGENCE OF AN APPROXIMATION FOR ROTATIONALLY SYMMETRIC TWO-PHASE LIPID BILAYER MEMBRANES*in The Quarterly Journal of Mathematics
Helmers M
(2012)

*Kinks in two-phase lipid bilayer membranes*in Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
HELMERS M
(2011)

*SNAPPING ELASTIC CURVES AS A ONE-DIMENSIONAL ANALOGUE OF TWO-COMPONENT LIPID BILAYERS*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Helfenstein J
(2022)

*An approach for comparing agricultural development to societal visions.*in Agronomy for sustainable development
Giannoulis J
(2008)

*Lagrangian and Hamiltonian two-scale reduction*in Journal of Mathematical Physics
Gallagher I
(2012)

*A profile decomposition approach to the $$L^\infty _t(L^{3}_x)$$ Navier-Stokes regularity criterion*in Mathematische Annalen
Fuchs M
(2008)

*Existence of global solutions for a parabolic system related to the nonlinear Stokes problem*in Journal of Mathematical Sciences
Figueroa L
(2012)

*Greedy Approximation of High-Dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Operators*in Foundations of Computational Mathematics
Fang B
(2016)

*The uniqueness of transonic shocks in supersonic flow past a 2-D wedge*in Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications
Duzaar F
(2007)

*The existence of regular boundary points for non-linear elliptic systems*in Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (Crelles Journal)
Dolzmann G
(2012)

*BMO and uniform estimates for multi-well problems*in Manuscripta Mathematica
Ding M
(2012)

*Local existence and non-relativistic limits of shock solutions to a multidimensional piston problem for the relativistic Euler equations*in Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik
Ding M
(2013)

*Global existence and non-relativistic global limits of entropy solutions to the 1D piston problem for the isentropic relativistic Euler equations*in Journal of Mathematical Physics
Diening L
(2013)

*Finite Element Approximation of Steady Flows of Incompressible Fluids with Implicit Power-Law-Like Rheology*in SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis
Deng X
(2011)

*Global solutions of shock reflection by wedges for the nonlinear wave equation*in Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B
Dai S
(2010)

*Crossover in coarsening rates for the monopole approximation of the Mullins-Sekerka model with kinetic drag*in Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Section A Mathematics
Condette N
(2010)

*Spectral approximation of pattern-forming nonlinear evolution equations with double-well potentials of quadratic growth*in Mathematics of Computation
Chrusciel P
(2010)

*On smoothness of black saturns*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Chrusciel P
(2011)

*Ghost points in inverse scattering constructions of stationary Einstein metrics*in General Relativity and Gravitation
Chrusciel P
(2008)

*Singular Yamabe Metrics and Initial Data with Exactly Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter Ends*in Annales Henri Poincaré
Chrusciel P
(2010)

*A Uniqueness Theorem for Degenerate Kerr-Newman Black Holes*in Annales Henri Poincaré
Chrusciel P
(2011)

*A lower bound for the mass of axisymmetric connected black hole data sets*in Classical and Quantum Gravity
Chrusciel P
(2008)

*On Mason's Rigidity Theorem*in Communications in Mathematical Physics
Chrusciel P
(2009)

*On higher dimensional black holes with Abelian isometry group*in Journal of Mathematical Physics
Chrusciel P
(2009)

*Topological Censorship for Kaluza-Klein Space-Times*in Annales Henri Poincaré
Choquet-Bruhat Y
(2011)

*The Cauchy Problem on a Characteristic Cone for the Einstein Equations in Arbitrary Dimensions*in Annales Henri Poincaré
Choi K
(2014)

*Estimates on fractional higher derivatives of weak solutions for the Navier-Stokes equations*in Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré C, Analyse non linéaire
Chen GQ
(2015)

*Free boundary problems in shock reflection/diffraction and related transonic flow problems.*in Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences
Chen G
(2012)

*On Nonlinear Stochastic Balance Laws*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2012)

*Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit*in Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik
Chen G
(2013)

*Well-posedness of transonic characteristic discontinuities in two-dimensional steady compressible Euler flows*in Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik
Chen G
(2008)

*Stability of transonic shock-fronts in three-dimensional conical steady potential flow past a perturbed cone*in Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems
Chen G
(2013)

*Stability of transonic characteristic discontinuities in two-dimensional steady compressible Euler flows*in Journal of Mathematical Physics
Chen G
(2013)

*Weakly Nonlinear Geometric Optics for Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws*in Communications in Partial Differential Equations
Chen G
(2018)

*Nonlinear Stability of Relativistic Vortex Sheets in Three-Dimensional Minkowski Spacetime*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2019)

*Kolmogorov-type theory of compressible turbulence and inviscid limit of the Navier-Stokes equations in R 3*in Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
Chen G
(2011)

*Nonlinear Conservation Laws and Applications*
Chen G
(2009)

*Uniqueness of transonic shock solutions in a duct for steady potential flow*in Journal of Differential Equations
Chen G
(2020)

*Convexity of Self-Similar Transonic Shocks and Free Boundaries for the Euler Equations for Potential Flow*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2017)

*Global Weak Rigidity of the Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci Equations and Isometric Immersions of Riemannian Manifolds with Lower Regularity*in The Journal of Geometric Analysis
Chen G
(2009)

*Large-time behavior of periodic entropy solutions to anisotropic degenerate parabolic-hyperbolic equations*in Proceedings of the American Mathematical SocietyDescription | This was a broad grant designed to help consolidate research on nonlinear partial differential equations in the UK. In particular the Oxford Centre for Nonlinear PDE was founded as a result of the grant and is now a leading international centre. As regards specific research advances, these were in various areas of applications of PDE, for example to fluid and solid mechnaics, liquid crystals, electromagnetism, and relativity. |

Exploitation Route | Through publications and consultation with current and former members of OxPDE. |

Sectors | Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Construction,Electronics,Energy,Environment |

URL | https://www0.maths.ox.ac.uk/groups/oxpde |

Description | Advanced Investigator Grant |

Amount | € 2,006,998 (EUR) |

Funding ID | 291053 |

Organisation | European Research Council (ERC) |

Sector | Public |

Country | Belgium |

Start | 03/2012 |

End | 03/2017 |