# Analysis of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

Lead Research Organisation:
University of Oxford

Department Name: Mathematical Institute

### Abstract

Partial differential equations (PDEs) are equations that relate the partial derivatives, usually with respect to space and time coordinates, of unknown quantities. They are ubiquitous in almost all applications of mathematics, where they provide a natural mathematical description of phenomena in the physical, natural and social sciences, often arising from fundamental conservation laws such as for mass, momentum and energy. Significant application areas include geophysics, the bio-sciences, engineering, materials science, physics and chemistry, economics and finance. Length-scales of natural phenomena modelled by PDEs range from sub-atomic to astronomical, and time-scales may range from nanoseconds to millennia. The behaviour of every material object can be modelled either by PDEs, usually at various different length- or time-scales, or by other equations for which similar techniques of analysis and computation apply. A striking example of such an object is Planet Earth itself.Linear PDEs are ones for which linear combinations of solutions are also solutions. For example, the linear wave equation models electromagnetic waves, which can be decomposed into sums of elementary waves of different frequencies, each of these elementary waves also being solutions. However, most of the PDEs that accurately model nature are nonlinear and, in general, there is no way of writing their solutions explicitly. Indeed, whether the equations have solutions, what their properties are, and how they may be computed numerically are difficult questions that can be approached only by methods of mathematical analysis. These involve, among other things, precisely specifying what is meant by a solution and the classes of functions in which solutions are sought, and establishing ways in which approximate solutions can be constructed which can be rigorously shown to converge to actual solutions. The analysis of nonlinear PDEs is thus a crucial ingredient in the understanding of the world about us.As recognized by the recent International Review of Mathematics, the analysis of nonlinear PDEs is an area of mathematics in which the UK, despite some notable experts, lags significantly behind our scientific competitors, both in quantity and overall quality. This has a serious detrimental effect on mathematics as a whole, on the scientific and other disciplines which depend on an understanding of PDEs, and on the knowledge-based economy, which in particular makes increasing use of simulations of PDEs instead of more costly or impractical alternatives such as laboratory testing.The proposal responds to the national need in this crucial research area through the formation of a forward-looking world-class research centre in Oxford, in order to provide a sharper focus for fundamental research in the field in the UK and raise the potential of its successful and durable impact within and outside mathematics. The centre will involve the whole UK research community having interests in nonlinear PDEs, for example through the formation of a national steering committee that will organize nationwide activities such as conferences and workshops.Oxford is an ideal location for such a research centre on account of an existing nucleus of high quality researchers in the field, and very strong research groups both in related areas of mathematics and across the range of disciplines that depend on the understanding of nonlinear PDEs. In addition, two-way knowledge transfer with industry will be achieved using the expertise and facilities of the internationally renowned mathematical modelling group based in OCIAM which, through successful Study Groups with Industry, has a track-record of forging strong links to numerous branches of science, industry, engineering and commerce. The university is committed to the formation of the centre and will provide a significant financial contribution, in particular upgrading one of the EPSRC-funded lectureships to a Chair

### Publications

Bulícek M
(2013)

*Existence of Global Weak Solutions to Implicitly Constituted Kinetic Models of Incompressible Homogeneous Dilute Polymers*in Communications in Partial Differential Equations
Buffa A
(2008)

*Compact embeddings of broken Sobolev spaces and applications*in IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis
Budác O
(2009)

*On a Model for Mass Aggregation with Maximal Size*
Briane M
(2012)

*Interior Regularity Estimates in High Conductivity Homogenization and Application*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Breit D
(2012)

*Solenoidal Lipschitz truncation and applications in fluid mechanics*in Journal of Differential Equations
Breit D
(2011)

*Quasiconvex variational functionals in Orlicz-Sobolev spaces*in Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata
Braides A
(2014)

*An Example of Non-Existence of Plane-Like Minimizers for an Almost-Periodic Ising System*in Journal of Statistical Physics
Braides A
(2016)

*Asymptotic analysis of Lennard-Jones systems beyond the nearest-neighbour setting: A one-dimensional prototypical case*in Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids
Braides A
(2016)

*Quasi-static damage evolution and homogenization: A case study of non-commutability*in Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré C, Analyse non linéaire
Bourgain J
(2015)

*On the Morse-Sard property and level sets of W n ,1 Sobolev functions on R n*in Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (Crelles Journal)
Bourgain J
(2013)

*On the Morse-Sard property and level sets of Sobolev and BV functions*in Revista Matemática Iberoamericana
Berrone S
(2007)

*Two-sided a posteriori error bounds for incompressible quasi-Newtonian flows*in IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis
Beretta E
(2009)

*Thin cylindrical conductivity inclusions in a three-dimensional domain: a polarization tensor and unique determination from boundary data*in Inverse Problems
Bedford S
(2014)

*Global minimisers of cholesteric liquid crystal systems*
Bedford S
(2015)

*Function Spaces for Liquid Crystals*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Bedford S
(2014)

*Function spaces for liquid crystals*
Barrett J
(2012)

*Existence of global weak solutions to finitely extensible nonlinear bead-spring chain models for dilute polymers with variable density and viscosity*in Journal of Differential Equations
Barrett J
(2010)

*Finite element approximation of kinetic dilute polymer models with microscopic cut-off*in ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis
Barrett J
(2016)

*Existence of global weak solutions to compressible isentropic finitely extensible bead-spring chain models for dilute polymers*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
BARRETT J
(2011)

*EXISTENCE OF GLOBAL WEAK SOLUTIONS TO DUMBBELL MODELS FOR DILUTE POLYMERS WITH MICROSCOPIC CUT-OFF*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
BARRETT J
(2012)

*EXISTENCE AND EQUILIBRATION OF GLOBAL WEAK SOLUTIONS TO KINETIC MODELS FOR DILUTE POLYMERS II: HOOKEAN-TYPE MODELS*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
BARRETT J
(2011)

*EXISTENCE AND EQUILIBRATION OF GLOBAL WEAK SOLUTIONS TO KINETIC MODELS FOR DILUTE POLYMERS I: FINITELY EXTENSIBLE NONLINEAR BEAD-SPRING CHAINS*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Barrett J
(2008)

*Numerical approximation of corotational dumbbell models for dilute polymers*in IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis
Ball JM
(2013)

*Entropy and convexity for nonlinear partial differential equations.*in Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences
Ball J.M.
(2009)

*An analysis of non-classical austenite-martensite interfaces in CuAlNi*in Proceedings of the International Conference on Martensitic Transformations, ICOMAT-08
Ball J
(2014)

*Quasistatic Nonlinear Viscoelasticity and Gradient Flows*in Journal of Dynamics and Differential Equations
Ball J
(2015)

*A probabilistic model for martensitic avalanches*in MATEC Web of Conferences
Ball J
(2008)

*Orientable and Non-Orientable Line Field Models for Uniaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals*in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
Ball J
(2014)

*An investigation of non-planar austenite-martensite interfaces*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Ball J
(2010)

*Local minimizers and planar interfaces in a phase-transition model with interfacial energy*in Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
Ball J
(2015)

*Incompatible Sets of Gradients and Metastability*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Ball J
(2015)

*Geometry of polycrystals and microstructure*in MATEC Web of Conferences
Ball J
(2010)

*Nematic Liquid Crystals: From Maier-Saupe to a Continuum Theory*in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
Ball J
(2017)

*Partial regularity and smooth topology-preserving approximations of rough domains*in Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
Ball J
(2011)

*Orientability and Energy Minimization in Liquid Crystal Models*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Ball J
(2015)

*Quasiconvexity at the Boundary and the Nucleation of Austenite*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Ball J
(2015)

*Discontinuous Order Parameters in Liquid Crystal Theories*in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
Ball J
(2017)

*Mathematics and liquid crystals*in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
Ball J
(2010)

*ICOMAT - Olson/ICOMAT*
BALL J
(2012)

*ON UNIQUENESS FOR TIME HARMONIC ANISOTROPIC MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS WITH PIECEWISE REGULAR COEFFICIENTS*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Bae M
(2008)

*Regularity of solutions to regular shock reflection for potential flow*in Inventiones mathematicae
Bae M
(2013)

*Prandtl-Meyer reflection for supersonic flow past a solid ramp*in Quarterly of Applied MathematicsDescription | This was a broad grant designed to help consolidate research on nonlinear partial differential equations in the UK. In particular the Oxford Centre for Nonlinear PDE was founded as a result of the grant and is now a leading international centre. As regards specific research advances, these were in various areas of applications of PDE, for example to fluid and solid mechnaics, liquid crystals, electromagnetism, and relativity. |

Exploitation Route | Through publications and consultation with current and former members of OxPDE. |

Sectors | Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Construction,Electronics,Energy,Environment |

URL | https://www0.maths.ox.ac.uk/groups/oxpde |

Description | Advanced Investigator Grant |

Amount | € 2,006,998 (EUR) |

Funding ID | 291053 |

Organisation | European Research Council (ERC) |

Sector | Public |

Country | Belgium |

Start | 03/2012 |

End | 03/2017 |