Ultra Precision Surfaces - Translation Grant

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

Features of surfaces, such as smoothness or roughness, flatness or curviness, are responsible for many aspects of modern life. Bearings in motorcars are an obvious example. Even in simple digital cameras, precise surfaces on glass lenses are responsible for the ultimate image sharpness. Moveover, much of our culture relies on the computer industry, which in turn depends on micro-chips. But behind the scenes, their manufacture demands ever-increasing accuracy in large lenses used to project the micro-patterns that make them work.Since 2004, a team from University College London and Cranfield University has established the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces in a new building - the OpTIC Technium in North Wales. EPSRC funds this under the 4.2m 'Ultra Precision Surfaces: A New Paradigm' project. The team has been developing manufacturing machines, installing the world's most advanced equipment for making and measuring precise surfaces up to a metre across. Even more ambitiously, the team is exploring interplay between processes; how to make the chain from raw glass to finished component as efficient as possible.Why bother? Well, there are a host of emerging demands in space and on the ground! One of the most exciting is the next generation of truly enormous astronomical telescopes, tiled with hundreds of mirror-segments, each around a metre or two across. These telescopes will look for galaxies back at the time they formed, and search for earth-like planets around other stars; even for the feeble signs of life itself! Mirror technology may well end up changing the whole way that our culture looks upon its place in the universe!As the four-year project draws to a successful conclusion, it is time to ask, what next? This is where the Translation Grant can play an important role as the 'cement' between past and future. It is one thing to be successful in an experimental setting; quite another to apply the results industrially. So the first priority is to translate the results from the current scientific phase into a form suitable for use by industry. This will demand tedious - but crucially important - experiments to perfect how well the processes will deliver exactly the same result: over and over again. And also, how the process 'recipes' need to be changed for working a range of different materials. Then, there are practical issues in making large surfaces that are easy with a team of skilled scientists, but requiring some more work for the factory environment. More broadly, processes we are developing can be adapted to applications unforeseen when we applied for our Basic Technology grant. Little did we know, for example, that the mirror-tile technology for telescopes might help solve the world's energy crisis! But this is true! Here on Earth, taming the fusion processes that make energy within a typical star - such as our own sun - is indeed the most promising long-term answer. One project will focus high-power lasers onto a tiny target, to raise its temperature to the millions of degrees C, needed to ignite fusion. How will the focussing be done? By a large segmented mirror much like those proposed for the extremely large telescopes! But this isn't just a case of using the same mirrors in a different context. Micro-defects that have no effect in cameras or telescopes can cause failure of high-power laser optics. So an important piece of new work will be to develop processes to reduce these defects to the absolute minimum possible. There are other exciting applications, such as peculiar surfaces used to focus X-rays (e.g. for medical imaging), and manufacture of flexible mirrors that can be bent to correct for errors elsewhere. The Translation Grant will give the flexibility to work with industry and other scientists to seize these and other opportunities and establish basic feasibility. Then, we will have the confidence for more substantial programmes to develop the technology furthur.

Publications

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Description This summary within the UCL ROS entry provides a top-level overview of the UCL-Cranfield collaboration, and then gives more specific details of the UCL developments.

The Translation Grant project has involved development of complementary processes by UCL (CNC "grolishing" and corrective polishing, and various metrology techniques) and by Cranfield University (CNC grinding and RAPT - Reactive Atomic Plasma Technology). A key challenge in establishing such a chain has proved to be managing mid-spatial frequency features from grinding, and similar features which can arise using small-tool polishing. This challenge has been successfully addressed and demonstrated on 1.5m-class optics.


The resulting process-chain starts with BoX-grinding of the base aspheric profile. It then proceeds through the intermediate step of "grolishing" to smooth the surface, and then Zeeko CNC polishing. The polishing can directly remove mid-spatials, but grolishing performs this faster. The process-chain then forks into either i) CNC corrective polishing using a Zeeko machine, or ii) correction using RAPT. The latter is suitable for a variety of glass-types including ULE mirror substrates, but not the commonly used alumina-based zero expansion mirror substrates (Zerodur, Astrosittal and ClearCeram). RAPT can also tend to roughen surfaces and may require post-polishing to refine surface-texture. The processes are therefore highly complementary.

The translation project has played a substantial role in taking research from the Basic Technology programme "Ultra Precision Surfaces: A New Paradigm", developing it further in a commercial context, and then taking it to market. This has been achieved by developing the basic understanding, and through a series of pilot studies for external organisations, (several are commercially sensitive and under NDAs). They have included ground-based astronomy, gravitational wave astronomy, remote-sensing, defence imaging, and aerospace.



Significant scientific findings have arisen in several areas of the research. Most outstanding is a new approach to precise control of edge-profiles on mirror-segments for extremely large telescopes. Edges play a critical role in minimising stray light:- essential for key science objectives, e.g. imaging planets like the earth around other stars and detecting first-generation galaxies after the Big Bang. Worldwide, nobody has previously succeeded in polishing mirrors right out to the edge. We have solved that problem, opening the door to a new process-chain which confers substantial advantages in making the thousand segments needed for such a telescope.



In contrast to edges, we have also invested in perfecting processes that smooth overall surfaces at the nanometre level, removing the ripples that prior grinding and some polishing operations leave. Such ripples also affect stray light; a serious issue in many application requiring good contrast, such as defence imaging, remote-sensing, photolithography for making semiconductor 'chips', and, of course, telescope mirrors. We have perfected a family of 'grolishing' processes intermediate between grinding and polishing, which can be tuned to remove ripples, whilst having minimal effect on the three-dimensional complex surface of advanced optics.



Dimensional accuracies for correct mapping of coordinate frames between CNC machine, measurement-data and surface, and the impact of errors on process convergence, proved a key insight. This triggered development of a novel, holistic approach of "on-machine metrology" for large optics, where the part is left undisturbed; directly and successfully challenging received wisdom regarding vibration and thermal issues. The first step under BT-funding was integration of a full-aperture interferometric tower with 1.2m Zeeko machine to create the first Manufacturing Cell (2006). We then developed sub-aperture on-machine stitching-interferometry from 2009, increasing dynamic range on aspheres and freeforms. A key insight was to decouple stitching from mechanical precision by depositing removable marks on the part (an NPL idea).



Finally, the need for independent verification became paramount to avoid systematic errors creating the "perfectly wrong surface". This led to development of a pentaprism scanning profilometer:- the first such instrument deployed on a large CNC polishing machine.
Exploitation Route The wider technical exploitation through Zeeko Ltd in various market sectors has been described under 'exploitation' above.



Apart from this, the TG project has led to, and will continue to stimulate, significant public engagement, with lectures delivered at schools and societies, visits by schools to the National Facility (established by BT funding) in St Asaph North Wales, and visits by numerous non-technical adults.



The technologies developed are seen as mission-critical to the development of safe energy through laser-fusion, and this opportunity will be pursued, building on contacts already made in the UK and abroad. Polishing technology has been exploited commercially for polishing hip and knee joints; Zeeko having sold six machines for this purpose.



The Facility has also received some twenty visits by politicians during the TG project (Welsh Government, EU and Westminster MPs and MEPs, and including the Prime Minister David Cameron.) The principal reason is the potential of the research to create direct employment in optical fabrication in North Wales, and furthermore, to generate indirect employment through the supply chain which is the natural consequence of such a high-tech manufacturing capability. We are currently engaging with potential industry partners in order to create the critical mass (technical managerial and financial) to respond to these substantial commercial opportunities that are arising.



Outputs of the research have been selected by UCL for a REF Impact Case Study. This summary of exploitation routes describes the work on the UCL side of this joint project. Exploitation of the complementary research at Cranfield University (CNC grinding and Reactive Atomic Plasma Technology) is reported separately.



The first demonstration of commercial exploitation arises from Zeeko Ltd, spun out of research at UCL (founded in 2000 by industrialist Richard Freeman as MD and David Walker as Research Director in 2000).



The Company manufactures CNC polishing machines and on-machine metrology instrumentation (see www.zeeko.co.uk). Zeeko's sales are almost all export, and its market is global. The Company from its founding has had a symbiotic relationship with the University research. Technology transfer is a bidirectional process, where on one side the Company exploits University R&D outputs. On the other, the University benefits from customer-driven technical developments in the Company, and engagement with current and emerging market-requirements worldwide, and over several sectors. This relationship has been reinforced through direct Company engagement in University research projects, secondment of Company staff to the University, and Company-sponsored UCL Ph.D. students (currently two, of which one is an Impact Student).



In 2011, Zeeko Ltd won an Innovation Award in the Queen's Awards for Enterprise, for its Optics Fabrication Centre. This combines a CNC polishing machine integrated with a 'wrap-around' optical test tower. This exemplifies technology transfer, as the product is a direct exploitation of the prototype developed at OpTIC under UCL Basic Technology and BT-Translation grants.



Similarly, Zeeko's growing business in supplying CNC machines for polishing large optics owes itself entirely to research under the BT and Translation grants, which established the processes and measurement techniques to address this market. This has taken another step forward with the new alliance between Zeeko and Cinetic Landis (Cranfield Precision - who built the Cranfield BoX grinder), in marketing a range of jointly-branded CNC grinding machines to match Zeeko's CNC polishing machines.



Zeeko has grown to ~ 50 people (2012). Turnover has increased from £2.4 million in 2008 to £4.7 million in the latest accounts (2011). This excludes the £1.5m value of the 1.6m capacity ESO segment machine provided to OpTIC for ESO segment work. Zeeko has delivered more than 50 machines, to the UK, USA, Canada, Germany, Holland, Korea, Turkey, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, China, Switzerland, Austria, Japan and India. Zeeko has established its R&D company Zeeko Research at OpTIC, and sister company ZeekoKK in Japan. Zeeko supplies a wide range of markets, including aspheric and freeform optics for defence, automotive, aerospace, X-ray mirrors and mandrels, remote sensing, and next-generation photolithography of semiconductor devices. Other markets include machines to polish photomasks for next-generation photolithography, and for polishing knee & hip implants to improve lifetimes.



The second major exploitation rote has been the development of the business of the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces at OpTIC (under Glyndwr Innovations Ltd & OpTIC-Glyndwr Ltd). This supplies opto/mechanical design and optical manufacturing services to external organisations. The activity that currently dominates the facilities is the €5m contract to produce prototype mirror segments for the European Extremely Large telescope. This uses a novel process-chain operating entirely on segments in the hexagonal shape:- perhaps the most challenging optical fabrication project in the world, and one directly exploiting outputs of the research funding.



Apart from the segment project, turnover in this part of the GIL business in the 2011 financial year was £350K. Capacity for developing the business is currently limited by the mirror segments project but, as that ramps down, it is expected that this business will expand as it meets the ever-growing demand.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other

 
Description The results have had considerable commercial impact on Zeeko Ltd (partner in the project), and thence impact on Zeeko's customers in several sectors. This was fully documented in the last UCL REF Impact Case Study, which was highly-rated The research also led to the successful tender response from OpTIC to manufacture prototype mirror segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope.
First Year Of Impact 2009
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Economic

 
Description ESO - European Southern Observatory
Amount £4,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 18138/07/17039/LCO 
Organisation European Southern Observatory (ESO) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Germany
Start 01/2008 
End 12/2015
 
Description European Commission (EC)
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID FP7-SPACE-2012-312828 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2013 
End 12/2015
 
Description FP7
Amount € 92,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2014 
End 10/2017
 
Description Glyndwr internal funding
Amount £12,500 (GBP)
Organisation Glyndwr University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2012 
End 06/2012
 
Description Huddersfield QR funding
Amount £31,200 (GBP)
Organisation University of Huddersfield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Network Plus
Amount £76,789 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Research Grant, Follow on Fund
Amount £106,994 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/P003648/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description UCL
Amount £21,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Enterprise Award 
Organisation University College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2012 
End 04/2013
 
Description UCL Impact Studentship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Impact Studentship with Zeeko Ltd 
Organisation University College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2011 
End 09/2014
 
Title Epicyclic tool 
Description Development of a novel polishing tool with three heads that describe an epicyclic motion, whilst always pointing in the same direction in lab coordinates. Used with non-Newtonian materials adapting to variations in topography over a tool-path, but stiffening in the presence of local defects (mid spatial frequencies). Deployed on an industrial robot. Development of technologies to polish bare aluminium to a few nm surface texture (aluminium mirrors are usually nickel-coated, and this hard material is easily polished) 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Tool and the aluminium polishing technology is being used to smooth a part with intractable mid spatial frequency defects, originating in prior single point diamond turning at another UK institute. The part is the 480mm diameter bare-aluminium off-axis parabolic primary mirror for the CEOI-funded LOCUS project. LOCUS is a demonstrator for a future space-mission to measure pollutants in the terrestrial atmosphere. 
 
Title Robot facility 
Description Establishment at the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces,OpTIC Centre, N Wales, of a robot laboratory. This has three robots and a 1.2m air-bearing table, located in interlocked enclosures. This facility supports research in i) robotic automation of manual processes using ultra-precision CNC machines, ii) advanced polishing and grolishing processes, and iii) new methods of non-contact profilometry 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This facility is available to Glyndwr University, operators of the national Facility. 
 
Title Data for polishing and associated processes 
Description Data on polishing, grolishing and metrology results for a wide range of removal technologies, and operating parameters, including deployment on CNC polishing machines and robots, and using both free and bound abrasives. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This data is the bedrock on which we are researching advanced ultra-precision surface techniques, and methods of process automation. It is also being used in processing real components, for example the primary and secondary mirrors for LOCUS. 
 
Description Fisba collaboration 
Organisation Fisba AG
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of research infrastructure and skilled CNC machine operators and measurement experts
Collaborator Contribution Development of a novel technique for allowing for acceleration / decelleration effects in precision CNC polishing, consultancy, and provision of glass sample.
Impact Work very much in progress, developing this new technique as a collaboration. Anticipate results will be incorporated in Zeeko tool-path generator software when fully proven.
Start Year 2015
 
Description New collaboration on applications of AI to ultra-precision surface processing 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I initiated this collaboration, recognising that the next step-change in ultra-precision surface processing will arise from applications of AI both to define, and then to close, the process loop with reduced (and eventually no) human intrventions.
Collaborator Contribution Input of AI expertise lacking in the ultra-precision community, leading to a joint grant proposal which has been shortlisted.
Impact Grant proposal to Network Plus scheme, aiming to kick-start a new are of research
Start Year 2016
 
Description QioptiQ Ltd partnership 
Organisation Qioptiq Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of research infrastructure, skills and consultancy
Collaborator Contribution Provision of full-time seconded optical worker Provision of consultancy by Technical Director
Impact Successful completion, delivery and acceptance of prototype1.4m mirror segments to the European Southern Observatory for the E-ELT project. Participation of OpTIC in consortia bidding for segment mass-production (outcome awaited)
Start Year 2007
 
Title Data Stitching software 
Description When measuring optics by interferometry or profilometry, it is often the case that the instrumental technique is incapable of measuring the size, or height-variation, on the surface. This work has enables overlapping linear profilometry scans to be stitched, and also full 3D interferometry maps. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact This technique has been exploited by Zeeko Ltd It was then a key method used to measure prototype mirror-segments for the E-ELT, as the full-aperture interferometric test had an obstruction that left a gap in the data. Similarly it is required in current work to measure the LOCUS off-axis parabolic primary mirror. 
 
Title Improved processes for polishing especially but not limited to, large optics 
Description A range of process improvements, in particular to achieve global control of surface smoothness at the nanometer level, and unprecedented control of edge-profiles. A novel tool-path for pseudo-random polishing, helping to randomise surface-structure A range of 'grolishing' processes intermediate between grinding and polishing, to remove ripples from grinding. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact This is being exploited commercially 
 
Title Robot polishing software 
Description Software developed under a collaboration agreement with Zeeko Ltd, which enables existing Zeeko tool-path generating software to output tool-paths to an industrial robot, rather than a CNC polishing machine. Supports fabuc and ABB robots. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Has enabled Zeeko to collaborate with a large industrial manufacturer for polishing complex moulds and dies (name is confidential) 
 
Description "Technology transfer:-a personal perspective" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Technology transfer:-a personal perspective", invited contribution to 'UCL Academic's Enterprise Roadmap - Training Workshop'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Announcement of 5M Euro contract to produce seven prototype mirror segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Welsh Optoelectronics Forum Newsletter, August 2008
Articles in the press
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Automated optical fabrication at the large scale 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar presented at Fudan University, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Automated optical fabrication at the large scale 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact seminar presented at Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Daily Express 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article based on interview with Prof. D. Walker



Published Friday Nov. 2 2012, Page 50
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Development of Large Optics Capability in North Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk to National Astronomy Meeting ("NAM")
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact invited talk, Toptec meeting, Liberec, Czech Republic
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Fabricating Mirror Segments - from Extremely Large Telescopes to Laser Fusion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar at Liverpool John Moores University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Fabrication and testing technologies for E-ELT prototype mirror segments 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar presented to general audience at Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Science, Chendu, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2011
 
Description Fabrication of 1-2m Optics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to delegation form the US Thirty Meter Telescope Project, at OpTIC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Film interview for Barn Media for distribution to news programmes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Film interview for wider publicity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description From Space-research to Multi-discipline Polishing Machines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk to STFC Kite club
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description From Space-research to Multi-discipline Polishing Machines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited talk to STFC Kite club

To disseminate information primarily to industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011
 
Description Green Optics Korea 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 'Large optics at the large scale', general seminar presented to Green Optics and Korean Government institutes, S. Korea
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview ITV in the presence of Leighton Andrews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview ITV in the presence of Leighton Andrews, Minister of Education and Skills
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Interview for BBC Wales Radio "Science Café" programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Radio Interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Invited member of "Engaging Industry" discussion panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Part of Fundamentals of Technology Transfer course for university technology translators, run by PraxisUnico at Loughborough University . Awarding Body - PraxisUnico at Loughborough University, Name of Scheme - "Engaging Industry" discussion panel
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Life on the Surface - from Enormous Telescopes to Everyday Life 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited public lecture Wrexham Science Festival
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Live interview on BBC Wales news 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview for BBC Wales Radio "Science Café" programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Manchester talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'The next generation of astronomical telescopes - a revolution in science & technology', Guest lecturer to Manchester University Astronomical Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Methods to Control Edges on Segmented Mirrors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Participants in your research or patient groups
Results and Impact Invited talk at NASA Mirror Technology Days, Albuquerque
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description Nanotechnology at the Large Scale in Wales - Optics Meets Photonics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Welsh Opto-Electronics Forum meeting, 'Celebration of Photonics in Wales'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces at OpTIC: Technologies Relevant to Space 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact invited talk to UniGov Seminar, Cardiff:- meeting of senior Welsh Higher Education academics and Senior Welsh Government Civil Servants to discuss current economic and policy-related issues/opportunities for Wales
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Photon 14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact "Commercializing University Research - A Personal Experience - Warts and All", Invited plenary Optics and Photonics Prize talk, at Institute of Physics 'Photon14' conference, London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation of the European Extremely Large Telescope mirror-segment project to the Prime Minister 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation to David Cameron, on his visit to OpTIC-Glyndwr
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience Participants in your research or patient groups
Results and Impact Invited talk to the Optical Society of America Topical Meeting 'Optical Fabrication and Testing', Rochester, NY.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description Research on ELT Segment Mirror Process 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chengdu, Chinese Academic of Sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Swansea talk 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 'Telescopes - from the sublime to the ridiculous', Invited public lecture presented under the auspices of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, Swansea
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Technology Brokerage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact invited talk to the OpTIC Strategic Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description The Challenge of Mirror Segments for Extremely Large Telescopes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact invited keynote presentation, Optonet meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Challenge of the Surface - From our Own Backyard to the Ends of the Universe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Inaugural public lecture, Glyndwr University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012
 
Description The ESO European Extremely Large Telescope 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk to the Liverpool Astronomical Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description The European Extremely Large Telescope 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk to North Wales Astronomical Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The European Extremely Large Telescope 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk to Chester Astronomical Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The European Extremely Large Telescope 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact invited talk to the OpTIC Astronomy Day, as part of the International Year of Astronomy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description The European Extremely Large Telescope 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk to Mold Rotary Club
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description University and Industry Collaboration - Do Oil and Water Mix? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited talk to Welsh Assembly Government 'Science and the Assembly' meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010