PP1: Identification and assessment of coping measures for extreme weather events

Lead Research Organisation: De Montfort University
Department Name: Institute of Energy and Sustainable Dev

Abstract

To effectively cope with extreme weather events (EWE), the following important and closely-linked elements would be required: evidence on the probability and the impact of the EWEs, technologies and coping measures that mitigate the impact, as well as communities that are willing and able to take up the coping measures. This programme package (PP1) is concerned with the second element / identifying and assessing methods (technology and people) for coping with EWEs. It is an integral part of the project as it provides technical information on coping measures which is essential for research into barriers/drivers of their uptake by the community (PP2). This interaction between communities and coping measure research will also result in a tool that would assist choosing coping measures - a matrix of technologies and methods, which have been assessed and ranked for their technical performances and potentials for wide community uptake. A further interaction, with the development of EWE impact simulator (PP3), will contribute to the development of the latter.

Publications

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M. Porritt S (2013) Heat wave adaptations for UK dwellings and development of a retrofit toolkit in International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment

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Porritt S (2011) Adapting dwellings for heat waves in Sustainable Cities and Society

 
Description The emphasis on UK dwelling refurbishment to date has concentrated on reducing energy use and CO2 emissions during the heating season. However, there has been increasing evidence pointing to the need for a more holistic approach. Climate change projections show an increase in both the frequency and severity of extreme weather events. These include heat waves, such as the one in August 2003, which resulted in the deaths of more than 35,000 people around Europe, over 2,000 of which were in the UK. Future retrofit planning therefore needs to take account of not only winter thermal performance and associated carbon emissions, but also the need to reduce summer overheating to provide a safe and comfortable environment in a changing climate. This research builds on previous published work by quantifying the effect of a range of single and combined adaptations during heat wave periods, using experimental testing, computer simulation and theoretical analysis. Dynamic thermal simulation was used to assess and rank the effectiveness of selected single and combined passive adaptations (interventions) in reducing overheating during a heat wave period for a range of dwelling types, building orientations and occupancy profiles. Three options were considered for providing simulation weather data: future weather data, developed using a morphing methodology as used in CIBSE TM36; European weather data, to approximate the predicted future UK climate; and real UK heat wave periods from 1976, 1995 and 2003. The key output is an interactive retrofit advice toolkit which has been made publically available to all users (www.iesd.dmu.ac.uk/crew). The research provides, through the toolkit and a series of publications, systematic, quantitative and holistic guidance for retrofitting UK dwellings to (i) reduce overheating risk during heat waves, (ii) minimise winter heating energy and (iii) reduce the cost. Other key findings include: - External shutters are the single most effective adaptation for most of the house types considered, typically resulting in a 50% reduction in overheating exposure. The exception is the Victorian terraced houses with solid walls, where high albedo walls or external insulation is often more effective. External insulation consistently outperforms internal insulation, though the latter could be effective as an element of combined adaptations. - Of the dwelling types studied, 1960s top floor flats and 2006 detached houses (Tier 2) experience more than twice as much overheating as Tier 1 dwellings (end and mid-terraced houses, ground floor flats and semi-detached houses). Tier 2 dwellings are "harder to treat" and their overheating exposure could not be eliminated using the passive measures tested, as one could with Tier 1 dwellings. It is possible to substantially reduce overheating and winter heating energy use of Tier 1 dwellings at moderate cost. The costs for retrofitting Tier 2 dwellings could be many times higher. - Adaptation should be considered together with mitigation, both in design practice and in regulations. If existing houses (e.g. terraced) are retrofitted for energy efficiency, without considering summer use, overheating could increase dramatically. Subsequent corrective measures could be costly and energy efficiency may suffer as a result too. - Overheating exposure can be significantly greater for residents who have to stay at home during the daytime, e.g. elderly or infirm and they should not, where possible, be housed in the most vulnerable dwellings (Tier 2).
Exploitation Route The key output is an interactive retrofit advice toolkit which has been made publically available to all users (www.iesd.dmu.ac.uk/crew). The research provides, through the toolkit and a series of publications, systematic, quantitative and holistic guidance for retrofitting UK dwellings to (i) reduce overheating risk during heat waves, (ii) minimise winter heating energy and (iii) reduce the cost. The work has informed: Managing risks and increasing resilience: London climate change adaptation strategy http://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/environment/vision-strategy/managing-climate-risks-and-increasing-resilience DCLG (2012) Investigation into Overheating in Homes Analysis of Gaps and Recommendations, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/6380/2185799.pdf ARCC CN (2013) Overheating in homes: advice and evidence from the latest research, http://www.arcc-cn.org.uk/wp-content/pdfs/ACN-overheating-guidance.pdf Engagement with user communities directly and through the effective and trusted ARCC Coordination Network http://www.arcc-cn.org.uk Enagement with academic community through publication, conference attendance and the CREW consortium www.extreme-weather-impacts.net/
Sectors Construction,Energy

URL http://www.iesd.dmu.ac.uk/crew
 
Description • Invited consultation with DCLG, DECC, and GLA on dealing with overheating of buildings under future climate, London City Hall, 6 October 2011. The work adaption of dwellings to future heatwaves was highlighted in the London May Climate Change Adaptation Strategy published October 2011 and the retrofit web tool generated during the research was recommended by the Mayor in the same Strategy. • Invited unpaid consultation with Westminster Council on its Planning draft documents relating to climate change; 2010; • Invited consultation with The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) 25 November 2010 regarding integration of adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. The consultation was with the more recently formed Adaptation SubComittee of the CCC • One of the academic members of the drafting committee for Arcc CN (2013) "Synthesised advice on identifying and preventing overheating in homes under the Green Deal" • Member of an EPSRC-funded ARCC group advising DECC on the unintended overheating consequences of Green Deal measures,2012-13 • Consultation with Reading Borough Council (2013) and Leicester City Council (2010) on their draft policy documents relating to climate change; • Comments/input into Leicester City Council and City of Westminster Council Planning draft documents relating to climate change; 2010; The output from the grant and its initial impact activities as outlined above are among the very earliest regarding overheating risk of modern new build and retrofit dwelling. Since then there have been an exponential increase in industry and professional practitioner awareness of this issue and industry involvement in development of measures to deal with the significant risks. These include for example Zero Energy Hub reports (http://www.zerocarbonhub.org/current-projects/tackling-overheating-buildings) and further broadening of evidence to cover other building sectors e.g. health care (e.g. Building Research & Information Volume 45, 2017 - Issue 1-2: Overheating in buildings: adaptation responses) where one of the key contributors was researcher on this reporting proposal.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Construction,Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Climate adaptation policy
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact The work adaption of dwellings to future heatwaves was highlighted in the London May Climate Change Adaptation Strategy published October 2011 and the retrofit web tool generated during the research was recommended by the Mayor in the same Strategy. Invited unpaid consultation with Westminster Council on its Planning draft documents relating to climate change; 2010; Invited consultation with The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) 25 November 2010 regarding integration of adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. The consultation was with the more recently formed Adaptation SubComittee of the CCC One of the academic members of the drafting committee for Arcc CN (2013) "Synthesised advice on identifying and preventing overheating in homes under the Green Deal"
 
Description EPSRC Responsive Mode
Amount £564,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P023819/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2020