A Fundamental Study of the Novel Poppet Valve 2-Stroke Auto-ignition Combustion Engine (2-ACE)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Over recent years the need to reduce both fuel consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide has become an increasing preoccupation, as well as ever stringent emission legislation. Intensive research performed by the automotive industry and academia is in progress, centred on ways to reduce exhaust emissions from IC engines on the one hand, and fuel efficient vehicles on the other. Fast progress in meeting future emission and fuel economy regulations has been hampered by the commonly accepted trade-offs between reduction in exhaust emissions and improvements in fuel economy, as well as by the customers demand for better torque output and driveability.A novel poppet valve 2-stroke controlled auto-ignition combustion engine has been proposed by Brunel and Brighton Universities. The purpose of this proposal is to penetrate and understand the key in-cylinder phenomena and processes involved in the newly proposed poppet valve 2-stroke auto-ignition combustion engine. This will enable the assessment of its potential for leapfrog improvements in performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions, as compared to current gasoline engines. Such a programme demands leading-edge expertise in engine technology, computational fluid dynamics, autoignition chemical kinetics, chemically selective in-cylinder diagnostics, and industrial practice. The proposed programme involves four universities supported by relevant industrial companies, taking a multi-disciplinary approach to the study of the underlying processes and technologies for the next generation of gasoline engines. It is the first time that a novel and detailed methodology has been proposed to achieve significantly extended and better controlled auto-ignition combustion operation in the current poppet valved engine without the pitfalls of the traditional crankcase scavenged ported two-stroke engines. The single cylinder poppet valve 2-stroke camless engine offers the ideal research tool to experiment with the proposed methodology. In addition, new and novel experimental techniques, such as the high-speed in-cylinder residual gas mapping and in-cylinder temperature imaging, are to be developed and applied to obtain the much-needed better understanding of underlying physical and chemical processes involved in the new combustion engine. This is complemented by the development and application of sophisticated chemistry CFD engine simulation with the state-of-the-art autoignition combustion prediction capability and refined fuel spray and evaporation models. Such a systematic and comprehensive programme of exploration and research on CAI combustion for achieving superior 2-stroke part-load fuel economy and emissions is imperative for the future development of a new frontier gasoline engine with leapfrog improvements in performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions.
Description Demonstration of in-cylinder fuel imaging in a running gasoline direct injection engine.
Demonstration of in-cylinder fuel imaging in a running diesel engine.
Development of quantitative and objective method for determination of spatial resolution of tomography systems.
Exploitation Route Multiple.
Sectors Chemicals,Energy,Transport

Description By Royal Dutch/Shell, in automotive fuels R&D. By Innospec Inc., in automotive fuel additives R&D. Adaptation to aero gas-turbine engines, by Rolls-Royce.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Energy,Transport
Impact Types Economic

Description Edinburgh Impact Accelerator
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 09/2015
Description FLITES : Fibre-Laser Imaging of gas Turbine Exhaust Species
Amount £705,975 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/J002151/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2012 
End 02/2013
Description GLOBAL- Manchester Image Reconstruction and ANalysis (MIRAN): Step jumps in imaging by Global Exchange of user pull and method push
Amount £498,383 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K00428X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2012 
End 03/2013
Description Royal Society Industry Fellowship
Amount £85,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2009 
End 09/2011
Description University of Manchester, The
Amount £24,959 (GBP)
Funding ID Pathways 16 
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2012 
End 03/2013
Description STANFORD 
Organisation Stanford University
Department Mechanical Engineering
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Chemical Species Tomography system design, construction, test, implementation
Collaborator Contribution IR spectroscopy
Impact Spectroscopic data and models
Start Year 2008