SUPERGEN: Delivery of Sustainable Hydrogen

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Chemical Engineering & Advanced Material

Abstract

We seek to deliver new technologies capable of clean and cost-effective conversion of low-carbon electricity and various carbon sources, including biomass and waste, into hydrogen. We have set up a consortium to address this target involving 14 University research groups. This will achieve significant critical mass and provide a proactive consortium, well linked to a range of industrial actors, to address these major long term problems. The main strands of the project relate to advanced catalytic and membrane production routes for conversion of carbonaceous sources and the integration of such processes, advanced electrochemical production and conversion of hydrogen and socio-technical analysis and appraisal of these technologies. The project will be carefully managed to encourage networking, exchange of people and ideas, training of personnel, knowledge transfer activities, outreach and dissemination.WP1: Production of hydrogen from carbonaceous sourcesThe purpose of this WP is to investigate and optimise the production of high purity hydrogen from hydrocarbon and oxygenated-hydrocarbon sources. We will develop innovative processes for both low and high temperature catalytic hydrogen production processes. We focus on low temperature reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons because of favourable thermodynamics. These systems can be employed with or without hydrogen permselective membranes for enhancing hydrogen purity. For high temperature reforming of hydrocarbons we focus on membrane developments and thermochemical cycles (chemical looping) to separate hydrogen from the reaction mixture.WP2: Sustainable hydrogen from electronsThe purpose of this WP is to develop more cost effective and efficient technologies to produce hydrogen from sustainably produced electricity, especially for distributed, smaller scale systems. Electrolyser concepts will be tested and modelled novel system concepts investigated. High temperature electrolysis, which offers enhanced electrical efficiency, will be developed and the possibility of combining this with an innovative liquefaction process investigated. Electrochemical routes to alternative hydrogen containing vectors will be explored.WP3: Socio-technical analysis and appraisal of hydrogen productionThe purpose of this interdisciplinary WP will be to bring together the engineering and socio-economic dimensions of the consortium's research, benchmarking current and future technological performance, and undertaking rigorous interdisciplinary analysis and appraisal of the potential for the novel catalytic and electrolytic hydrogen production, and post production conversion processes, being developed by the consortium to contribute to the large-scale delivery of sustainable hydrogen.WP4: Management, knowledge transfer, dissemination and networkingThe consortium will strongly promote industrial engagement and dissemination in order to maximise knowledge transfer and technology uptake in this key environmental and commercial topic. We will provide a rounded training in hydrogen production and energy systems to our 20 researchers through exchanges, workshops and training schools. Part of this WP will also analyse the knowledge transfer process looking at innovation systems and socio-technical transitions in relation to delivering sustainable hydrogen.

Publications

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A. Lea-Langton (Author) (2010) Waste lubricating oil as a source of hydrogen fuel using chemical looping steam reforming in SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

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Amar I (2011) Solid-state electrochemical synthesis of ammonia: a review in Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

 
Description Newcastle 1 - Novel process for pure hydrogen production using syngas and water, with inherent separation, using chemical looping
Abstract: Researchers at Newcastle University, led by Prof Ian Metcalfe, have developed a novel technology, using a process called chemical looping, for the production of two pure AND separate streams of hydrogen and syngas directly from natural gas and water. The syngas produced by this process can be used as a reactant for methanol or ethylene synthesis.
An auto thermal chemical looping process, a solid metal oxide such as iron oxide is utilised to transfer oxygen between two or more gaseous streams without allowing the streams to mix. Being autothermal, the process avoids the need for additional energy input.
Innovative aspects:
A novel iron-containing perovskite material has been shown to operate for a higher number of chemical looping cycles than the previous best known materials. The inclusion of an air step provides heat to the system from the further oxidation of the metal oxide. Potentially useful additional heat is made.
Main advantages:
• The proposed process eliminates any separation steps as the hydrogen and syngas streams are inherently separated.
• Lower processing costs by removing the requirement of a separation process,
• Overall, the system can produce pure hydrogen and syngas from only natural gas, water and air in an overall exothermic system. The advantages of this are the useful products that are synthesised from cheap reactants and the possibility of producing useful heat.
• Another advantage of the system is that the syngas produced is in the molar ratio of 2:1 of hydrogen to carbon monoxide, which is perfect for Fischer Tropsch reactions to produce useful products such as methanol and ethylene.
• The advantage of performing this step compared to other combustion techniques is that the carbon dioxide would be ready for carbon capture and storage following a simple condensation step.
Current stage of development and outlook:
• A major barrier to this type of technology previously has been the inability of earlier oxygen carrier materials*to undergo repeated cycling without mechanical collapse. *(iron oxide-based)
• A perovskite-type mixed metal oxide has shown no loss in performance over 150 cycles
• The perovskite material has out-performed the current best oxygen carrier material
• The production of other useful products (e.g. ethylene) are being investigated.
Industrial collaboration sought: So far, work has involved the use of a microreactor and gas analysis systems to accurately measure production rates, but the process can be used in either a packed bed or circulating fluidised bed as a small unit (in a hydrogen fuelling station) or a large unit (in an industrial process). Collaboration with an experienced industrial partner is required to further understand the requirements and procedures for up-scaling.
Contact: ian.metcalfe@newcastle.ac.uk

Leeds 1 - Hydrogen from Bio-oils
Abstract: Dr Valerie DuPont's group at Leeds have investigated bio-oils derived from pine and empty palm bunch fruits (EPBF)) as resources for hydrogen production via sorption enhanced steam reforming and chemical looping reforming, using standard catalysts such as Nickel. Such bio-oils have low calorific values and are complex mixtures of organic compounds including acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters and phenolic compounds, and thus have limited applications for combustion in boilers and turbine engines. Many agricultural and forestry wastes can be recycled into bio-oils.
Innovative aspects: This group is the first to demonstrate the use of bio-oils in sorption enhanced steam reforming and chemical looping reforming. The complexity of the mixture of bio-oil is difficult to deal with (e.g. left-over tar from reactants and deposited on catalysts etc). By thermodynamic modelling of each compounds and identifying the optimal operating conditions, this group are able to modify the process parameters and reactor design to enable hydrogen production.
Furthermore, this work can be extended to work with the aqueous phase of bio-oil with methane (or any HC), to produce hydrogen, using sorption enhanced steam reforming and chemical looping reforming.
Main advantages:
• Utilisation of waste oils and conversion into hydrogen as an energy carrier
• Utilisation of aqueous phase of bio-oils, which are waste products during upgrade of bio-oils to bi-fuels, to convert into hydrogen as an energy carrier.
• Low temperature processes and other optimised parameters leading to high energy efficiencies
Current stage of development and outlook: Hydrogen production from bio-oils using pine and EPFB has already been demonstrated. The group is looking to work with the aqueous phase of bio-oil.
Industrial collaboration sought: The group is looking to collaborate with industrial partners interested in hydrogen production from sustainable sources and companies producing bio-oils interested in upgrade of bio-oils to bio-fuels.
Contact: V.Dupont@leeds.ac.uk,

Leeds2 - Bi/tri metallic catalysts to produce hydrogen from tyre pyrolysis
Abstract: Dr Valerie DuPont's group at Leeds have developed novel materials (bi- and tri-metallic catalysts). These act as oxygen transfer materials as well as catalysts for the steam reforming reaction with recalcitrant feedstock (e.g. waste lubricant oils and waste tyre pyrolysis oils). The group have optimised the performance of these catalysts using chosen materials Ni-Co/Al2O3 and Ni-Co-Ce/Al2O3 for hydrogen production. The chemical looping process, when applied to catalytic steam reforming process, permits higher yields of hydrogen, economically and with lower environmental costs.
Innovative aspects: Development of bi/tri metallic catalysts which act as oxygen transfer materials as well as catalysts. Traditionally, such catalysts (Ni-Co) have been studied with methane, while Ni-Co-Ce hasn't been studied. The novel aspect is to get these catalysts to work with complex HC feed stocks.
Advantages: The novel catalysts offer high performance and at the same time enable an autothermal reaction minimising the use of external heat. Waste oils from many sources including the food industry and problematic waste such as used tyres can be used as feedstock.
Current stage of development and outlook: The Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Ce catalysts have been optimised for performance using methane as feedstock. The next step is to optimise the process using oils derived from waste lubricants and tyre pyrolysis oils as the primary feedstock.
Industrial collaboration sought:
Collaboration/sponsorship is sought from businesses involved in the production and/or disposal of problematic hydrocarbon-based waste materials and/or the development of novel chemical plant and energy systems.
Contact: V.Dupont@leeds.ac.uk,

Manchester 1 - Plasma-assisted catalysis technology for hydrogen production from methane conversion
Abstract: Prof. Whitehead's group at Manchester have long-standing expertise in the area of plasma-assisted catalysis, which offers an environmental-friendly option for the efficient conversion of biogas or landfill gas into hydrogen and value-added chemicals (carbon nanofibres, oxygenates, etc). The hybrid process under development is based on the combination of atmospheric plasma and heterogeneous catalysis. The interactions between the plasma and catalyst can generate a synergistic effect, which provides a unique way to separate the activation steps from the selective reactions at low temperatures. Plasma-catalytic dry reforming of CH4 with CO2 is a promising route to sustainable production of H2 and CO.
Innovative aspects: Deals with two major green-house gases (CH4 and CO2) converting them into hydrogen and other value-added co-products (carbon nanofibres) at low temperatures. The catalysts can be regenerated and activated in-situ by non-thermal plasma at low temperatures.
Main advantages :
• Production of hydrogen and value-added co-products such as carbon nanofibres, C2, methanol.
• Improved selectivity towards desired products can be achieved using optimal catalyst combined with plasma.
• Production can be carried out at low temperature (e.g. 200 oC) with very high reaction rates.
• Plasma-cat technology breaks the barrier of thermodynamic equilibrium of a chemical reaction.
• The catalyst can be reduced, activated and regenerated by non-thermal plasma at low temperatures (e.g. 200 oC)
• The integrated plasma-catalysis system is compact and flexible for installation.
Current stage of development and outlook: Process development has been carrying out to optimize the lab-scale integrated plasma-catalysis system in terms of reaction performance. Catalyst screening has been operating to get an optimal, low cost and stable catalyst for this reaction.
Industrial collaboration sought: Collaboration or co-development in system scale-up for industrial applications and plasma technology for environmental and renewable energy applications (not limited to methane conversion), for example, CO2 reduction, waste oil treatment.
Contact: j.c.whitehead@manchester.ac.uk

St. Andrews 1 - High-temperature steam electrolysis
Abstract: Researchers at St. Andrews have developed new ceramic materials (lanthanum-doped strontium titanate oxide perovskite) based electrode materials for use in efficient steam electrolysis and simplified electrolyser design - without the inherent drawbacks of nickel-based cermets.
Quality waste heat from other processes can be used to reduce the electrical demand of electrolysis significantly thus increasing the efficiency of a combined system. Use of such a secondary energy input source can lead to an electrical efficiency of over 100%, however likely operating parameters suggest that a typical electrical efficiency will be ca. 100%. Electrolysis of steam also generates high purity O2 as a secondary saleable commodity.
Innovative aspects: The ceramic oxides being developed can be fine-tuned via chemical doping to suit the highly reducing conditions experienced during steam electrolysis. In contrast, the chemistry of the current benchmark nickel cermet electrode is fixed and cannot be tailored specifically for steam electrolysis. The novelty of our approach lies in the strategies for the formulation and design of materials structure in order to achieve better performance, stability and facilitate processing.
Main advantages:
• Simplified electrolyser design and hydrogen savings under standby conditions. The redox and dimensional stability of the ceramic oxides being developed means that protecting hydrogen is not required for the electrode when at standby, unlike the nickel-cermet electrode.
• Extended device lifetime in comparison with the state-of-the-art. Ceramic oxides are not expected to suffer from the problem of coarsening often associated with the nickel-cermet.
Current stage of development and outlook: The research group have been undertaking laboratory research for about two and half years, with all ceramic oxide compositions being synthesised and tested in-house.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial partners (e.g. electrolyser and wind energy producers are sought for scale-up from current 1 cm2 electrodes to, for example, 16 cm2 electrodes and then to integrate these electrodes into an electrolyser stack. Prototype electrolyser stacks could then be coupled to a wind turbine to produce hydrogen at times of excess wind power.
Contact: jtsi@st-andrews.ac.uk (Prof John Irvine)

St. Andrews 2 - High-temperature Carbon Dioxide electrolysis
Abstract: Researchers at St. Andrews have developed new ceramic based catalyst materials for the electrolysis of carbon dioxide. Electrolysis of carbon dioxide yields carbon monoxide (CO), an important feedstock in the industrial synthesis of a wide range of chemical products. This offers a way to turn waste CO2 into a useful product, while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions. Electrolysis of CO2 also generates high purity O2, which has a significant market in its own right.
Research in this part of the project focuses on the utilisation of oxide materials including (La,Sr)(Cr,Mn)O3, a perovskite-structured material and GdxCe1-xO2 ceramic, which has previously demonstrated promise as a fuel electrode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These oxides are advantageous over the conventional Ni-based material in terms of superior carbon resistance and redox stability.
Carbon dioxide electrolysis provides a means to store CO2 gas, as the CO produced can be used as raw material for synthetic fuel production (diesel, kerosene, etc.), an organic chemicals precursor or as a fuel in itself (town gas being a mixture of CO and hydrogen). Similar to steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis could be cost-effective when electricity price is low during times of wind energy excess to store/convert the excess into alternative products/fuels.
Innovative aspects: The materials being studied exhibit lower cell resistance and higher faraday efficiency in various CO2/CO mixtures for CO2 electrolysis. Additional catalyst impregnation is seen to improve catalytic activity towards CO2 electrolysis.
Main advantages: The ceramic materials being investigated are versatile in CO2/CO atmospheres, unlike Ni-cermet materials which suffer from carbon deposition and redox instability under identical conditions.
Current stage of development and outlook: Laboratory research
Industrial collaboration sought: The research group seeks industrial partners building electrolysers, wind energy producers and synthetic fuels producers to further test the materials and scale-up.
Contact: jtsi@st-andrews.ac.uk (Prof John Irvine)

Warwick 1 - Production of hydrogen using organometallic catalysts from alcohols
Abstract: Prof. Martin Wills' group at Warwick have developed organometallic catalysts capable of generating hydrogen directly from organic molecules such as sugars, glycerol, alcohols, formic acid, etc. at the low temperatures and with the highest possible yield per unit time.
Expertise in the catalysis of organic reactions, particularly asymmetric transformations such as ketone and imine reductions have been used in the application of organometallic catalysts to organic transformations, to dehydrogenate alcohols to form ketones and aldehydes together with hydrogen gas. Depending on the type of alcohol processed, in some cases the waste products (ketones and aldehydes) are likely to be useful in their own right as these are also potential fuels, useful solvents, antifreeze materials or chemical precursors. Pre-project work involved scale-up of their earlier lab-scale efforts and to produce enough hydrogen to run one of the University of Birmingham's hydrogen vehicles - proving that the idea works.
Innovative aspects: The asymmetric transformations offer potential to form high-value products. The hydrogen-generation catalysts offer the potential for production of hydrogen under mild conditions
Main advantages:
• Milder conditions for hydrogen generation and potential photocatalysis of the reactions.
• Production of other chemical feedstocks.
• Asymmetric synthesis may be of interest to relatively low volume, high value products such as pharmaceuticals.
Current stage of development and outlook: Extensive laboratory screening of catalysts identifying many useful candidates. Process (hydrogen from formic acid) has been converted to a low scale continuous process. Early stage work incorporating otherwise liquid phase catalysts into solid phase polymers.
Industrial collaboration sought: Our client seeks industrial partners to support with the further development of catalysts and testing, including a prototype, to achieve close to market position.
Contact: M.Wills@warwick.ac.uk

Oxford 1 - CO-free hydrogen production by low temperature reforming of methanol or related organic molecules
Abstract: Prof. Edman Tsang's team at Oxford have developed an innovative process involves Non-Syngas Direct Stream Reformation of methanol and other organic molecules at low temperature for catalytic production of hydrogen. This system can supply high quality hydrogen gas without CO contamination for small mobile units such as PEM fuel cell devices. High energy density liquid methanol or related organic molecules can be stored in reservoir tank and be in-situ converted to hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas when required.
The Non-Syngas Direct Steam Reforming (NSGDSR) route over new proprietary catalysts for the conversion methanol or related organic molecules to hydrogen and carbon dioxide is carried out at 150-200oC. This new route is in sharp contrast with the conventional cumbersome route involving high temperature steam reformation to syngas, followed by water gas shift and CO cleanup stages for the hydrogen production. A high quality of hydrogen with CO content lower than 10ppm in the gas stream can be produced in a single step reaction, which can be used to supply PEM fuel cells for mobile applications without invoking any CO shift and cleanup stages
Innovative aspects of the offer:
• A direct low temperature catalytic steam reformation of methanol or related organic molecules to CO2/H2
• < 200oC
• Direct hydrogen supply - Free from CO contaminant
• Can couple directly to PEM fuel cells without CO cleanup
• Proprietary solid catalysts are active and selective for this reaction
Main advantages:
In-situ catalytic hydrogen production from high energy and volume density liquid organic molecules to supply mobile PEM fuel cells devices without the need for hydrogen gas store.
CO-free hydrogen is ideal fuel vector for clean energy utilization.
Current stage of development: Hydrogen production rate of 393.6 mL/g-cat/hour at 150oC from methanol-water with CO content lower than 10ppm.
Industrial collaboration sought: Open to discussion with interested companies for collaboration.
Contact: edman.tsang@chem.ox.ac.uk

Imperial College 1 - Catalytic Hollow Fiber Membrane Micro-Reactors (CHFMMR) for high purity hydrogen production.
Abstract: Imperial College London have developed a range of Catalytic Hollow Fiber Membrane Micro-Reactors (CHFMMR). Combination of these novel reactors with appropriate catalysts results in reaction-tunable micro-reforming devices. The devices can be manifolded and built up into arrays offering a highly scalable and compact solution for use particularly in applications requiring small-scale efficient hydrogen/gas production. Larger scale production can also be obtained by adding additional tube-array blocks.
High purity COX free H2 has been produced in the CHFMMR by different heterogeneously catalysed gas phase reactions such as: water gas shift (WGS), dry reforming of methane (DRM), ethanol steam reforming (ESR) and methanol steam reforming (MSR). Asymmetric ceramic hollow fibres, fabricated by a phase-inversion technique following by sintering at high temperature, have been employed as a single substrate for combining both Pd-based membrane and catalyst in the development of CHFMMR. Although developed in the course of this research for hydrogen production, the micro-reactors can equally provide similar compact production of other gas species when combined with appropriate catalysts and separation membranes.
Innovative aspects: The use of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibres as a support for both Pd-based membrane and catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic gas phase reactions enables faster and easier development of the membrane-micro-reactor technology.
Main advantages: The CHFMMR can be proposed as an alternative reactor to produce high purity H2, since it offers important advantages over conventional systems (CMR etc), such as:
• The possibility of working at significantly lower temperatures and/or using less catalyst.
• Combining the processes of generating and separation of H2 in a single step.
• The high surface area/volume of the ceramic hollow fibres allows for more economical large-scale COX free H2 production.
• The micro-channels structure of the ceramic hollow fibres results in a more efficient utilization of the catalyst deposited on their walls.
• The combination of high chemical, thermal & mechanical durability of the alumina ceramic makes it attractive for a number of reactions under very different operating conditions.
• The alumina micro-reactors show insignificant heat loss by conduction.
Current stage of development and outlook: The micro-tube fabrication techniques have been developed to reliably produce a consistent product. Impregnation techniques are developed to offer a wide-range of in-situ catalyst options. Separation membrane deposition techniques have been successfully developed. High efficiency hydrogen (and other gas) production has been observed. Prototype bundles (arrays) of tubes have been successfully operated and tested in concert. Micro-tubes have been successfully manufactured using alternative ceramics.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial/Commercial partners are sought to develop prototype devices suitable for in-situ hydrogen production and other applications.
Contact: kang.li@imperial.ac.uk

Newcastle 2 - Production of Pure Hydrogen by Chemical Looping from water, using microtubular perovskite membranes
Abstract: Researchers at Newcastle University, led by Prof. Ian Metcalfe, have developed a novel technology for the continuous production of hydrogen and syngas using mixed conducting perovskite membrane. The process offers inherent separation of hydrogen from syngas streams.
The membrane system used in this project is operated to produce hydrogen and syngas, combining POM (partial oxidation of methane) with simultaneous water splitting where the oxygen for the POM reaction is supplied from water. Perovskite membranes when exposed to oxygen at elevated temperatures can transport oxide ions from the high partial pressure side to the low partial pressure side. This results in overall steam reforming of methane.
Innovative aspects: This process produces pure hydrogen and syngas at different streams as water and methane are never mixed during the process.
Main advantages:
• Production of pure hydrogen as only oxygen ions can be transported through the membrane
• Hydrogen separation step is not required, consequently lowering process costs
Current stage of development: Membrane stability and the lifetime of the perovskite membranes due to degradation is a key challenge. Currently, the stability of the membrane is being carefully studied, and the membrane system has been operated for over 400 hours producing hydrogen and syngas. In addition, an autothermal membrane process using only air, water and methane to produce pure hydrogen and syngas is under investigation.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial partners interested in scale up following further R&D and establishing membrane stability.
Contact: ian.metcalfe@newcastle.ac.uk

Cardiff 1 - Hydrogen Separation using Micro-Porous Polymers
Abstract: A unique offering of a patent-pending technology for hydrogen separation. Prof Neil McKeown's group at Cardiff have developed polymers with micro-porosity (Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity- PIMS) capable of gas separation including hydrogen. PIMS contain holes or pores of a molecular scale specifically designed to allow hydrogen to pass easily through them, whilst blocking larger molecules.
Innovative aspects: A new class of microporous polymer has been developed that contains amine functionality to selectively bind to CO2. Deliberate structuring of the polymers offers the ability to tune the materials to separate different gas mixtures.
Main advantages:
• Greater selectivity for CO2 over H2 and CH4 is anticipated.
• Cost effective when scaled-up in comparison with conventional palladium based alloys - polymers can be made in large continuous rolls.
• High purity gas output.
Current stage of development and outlook: Synthesis of large number of polymers using the new methodology and that high mass polymer can be obtained has been demonstrated. Gas separation testing is providing encouraging performance results. Patents have been applied for.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial partners working on gas separation, carbon capture and water purification using solid substrates or membranes.
Contact: MckeownNB@cardiff.ac.uk (Neil)

Birmingham 1 - Hydrogen Separation using Improved Metallic Membranes
Abstract: Dr David Book's group at Birmingham University have developed an improved metallic membrane based on palladium alloys for separating hydrogen from other gases, in a cheaper and more efficient manner.
Hydrogen produced via reformation can contain large quantities of impurity gases such as CO and CO2, which must be removed before the hydrogen can be used, particularly in PEM type fuel cells which can be badly damaged by some of these impurities. Hydrogen selectively diffuses through the crystal lattice of palladium and certain palladium alloys, leaving the impurity gas species behind. The reformation process can be combined with membrane separation in a 'membrane reactor'.
Thin-metal membranes are compact, have a low capital cost and offer a one-stage high-purity hydrogen output. However, current alloys used (e.g. Pd-Ag) are relatively thick at 25 microns and need to be operated at high temperatures, leading to high material and operating costs.
Innovative aspects:
Birmingham University's Hydrogen Materials Group have developed novel thin-film composite membranes - consisting of Pd-Rare-Earth alloys sputtered onto surface-treated porous substrates with an interdiffusion barrier layer. These offer significant improvement over conventional metallic membranes in terms of high-temperature stability and durability. These alloys have been shown to be three times more permeable to hydrogen and to also have superior mechanical properties.
Main advantages:
• High purity hydrogen following separation
• Reasonable tolerance to impurities such as sulphur
• Target operating temperatures of 250 deg. C
• Can be deposited as thin films on a range of porous substrates
• Markedly reduced precious metals cost
Current stage of development and outlook: Current work focuses on cost reduction and improving the resilience of the membrane. Magnetron sputtering is being used to deposit novel Pd alloy thin films (3 micron) onto porous metal or ceramic substrates. The use of interdiffusion barrier layers are also being investigated. The membranes are being assessed on a membrane test rig, which measures gas-flow, pressure and gas composition.
Industrial collaboration sought: Client is looking for industrial partners with an interest in gas separation and/or hydrogen production, to further develop these technologies.
Contact: d.book@bham.ac.uk

Strathclyde 1 - Wide Scale Distributed Electrolysis and the Grid
Abstract: Research involves investigation of the impact of large scale alkaline electrolysis plants on the performance of electrical grid and finding innovative control strategies to run the electrolysers in a way to improve the performance of the electrical power system. In particular it addresses the demand side management potential of highly distributed electrolyser loads connected to the UK electricity system. The potential aggregated electrical load of such future electrolyser plants could be considerable and modelling/predicting its effect is important.
The work analyses the use of such a 'controllable load' for frequency reserve, load levelling, the reduction of power station emissions via reduction of 'spinning reserve', improved energy trading and similar items/issues.
In our electrical power system models, electrolysers are used as dynamic demand to improve the frequency stability of the electrical grid while there is a high penetration of wind power in the system. In another work, the size and the location of the electrolysers in the electrical power system is optimised to achieve a 2.9% reduction in the aggregate electrical transmission losses of a power system in presence of wind farms.
Innovative aspects:
• New strategies to run electrolysers and select their size and locations in the grid to improve the performance of the electrical grid
• New control strategies used to run the electrolysers to reduce the frequency fluctuations in the electrical power system in the presence of high penetration of wind power.
Main advantages:
• Frequency stability improvement of the electrical grid using alkaline electrolysers
• Transmission loss reduction in the electrical power system using Alkaline Electrolysers
Current stage of development and outlook:
• Electrolysers are modelled in A UKGDS (United Kingdom Generic Distribution system) network - it is shown that electrolysers are able to reduce system transmission losses if they are sized and located properly and an appropriate control strategy is adopted.
• A model of the steam turbine generator is used to find out the impact of the electrolysers as dynamic loads on the frequency stability of the system, and it is observed that these electrolysers can help in stability of the frequency of the system in two cases:
1. There is a sudden generation loss in the power system
2. There is a high penetration of intermittent wind power in the system
Industrial collaboration sought:
• Companies/organisations operating alkaline electrolysers from renewable primary sources could assist our modelling by supplying data
• Engagement with companies wishing to invest in hydrogen filling station networks on how to operate the electrolysers to improve the performance of electrical grid especially in relation to the usage of intermittent renewable primary sources.
Contact: david.infield@strath.ac.uk

Cambridge 1 - Scalable hydrogen liquefaction
Abstract: The transportation of large quantities of hydrogen is one of the main obstacles in the emergence of hydrogen-fuelled infrastructure. Aside of pipeline supply, for which infrastructure is still nascent, liquid hydrogen offers a relatively efficient method of moving significant volumes. Liquid form of hydrogen certainly represents the most volume effective means of transport and storage. However, converting hydrogen gas to hydrogen liquid is far from straightforward.
Cambridge has extensive experience in cryogenics and superconducting materials. Within Supergen XIV, they are using this expertise to design and construct hydrogen liquefiers, which are of a suitable size to liquefy the hydrogen output that might be expected from electrolysis or other hydrogen production technology, in local community. The liquefaction devices they are targeting are little larger than a large domestic fridge -freezer unit. A key part of their strategy in increasing the efficiency of the process is utilising the oxygen also produced in electrolysis as one of the key refrigerants.
Hydrogen liquefaction process assisted by high pressure water electrolysis was considered. A cycle capable of producing variable amounts of liquid hydrogen per day has been modelled. The gain in efficiency is pursued by minimization of feed compressor losses due to the fact that the work of compression of liquid water is less than that for gaseous hydrogen product.
A design based on hydrogen-refrigerated hydrogen liquefaction system with three pre-cooling stages was developed. [Two liquid nitrogen baths (one liquid and one vapour) and hydrogen recycle refrigeration system in combination with J-T expansion valve]. The high pressure oxygen by-product can be used to provide cooling of the buffer refrigerant (nitrogen). Hydrogen output stream from high pressure electrolysis needs is to be subjected to cryo-purification in order to ensure required purity of the feed H2 stream. An appropriate purification unit is also under development.
Innovative aspects: Use of high-pressure oxygen by-product to perform pre-cooling work. Use of cold nitrogen vapour to reduce hydrogen compression temperature.
Main advantages:
• The proposed design reduced the amount of compression work per unit liquefied hydrogen gas leading to improved energy efficiency.
• The proposed design reduces the size of the compression units and thus system cost.
• Added value of compressed oxygen by-product is utilized. The warm oxygen gas can be re-directed for specific users (e.g. hospitals).
• Increased efficiency through optimisation of hydrogen recycling system.
• Offers compact means of developing a decentralised liquid hydrogen supply.
Current stage of development: Prototype design of the system for the hydrogen Lab in Cambridge.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial players involved in hydrogen purification, liquefaction and delivery
Contact: rit21@hermes.cam.ac.uk (Dr Rumen Tomov)

Strathclyde 2 - Storage as ammonia
Abstract: Prof Tao's research group at Strathclyde have developed a technology for the electrochemical synthesis of ammonia. This technology can be used to directly convert renewable electricity from wind, solar, wave and marine sources to ammonia. The energy stored in ammonia can be retrieved via an ammonia fuel cell or by simple decomposition of ammonia to produce hydrogen (and nitrogen). Ammonia can be compressed in liquid at 8 atm which is much easier to store than hydrogen. Therefore, ammonia is a good indirect hydrogen storage material for on-board hydrogen storage for transport applications.
Innovative aspects of the offer: Traditional ammonia synthesis by Haber-Bosch Process has to be carried out on a large scale, at high temperature and pressure. The electrochemical synthesis can be carried out on any small scale and at atmospheric pressure. High temperature is not required either. The electrochemical cells for ammonia synthesis can be operated in a 'start-stop' mode.
Main advantages: To provide an alternative solution to the management of intermittence of renewable energy. Extra electricity generated by renewable energy can be used to produce valuable chemicals such as ammonia. This offers potential benefits in terms of security of fuel supply and decentralisation, while the energy density of liquid ammonia allows much more energy to be cheaply and easily stored than is the case with hydrogen gas.
Current stage of development: The technology is at early stage, ammonia has been thus produced but to date only in small quantities.
Industrial collaboration sought: Enquiries are sought from potential partners in developing small scale ammonia generation plant with interests in; renewables, using the ammonia as a form of hydrogen storage and for other purposes.
Contact: shanwen.tao@strath.ac.uk

Socio-Technical Analysis

Abstract: At the Low Carbon Research Institute (LCRI) in the Welsh School of Architecture (WSA) at Cardiff University work is being undertaken on the social, economic, environmental and technical processes that will help or hinder the potential uptake of sustainable hydrogen - called the socio-technical analysis.
The objective of this work is to see how the Supergen XIV Consortium (and the UK as a whole) can more effectively promote the sustainable innovation, knowledge transfer, commercialisation and rapid uptake of hydrogen as part of the transition to a low carbon economy. This is being done via 'participatory technology assessment'. Here, individual interviews and deliberative workshops with hydrogen practitioners and researchers as well as industry data are revealing a rich mixture of qualitative and quantitative information.
The team is currently using an online version of the 'Delphi' survey process - an in-depth questionnaire that is repeated as opinions become more focussed. This helps to characterise and describe the expectations individuals have about future hydrogen production technologies and post-production conversion processes. Questions cover inputs and outputs, indicative conversion efficiencies and operating ranges, energy and environmental impacts, projected costs, scale of scale of operation, potential safety and systems integrations issues. In the team's final analysis, particular attention will be paid to how individuals assess uncertainties, technological risks and the potential for learning effects.
Team members are also comparing two national case studies, the UK and Germany, and the hydrogen from biomass sector in the UK. This is in terms of evidence for working models from the 'innovation systems' literature. This suggests that the presence or absence of certain key entrepreneurial functions in any economic system - here it is the global manufacture of sustainable hydrogen - will help to expose, in policy terms, which processes a national government needs to support in order to boost hydrogen's contribution to the national energy mix and even, ultimately, make a 'technological transition' to an energy system dominated by renewable and hydrogen. The team's resulting analysis from will therefore be a series of specific policy recommendations for government and industry for research, policy and industrial development.
Current stage of development and outlook:
Currently the Delphi survey is in its second round stage. It has had over 100 completed responses and analysis is due in the coming months. Similarly, data is still being gathered the case studies from Germany and the UK - the target for 50 completed interviews is more than half way complete - and the interviews and analysis into the hydrogen from biomass sector continue. The team anticipates running a workshop and conference with industrial and commercial partners, amongst others, in 2012. After this, the team will begin synthesising key messages from all the data and identifying recommendations for future research, policy and industrial development in its final reports.
Industrial collaboration sought:
Industrial/commercial partners are welcome, at any stage, to participate in our development of best practice and policy guidance for managing a transition pathway towards greater hydrogen uptake in the economy.
Contact:
Professor Malcolm Eames (eamesm@cardiff.ac.uk), Nick Hacking (hackingn@cardiff.ac.uk)

Imperial College 2 - Techno-economic assessment of novel hydrogen production technologies
Abstract: ICEPT (Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology) is assessing the economic and environmental sustainability potential of advanced H2 production and delivery technologies, particularly with emphasis on those being developed by the H-Delivery consortium. The analysis is supported by techno-economic scenario modelling of H2 demand and supply (see below for a schematic representation of the modelling methodology) and uses a case study approach. Case studies selected so far are London and South Wales; in the case studies the emphasis is on on-site and decentralised H2 production and delivery infrastructures.
In parallel, optimisation modelling techniques are also being used for UK-wide analysis, particularly with regard to the economics and logistics of large-scale gasification of carbonaceous feedstock and also the potential role of H2 for large-scale energy storage in the UK.
Innovative aspects: Although similar studies have been carried out before, they have mainly focussed on conventional H2 production pathways and not on novel ones. Another distinctive feature of our analysis is the emphasis on novel H2 production and delivery technologies as potential enablers of the transition to a large scale use of sustainable H2. Moreover, we address specific UK case studies of particular interest which had not been analysed before in a similar way. Finally, we devote particular efforts to the analysis of waste-to-hydrogen pathways, which have so far received comparatively little attention and are potentially very promising.
Key outputs expected: The analysis conducted aims to achieve a number of important objectives:
• To assess the potential role of a range of novel H2 production technologies, particularly during the early phases of the transition to large-scale use of H2
• To identify key areas for further development of these technologies, thus contributing to inform future R&D activity plans
• To identify key challenges to the development of economically and environmentally sustainable H2 infrastructures, thus contributing to the development of national strategies on H2
• By conducting key case study, to also inform local plans for the development of H2 infrastructures
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial/Commercial partners are sought with a view to extend the analysis to more prospective H2 production and delivery technologies as well as other regions.
Contact: marcello.contestabile@imperial.ac.uk
Exploitation Route Newcastle 1 - Novel process for pure hydrogen production using syngas and water, with inherent separation, using chemical looping
Abstract: Researchers at Newcastle University, led by Prof Ian Metcalfe, have developed a novel technology, using a process called chemical looping, for the production of two pure AND separate streams of hydrogen and syngas directly from natural gas and water. The syngas produced by this process can be used as a reactant for methanol or ethylene synthesis.
An auto thermal chemical looping process, a solid metal oxide such as iron oxide is utilised to transfer oxygen between two or more gaseous streams without allowing the streams to mix. Being autothermal, the process avoids the need for additional energy input.
Innovative aspects:
A novel iron-containing perovskite material has been shown to operate for a higher number of chemical looping cycles than the previous best known materials. The inclusion of an air step provides heat to the system from the further oxidation of the metal oxide. Potentially useful additional heat is made.
Main advantages:
• The proposed process eliminates any separation steps as the hydrogen and syngas streams are inherently separated.
• Lower processing costs by removing the requirement of a separation process,
• Overall, the system can produce pure hydrogen and syngas from only natural gas, water and air in an overall exothermic system. The advantages of this are the useful products that are synthesised from cheap reactants and the possibility of producing useful heat.
• Another advantage of the system is that the syngas produced is in the molar ratio of 2:1 of hydrogen to carbon monoxide, which is perfect for Fischer Tropsch reactions to produce useful products such as methanol and ethylene.
• The advantage of performing this step compared to other combustion techniques is that the carbon dioxide would be ready for carbon capture and storage following a simple condensation step.
Current stage of development and outlook:
• A major barrier to this type of technology previously has been the inability of earlier oxygen carrier materials*to undergo repeated cycling without mechanical collapse. *(iron oxide-based)
• A perovskite-type mixed metal oxide has shown no loss in performance over 150 cycles
• The perovskite material has out-performed the current best oxygen carrier material
• The production of other useful products (e.g. ethylene) are being investigated.
Industrial collaboration sought: So far, work has involved the use of a microreactor and gas analysis systems to accurately measure production rates, but the process can be used in either a packed bed or circulating fluidised bed as a small unit (in a hydrogen fuelling station) or a large unit (in an industrial process). Collaboration with an experienced industrial partner is required to further understand the requirements and procedures for up-scaling.
Contact: ian.metcalfe@newcastle.ac.uk

Leeds 1 - Hydrogen from Bio-oils
Abstract: Dr Valerie DuPont's group at Leeds have investigated bio-oils derived from pine and empty palm bunch fruits (EPBF)) as resources for hydrogen production via sorption enhanced steam reforming and chemical looping reforming, using standard catalysts such as Nickel. Such bio-oils have low calorific values and are complex mixtures of organic compounds including acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters and phenolic compounds, and thus have limited applications for combustion in boilers and turbine engines. Many agricultural and forestry wastes can be recycled into bio-oils.
Innovative aspects: This group is the first to demonstrate the use of bio-oils in sorption enhanced steam reforming and chemical looping reforming. The complexity of the mixture of bio-oil is difficult to deal with (e.g. left-over tar from reactants and deposited on catalysts etc). By thermodynamic modelling of each compounds and identifying the optimal operating conditions, this group are able to modify the process parameters and reactor design to enable hydrogen production.
Furthermore, this work can be extended to work with the aqueous phase of bio-oil with methane (or any HC), to produce hydrogen, using sorption enhanced steam reforming and chemical looping reforming.
Main advantages:
• Utilisation of waste oils and conversion into hydrogen as an energy carrier
• Utilisation of aqueous phase of bio-oils, which are waste products during upgrade of bio-oils to bi-fuels, to convert into hydrogen as an energy carrier.
• Low temperature processes and other optimised parameters leading to high energy efficiencies
Current stage of development and outlook: Hydrogen production from bio-oils using pine and EPFB has already been demonstrated. The group is looking to work with the aqueous phase of bio-oil.
Industrial collaboration sought: The group is looking to collaborate with industrial partners interested in hydrogen production from sustainable sources and companies producing bio-oils interested in upgrade of bio-oils to bio-fuels.
Contact: V.Dupont@leeds.ac.uk,

Leeds2 - Bi/tri metallic catalysts to produce hydrogen from tyre pyrolysis
Abstract: Dr Valerie DuPont's group at Leeds have developed novel materials (bi- and tri-metallic catalysts). These act as oxygen transfer materials as well as catalysts for the steam reforming reaction with recalcitrant feedstock (e.g. waste lubricant oils and waste tyre pyrolysis oils). The group have optimised the performance of these catalysts using chosen materials Ni-Co/Al2O3 and Ni-Co-Ce/Al2O3 for hydrogen production. The chemical looping process, when applied to catalytic steam reforming process, permits higher yields of hydrogen, economically and with lower environmental costs.
Innovative aspects: Development of bi/tri metallic catalysts which act as oxygen transfer materials as well as catalysts. Traditionally, such catalysts (Ni-Co) have been studied with methane, while Ni-Co-Ce hasn't been studied. The novel aspect is to get these catalysts to work with complex HC feed stocks.
Advantages: The novel catalysts offer high performance and at the same time enable an autothermal reaction minimising the use of external heat. Waste oils from many sources including the food industry and problematic waste such as used tyres can be used as feedstock.
Current stage of development and outlook: The Ni-Co and Ni-Co-Ce catalysts have been optimised for performance using methane as feedstock. The next step is to optimise the process using oils derived from waste lubricants and tyre pyrolysis oils as the primary feedstock.
Industrial collaboration sought:
Collaboration/sponsorship is sought from businesses involved in the production and/or disposal of problematic hydrocarbon-based waste materials and/or the development of novel chemical plant and energy systems.
Contact: V.Dupont@leeds.ac.uk,

Manchester 1 - Plasma-assisted catalysis technology for hydrogen production from methane conversion
Abstract: Prof. Whitehead's group at Manchester have long-standing expertise in the area of plasma-assisted catalysis, which offers an environmental-friendly option for the efficient conversion of biogas or landfill gas into hydrogen and value-added chemicals (carbon nanofibres, oxygenates, etc). The hybrid process under development is based on the combination of atmospheric plasma and heterogeneous catalysis. The interactions between the plasma and catalyst can generate a synergistic effect, which provides a unique way to separate the activation steps from the selective reactions at low temperatures. Plasma-catalytic dry reforming of CH4 with CO2 is a promising route to sustainable production of H2 and CO.
Innovative aspects: Deals with two major green-house gases (CH4 and CO2) converting them into hydrogen and other value-added co-products (carbon nanofibres) at low temperatures. The catalysts can be regenerated and activated in-situ by non-thermal plasma at low temperatures.
Main advantages :
• Production of hydrogen and value-added co-products such as carbon nanofibres, C2, methanol.
• Improved selectivity towards desired products can be achieved using optimal catalyst combined with plasma.
• Production can be carried out at low temperature (e.g. 200 oC) with very high reaction rates.
• Plasma-cat technology breaks the barrier of thermodynamic equilibrium of a chemical reaction.
• The catalyst can be reduced, activated and regenerated by non-thermal plasma at low temperatures (e.g. 200 oC)
• The integrated plasma-catalysis system is compact and flexible for installation.
Current stage of development and outlook: Process development has been carrying out to optimize the lab-scale integrated plasma-catalysis system in terms of reaction performance. Catalyst screening has been operating to get an optimal, low cost and stable catalyst for this reaction.
Industrial collaboration sought: Collaboration or co-development in system scale-up for industrial applications and plasma technology for environmental and renewable energy applications (not limited to methane conversion), for example, CO2 reduction, waste oil treatment.
Contact: j.c.whitehead@manchester.ac.uk

St. Andrews 1 - High-temperature steam electrolysis
Abstract: Researchers at St. Andrews have developed new ceramic materials (lanthanum-doped strontium titanate oxide perovskite) based electrode materials for use in efficient steam electrolysis and simplified electrolyser design - without the inherent drawbacks of nickel-based cermets.
Quality waste heat from other processes can be used to reduce the electrical demand of electrolysis significantly thus increasing the efficiency of a combined system. Use of such a secondary energy input source can lead to an electrical efficiency of over 100%, however likely operating parameters suggest that a typical electrical efficiency will be ca. 100%. Electrolysis of steam also generates high purity O2 as a secondary saleable commodity.
Innovative aspects: The ceramic oxides being developed can be fine-tuned via chemical doping to suit the highly reducing conditions experienced during steam electrolysis. In contrast, the chemistry of the current benchmark nickel cermet electrode is fixed and cannot be tailored specifically for steam electrolysis. The novelty of our approach lies in the strategies for the formulation and design of materials structure in order to achieve better performance, stability and facilitate processing.
Main advantages:
• Simplified electrolyser design and hydrogen savings under standby conditions. The redox and dimensional stability of the ceramic oxides being developed means that protecting hydrogen is not required for the electrode when at standby, unlike the nickel-cermet electrode.
• Extended device lifetime in comparison with the state-of-the-art. Ceramic oxides are not expected to suffer from the problem of coarsening often associated with the nickel-cermet.
Current stage of development and outlook: The research group have been undertaking laboratory research for about two and half years, with all ceramic oxide compositions being synthesised and tested in-house.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial partners (e.g. electrolyser and wind energy producers are sought for scale-up from current 1 cm2 electrodes to, for example, 16 cm2 electrodes and then to integrate these electrodes into an electrolyser stack. Prototype electrolyser stacks could then be coupled to a wind turbine to produce hydrogen at times of excess wind power.
Contact: jtsi@st-andrews.ac.uk (Prof John Irvine)

St. Andrews 2 - High-temperature Carbon Dioxide electrolysis
Abstract: Researchers at St. Andrews have developed new ceramic based catalyst materials for the electrolysis of carbon dioxide. Electrolysis of carbon dioxide yields carbon monoxide (CO), an important feedstock in the industrial synthesis of a wide range of chemical products. This offers a way to turn waste CO2 into a useful product, while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions. Electrolysis of CO2 also generates high purity O2, which has a significant market in its own right.
Research in this part of the project focuses on the utilisation of oxide materials including (La,Sr)(Cr,Mn)O3, a perovskite-structured material and GdxCe1-xO2 ceramic, which has previously demonstrated promise as a fuel electrode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These oxides are advantageous over the conventional Ni-based material in terms of superior carbon resistance and redox stability.
Carbon dioxide electrolysis provides a means to store CO2 gas, as the CO produced can be used as raw material for synthetic fuel production (diesel, kerosene, etc.), an organic chemicals precursor or as a fuel in itself (town gas being a mixture of CO and hydrogen). Similar to steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis could be cost-effective when electricity price is low during times of wind energy excess to store/convert the excess into alternative products/fuels.
Innovative aspects: The materials being studied exhibit lower cell resistance and higher faraday efficiency in various CO2/CO mixtures for CO2 electrolysis. Additional catalyst impregnation is seen to improve catalytic activity towards CO2 electrolysis.
Main advantages: The ceramic materials being investigated are versatile in CO2/CO atmospheres, unlike Ni-cermet materials which suffer from carbon deposition and redox instability under identical conditions.
Current stage of development and outlook: Laboratory research
Industrial collaboration sought: The research group seeks industrial partners building electrolysers, wind energy producers and synthetic fuels producers to further test the materials and scale-up.
Contact: jtsi@st-andrews.ac.uk (Prof John Irvine)

Warwick 1 - Production of hydrogen using organometallic catalysts from alcohols
Abstract: Prof. Martin Wills' group at Warwick have developed organometallic catalysts capable of generating hydrogen directly from organic molecules such as sugars, glycerol, alcohols, formic acid, etc. at the low temperatures and with the highest possible yield per unit time.
Expertise in the catalysis of organic reactions, particularly asymmetric transformations such as ketone and imine reductions have been used in the application of organometallic catalysts to organic transformations, to dehydrogenate alcohols to form ketones and aldehydes together with hydrogen gas. Depending on the type of alcohol processed, in some cases the waste products (ketones and aldehydes) are likely to be useful in their own right as these are also potential fuels, useful solvents, antifreeze materials or chemical precursors. Pre-project work involved scale-up of their earlier lab-scale efforts and to produce enough hydrogen to run one of the University of Birmingham's hydrogen vehicles - proving that the idea works.
Innovative aspects: The asymmetric transformations offer potential to form high-value products. The hydrogen-generation catalysts offer the potential for production of hydrogen under mild conditions
Main advantages:
• Milder conditions for hydrogen generation and potential photocatalysis of the reactions.
• Production of other chemical feedstocks.
• Asymmetric synthesis may be of interest to relatively low volume, high value products such as pharmaceuticals.
Current stage of development and outlook: Extensive laboratory screening of catalysts identifying many useful candidates. Process (hydrogen from formic acid) has been converted to a low scale continuous process. Early stage work incorporating otherwise liquid phase catalysts into solid phase polymers.
Industrial collaboration sought: Our client seeks industrial partners to support with the further development of catalysts and testing, including a prototype, to achieve close to market position.
Contact: M.Wills@warwick.ac.uk

Oxford 1 - CO-free hydrogen production by low temperature reforming of methanol or related organic molecules
Abstract: Prof. Edman Tsang's team at Oxford have developed an innovative process involves Non-Syngas Direct Stream Reformation of methanol and other organic molecules at low temperature for catalytic production of hydrogen. This system can supply high quality hydrogen gas without CO contamination for small mobile units such as PEM fuel cell devices. High energy density liquid methanol or related organic molecules can be stored in reservoir tank and be in-situ converted to hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas when required.
The Non-Syngas Direct Steam Reforming (NSGDSR) route over new proprietary catalysts for the conversion methanol or related organic molecules to hydrogen and carbon dioxide is carried out at 150-200oC. This new route is in sharp contrast with the conventional cumbersome route involving high temperature steam reformation to syngas, followed by water gas shift and CO cleanup stages for the hydrogen production. A high quality of hydrogen with CO content lower than 10ppm in the gas stream can be produced in a single step reaction, which can be used to supply PEM fuel cells for mobile applications without invoking any CO shift and cleanup stages
Innovative aspects of the offer:
• A direct low temperature catalytic steam reformation of methanol or related organic molecules to CO2/H2
• < 200oC
• Direct hydrogen supply - Free from CO contaminant
• Can couple directly to PEM fuel cells without CO cleanup
• Proprietary solid catalysts are active and selective for this reaction
Main advantages:
In-situ catalytic hydrogen production from high energy and volume density liquid organic molecules to supply mobile PEM fuel cells devices without the need for hydrogen gas store.
CO-free hydrogen is ideal fuel vector for clean energy utilization.
Current stage of development: Hydrogen production rate of 393.6 mL/g-cat/hour at 150oC from methanol-water with CO content lower than 10ppm.
Industrial collaboration sought: Open to discussion with interested companies for collaboration.
Contact: edman.tsang@chem.ox.ac.uk

Imperial College 1 - Catalytic Hollow Fiber Membrane Micro-Reactors (CHFMMR) for high purity hydrogen production.
Abstract: Imperial College London have developed a range of Catalytic Hollow Fiber Membrane Micro-Reactors (CHFMMR). Combination of these novel reactors with appropriate catalysts results in reaction-tunable micro-reforming devices. The devices can be manifolded and built up into arrays offering a highly scalable and compact solution for use particularly in applications requiring small-scale efficient hydrogen/gas production. Larger scale production can also be obtained by adding additional tube-array blocks.
High purity COX free H2 has been produced in the CHFMMR by different heterogeneously catalysed gas phase reactions such as: water gas shift (WGS), dry reforming of methane (DRM), ethanol steam reforming (ESR) and methanol steam reforming (MSR). Asymmetric ceramic hollow fibres, fabricated by a phase-inversion technique following by sintering at high temperature, have been employed as a single substrate for combining both Pd-based membrane and catalyst in the development of CHFMMR. Although developed in the course of this research for hydrogen production, the micro-reactors can equally provide similar compact production of other gas species when combined with appropriate catalysts and separation membranes.
Innovative aspects: The use of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibres as a support for both Pd-based membrane and catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic gas phase reactions enables faster and easier development of the membrane-micro-reactor technology.
Main advantages: The CHFMMR can be proposed as an alternative reactor to produce high purity H2, since it offers important advantages over conventional systems (CMR etc), such as:
• The possibility of working at significantly lower temperatures and/or using less catalyst.
• Combining the processes of generating and separation of H2 in a single step.
• The high surface area/volume of the ceramic hollow fibres allows for more economical large-scale COX free H2 production.
• The micro-channels structure of the ceramic hollow fibres results in a more efficient utilization of the catalyst deposited on their walls.
• The combination of high chemical, thermal & mechanical durability of the alumina ceramic makes it attractive for a number of reactions under very different operating conditions.
• The alumina micro-reactors show insignificant heat loss by conduction.
Current stage of development and outlook: The micro-tube fabrication techniques have been developed to reliably produce a consistent product. Impregnation techniques are developed to offer a wide-range of in-situ catalyst options. Separation membrane deposition techniques have been successfully developed. High efficiency hydrogen (and other gas) production has been observed. Prototype bundles (arrays) of tubes have been successfully operated and tested in concert. Micro-tubes have been successfully manufactured using alternative ceramics.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial/Commercial partners are sought to develop prototype devices suitable for in-situ hydrogen production and other applications.
Contact: kang.li@imperial.ac.uk

Newcastle 2 - Production of Pure Hydrogen by Chemical Looping from water, using microtubular perovskite membranes
Abstract: Researchers at Newcastle University, led by Prof. Ian Metcalfe, have developed a novel technology for the continuous production of hydrogen and syngas using mixed conducting perovskite membrane. The process offers inherent separation of hydrogen from syngas streams.
The membrane system used in this project is operated to produce hydrogen and syngas, combining POM (partial oxidation of methane) with simultaneous water splitting where the oxygen for the POM reaction is supplied from water. Perovskite membranes when exposed to oxygen at elevated temperatures can transport oxide ions from the high partial pressure side to the low partial pressure side. This results in overall steam reforming of methane.
Innovative aspects: This process produces pure hydrogen and syngas at different streams as water and methane are never mixed during the process.
Main advantages:
• Production of pure hydrogen as only oxygen ions can be transported through the membrane
• Hydrogen separation step is not required, consequently lowering process costs
Current stage of development: Membrane stability and the lifetime of the perovskite membranes due to degradation is a key challenge. Currently, the stability of the membrane is being carefully studied, and the membrane system has been operated for over 400 hours producing hydrogen and syngas. In addition, an autothermal membrane process using only air, water and methane to produce pure hydrogen and syngas is under investigation.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial partners interested in scale up following further R&D and establishing membrane stability.
Contact: ian.metcalfe@newcastle.ac.uk

Cardiff 1 - Hydrogen Separation using Micro-Porous Polymers
Abstract: A unique offering of a patent-pending technology for hydrogen separation. Prof Neil McKeown's group at Cardiff have developed polymers with micro-porosity (Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity- PIMS) capable of gas separation including hydrogen. PIMS contain holes or pores of a molecular scale specifically designed to allow hydrogen to pass easily through them, whilst blocking larger molecules.
Innovative aspects: A new class of microporous polymer has been developed that contains amine functionality to selectively bind to CO2. Deliberate structuring of the polymers offers the ability to tune the materials to separate different gas mixtures.
Main advantages:
• Greater selectivity for CO2 over H2 and CH4 is anticipated.
• Cost effective when scaled-up in comparison with conventional palladium based alloys - polymers can be made in large continuous rolls.
• High purity gas output.
Current stage of development and outlook: Synthesis of large number of polymers using the new methodology and that high mass polymer can be obtained has been demonstrated. Gas separation testing is providing encouraging performance results. Patents have been applied for.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial partners working on gas separation, carbon capture and water purification using solid substrates or membranes.
Contact: MckeownNB@cardiff.ac.uk (Neil)

Birmingham 1 - Hydrogen Separation using Improved Metallic Membranes
Abstract: Dr David Book's group at Birmingham University have developed an improved metallic membrane based on palladium alloys for separating hydrogen from other gases, in a cheaper and more efficient manner.
Hydrogen produced via reformation can contain large quantities of impurity gases such as CO and CO2, which must be removed before the hydrogen can be used, particularly in PEM type fuel cells which can be badly damaged by some of these impurities. Hydrogen selectively diffuses through the crystal lattice of palladium and certain palladium alloys, leaving the impurity gas species behind. The reformation process can be combined with membrane separation in a 'membrane reactor'.
Thin-metal membranes are compact, have a low capital cost and offer a one-stage high-purity hydrogen output. However, current alloys used (e.g. Pd-Ag) are relatively thick at 25 microns and need to be operated at high temperatures, leading to high material and operating costs.
Innovative aspects:
Birmingham University's Hydrogen Materials Group have developed novel thin-film composite membranes - consisting of Pd-Rare-Earth alloys sputtered onto surface-treated porous substrates with an interdiffusion barrier layer. These offer significant improvement over conventional metallic membranes in terms of high-temperature stability and durability. These alloys have been shown to be three times more permeable to hydrogen and to also have superior mechanical properties.
Main advantages:
• High purity hydrogen following separation
• Reasonable tolerance to impurities such as sulphur
• Target operating temperatures of 250 deg. C
• Can be deposited as thin films on a range of porous substrates
• Markedly reduced precious metals cost
Current stage of development and outlook: Current work focuses on cost reduction and improving the resilience of the membrane. Magnetron sputtering is being used to deposit novel Pd alloy thin films (3 micron) onto porous metal or ceramic substrates. The use of interdiffusion barrier layers are also being investigated. The membranes are being assessed on a membrane test rig, which measures gas-flow, pressure and gas composition.
Industrial collaboration sought: Client is looking for industrial partners with an interest in gas separation and/or hydrogen production, to further develop these technologies.
Contact: d.book@bham.ac.uk

Strathclyde 1 - Wide Scale Distributed Electrolysis and the Grid
Abstract: Research involves investigation of the impact of large scale alkaline electrolysis plants on the performance of electrical grid and finding innovative control strategies to run the electrolysers in a way to improve the performance of the electrical power system. In particular it addresses the demand side management potential of highly distributed electrolyser loads connected to the UK electricity system. The potential aggregated electrical load of such future electrolyser plants could be considerable and modelling/predicting its effect is important.
The work analyses the use of such a 'controllable load' for frequency reserve, load levelling, the reduction of power station emissions via reduction of 'spinning reserve', improved energy trading and similar items/issues.
In our electrical power system models, electrolysers are used as dynamic demand to improve the frequency stability of the electrical grid while there is a high penetration of wind power in the system. In another work, the size and the location of the electrolysers in the electrical power system is optimised to achieve a 2.9% reduction in the aggregate electrical transmission losses of a power system in presence of wind farms.
Innovative aspects:
• New strategies to run electrolysers and select their size and locations in the grid to improve the performance of the electrical grid
• New control strategies used to run the electrolysers to reduce the frequency fluctuations in the electrical power system in the presence of high penetration of wind power.
Main advantages:
• Frequency stability improvement of the electrical grid using alkaline electrolysers
• Transmission loss reduction in the electrical power system using Alkaline Electrolysers
Current stage of development and outlook:
• Electrolysers are modelled in A UKGDS (United Kingdom Generic Distribution system) network - it is shown that electrolysers are able to reduce system transmission losses if they are sized and located properly and an appropriate control strategy is adopted.
• A model of the steam turbine generator is used to find out the impact of the electrolysers as dynamic loads on the frequency stability of the system, and it is observed that these electrolysers can help in stability of the frequency of the system in two cases:
1. There is a sudden generation loss in the power system
2. There is a high penetration of intermittent wind power in the system
Industrial collaboration sought:
• Companies/organisations operating alkaline electrolysers from renewable primary sources could assist our modelling by supplying data
• Engagement with companies wishing to invest in hydrogen filling station networks on how to operate the electrolysers to improve the performance of electrical grid especially in relation to the usage of intermittent renewable primary sources.
Contact: david.infield@strath.ac.uk

Cambridge 1 - Scalable hydrogen liquefaction
Abstract: The transportation of large quantities of hydrogen is one of the main obstacles in the emergence of hydrogen-fuelled infrastructure. Aside of pipeline supply, for which infrastructure is still nascent, liquid hydrogen offers a relatively efficient method of moving significant volumes. Liquid form of hydrogen certainly represents the most volume effective means of transport and storage. However, converting hydrogen gas to hydrogen liquid is far from straightforward.
Cambridge has extensive experience in cryogenics and superconducting materials. Within Supergen XIV, they are using this expertise to design and construct hydrogen liquefiers, which are of a suitable size to liquefy the hydrogen output that might be expected from electrolysis or other hydrogen production technology, in local community. The liquefaction devices they are targeting are little larger than a large domestic fridge -freezer unit. A key part of their strategy in increasing the efficiency of the process is utilising the oxygen also produced in electrolysis as one of the key refrigerants.
Hydrogen liquefaction process assisted by high pressure water electrolysis was considered. A cycle capable of producing variable amounts of liquid hydrogen per day has been modelled. The gain in efficiency is pursued by minimization of feed compressor losses due to the fact that the work of compression of liquid water is less than that for gaseous hydrogen product.
A design based on hydrogen-refrigerated hydrogen liquefaction system with three pre-cooling stages was developed. [Two liquid nitrogen baths (one liquid and one vapour) and hydrogen recycle refrigeration system in combination with J-T expansion valve]. The high pressure oxygen by-product can be used to provide cooling of the buffer refrigerant (nitrogen). Hydrogen output stream from high pressure electrolysis needs is to be subjected to cryo-purification in order to ensure required purity of the feed H2 stream. An appropriate purification unit is also under development.
Innovative aspects: Use of high-pressure oxygen by-product to perform pre-cooling work. Use of cold nitrogen vapour to reduce hydrogen compression temperature.
Main advantages:
• The proposed design reduced the amount of compression work per unit liquefied hydrogen gas leading to improved energy efficiency.
• The proposed design reduces the size of the compression units and thus system cost.
• Added value of compressed oxygen by-product is utilized. The warm oxygen gas can be re-directed for specific users (e.g. hospitals).
• Increased efficiency through optimisation of hydrogen recycling system.
• Offers compact means of developing a decentralised liquid hydrogen supply.
Current stage of development: Prototype design of the system for the hydrogen Lab in Cambridge.
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial players involved in hydrogen purification, liquefaction and delivery
Contact: rit21@hermes.cam.ac.uk (Dr Rumen Tomov)

Strathclyde 2 - Storage as ammonia
Abstract: Prof Tao's research group at Strathclyde have developed a technology for the electrochemical synthesis of ammonia. This technology can be used to directly convert renewable electricity from wind, solar, wave and marine sources to ammonia. The energy stored in ammonia can be retrieved via an ammonia fuel cell or by simple decomposition of ammonia to produce hydrogen (and nitrogen). Ammonia can be compressed in liquid at 8 atm which is much easier to store than hydrogen. Therefore, ammonia is a good indirect hydrogen storage material for on-board hydrogen storage for transport applications.
Innovative aspects of the offer: Traditional ammonia synthesis by Haber-Bosch Process has to be carried out on a large scale, at high temperature and pressure. The electrochemical synthesis can be carried out on any small scale and at atmospheric pressure. High temperature is not required either. The electrochemical cells for ammonia synthesis can be operated in a 'start-stop' mode.
Main advantages: To provide an alternative solution to the management of intermittence of renewable energy. Extra electricity generated by renewable energy can be used to produce valuable chemicals such as ammonia. This offers potential benefits in terms of security of fuel supply and decentralisation, while the energy density of liquid ammonia allows much more energy to be cheaply and easily stored than is the case with hydrogen gas.
Current stage of development: The technology is at early stage, ammonia has been thus produced but to date only in small quantities.
Industrial collaboration sought: Enquiries are sought from potential partners in developing small scale ammonia generation plant with interests in; renewables, using the ammonia as a form of hydrogen storage and for other purposes.
Contact: shanwen.tao@strath.ac.uk

Socio-Technical Analysis

Abstract: At the Low Carbon Research Institute (LCRI) in the Welsh School of Architecture (WSA) at Cardiff University work is being undertaken on the social, economic, environmental and technical processes that will help or hinder the potential uptake of sustainable hydrogen - called the socio-technical analysis.
The objective of this work is to see how the Supergen XIV Consortium (and the UK as a whole) can more effectively promote the sustainable innovation, knowledge transfer, commercialisation and rapid uptake of hydrogen as part of the transition to a low carbon economy. This is being done via 'participatory technology assessment'. Here, individual interviews and deliberative workshops with hydrogen practitioners and researchers as well as industry data are revealing a rich mixture of qualitative and quantitative information.
The team is currently using an online version of the 'Delphi' survey process - an in-depth questionnaire that is repeated as opinions become more focussed. This helps to characterise and describe the expectations individuals have about future hydrogen production technologies and post-production conversion processes. Questions cover inputs and outputs, indicative conversion efficiencies and operating ranges, energy and environmental impacts, projected costs, scale of scale of operation, potential safety and systems integrations issues. In the team's final analysis, particular attention will be paid to how individuals assess uncertainties, technological risks and the potential for learning effects.
Team members are also comparing two national case studies, the UK and Germany, and the hydrogen from biomass sector in the UK. This is in terms of evidence for working models from the 'innovation systems' literature. This suggests that the presence or absence of certain key entrepreneurial functions in any economic system - here it is the global manufacture of sustainable hydrogen - will help to expose, in policy terms, which processes a national government needs to support in order to boost hydrogen's contribution to the national energy mix and even, ultimately, make a 'technological transition' to an energy system dominated by renewable and hydrogen. The team's resulting analysis from will therefore be a series of specific policy recommendations for government and industry for research, policy and industrial development.
Current stage of development and outlook:
Currently the Delphi survey is in its second round stage. It has had over 100 completed responses and analysis is due in the coming months. Similarly, data is still being gathered the case studies from Germany and the UK - the target for 50 completed interviews is more than half way complete - and the interviews and analysis into the hydrogen from biomass sector continue. The team anticipates running a workshop and conference with industrial and commercial partners, amongst others, in 2012. After this, the team will begin synthesising key messages from all the data and identifying recommendations for future research, policy and industrial development in its final reports.
Industrial collaboration sought:
Industrial/commercial partners are welcome, at any stage, to participate in our development of best practice and policy guidance for managing a transition pathway towards greater hydrogen uptake in the economy.
Contact:
Professor Malcolm Eames (eamesm@cardiff.ac.uk), Nick Hacking (hackingn@cardiff.ac.uk)

Imperial College 2 - Techno-economic assessment of novel hydrogen production technologies
Abstract: ICEPT (Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology) is assessing the economic and environmental sustainability potential of advanced H2 production and delivery technologies, particularly with emphasis on those being developed by the H-Delivery consortium. The analysis is supported by techno-economic scenario modelling of H2 demand and supply (see below for a schematic representation of the modelling methodology) and uses a case study approach. Case studies selected so far are London and South Wales; in the case studies the emphasis is on on-site and decentralised H2 production and delivery infrastructures.
In parallel, optimisation modelling techniques are also being used for UK-wide analysis, particularly with regard to the economics and logistics of large-scale gasification of carbonaceous feedstock and also the potential role of H2 for large-scale energy storage in the UK.
Innovative aspects: Although similar studies have been carried out before, they have mainly focussed on conventional H2 production pathways and not on novel ones. Another distinctive feature of our analysis is the emphasis on novel H2 production and delivery technologies as potential enablers of the transition to a large scale use of sustainable H2. Moreover, we address specific UK case studies of particular interest which had not been analysed before in a similar way. Finally, we devote particular efforts to the analysis of waste-to-hydrogen pathways, which have so far received comparatively little attention and are potentially very promising.
Key outputs expected: The analysis conducted aims to achieve a number of important objectives:
• To assess the potential role of a range of novel H2 production technologies, particularly during the early phases of the transition to large-scale use of H2
• To identify key areas for further development of these technologies, thus contributing to inform future R&D activity plans
• To identify key challenges to the development of economically and environmentally sustainable H2 infrastructures, thus contributing to the development of national strategies on H2
• By conducting key case study, to also inform local plans for the development of H2 infrastructures
Industrial collaboration sought: Industrial/Commercial partners are sought with a view to extend the analysis to more prospective H2 production and delivery technologies as well as other regions.
Contact: marcello.contestabile@imperial.ac.uk
Sectors Chemicals,Energy,Environment,Transport

URL http://www.supergen14.org/
 
Description The findings have been used to generate IP - three patent applications.
Sector Chemicals,Energy
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Iron catalysts for hydroegn borrowing and light-promoted amide formation
Amount £91,000 (GBP)
Funding ID voucher 12440593 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Oxidation reactions asssisted by energy from sunlight
Amount £173,526 (GBP)
Funding ID RPG-374 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Oxidation reactions asssisted by energy from sunlight
Amount £173,526 (GBP)
Funding ID RPG-374 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Collaboration with Force Company 
Organisation Force Company
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Daniel Chade has received some electrodes (raney nickel electrodes) from FORCE company, and he is carrying out experiments on them.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with NEL Hydrogen Company 
Organisation NEL Hydrogen Company
Country Norway 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution There was collaboration with NEL Hydrogen to obtain the characteristics of their commercial alkaline electrolyser, and the results were used for modelling of electrolysers in power systems, and also they were published in journal papers.
Start Year 2011
 
Title Polymerisation Method 
Description A method of forming a polymer is provided, the method comprising: Providing a first monomer comprising one or more arom. moieties, the first monomer comprising at least two amino groups, each of the amino groups being attached to an arom. moiety; and contacting said first monomer with formaldehyde or a source of methylene. Polymers made by such a method and uses of such polymers are also described. 
IP Reference WO2012035327 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact -
 
Title Polymers, their method of manufacture and use thereof 
Description A method for the manufacture of a polymer is provided, the method comprising: Providing a first monomer, the first monomer comprising a bicyclic diamine moiety, a first nucleophilic group provided on a carbon atom of an arom. moiety, and a second nucleophilic group provided on a carbon atom of an arom. moiety; Providing a bridging compd. comprising at least two sites vulnerable to nucleophilic attack; and Contacting the first monomer with the bridging compd. Polymers made by said method and uses of such polymers are also disclosed. 
IP Reference WO2012035328 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact -
 
Title Steam reforming of methanol 
Description The invention provides a process for producing H2 by steam reforming of methanol, which process comprises contacting a gas phase comprising (a) CH3OH and (b) H2O with a solid catalyst, which solid catalyst comprises a mixed metal oxide, which mixed metal oxide comprises copper, zinc and gallium, wherein the at. percentage of copper relative to the total no. of metal atoms in the oxide is from 20 at. % to 55 at. %. The solid catalyst itself is also an aspect of the present invention, as is a process for producing the catalyst, which process comprises: (1) a co-pptn. step, comprising contacting: (a) a soln. of copper nitrate, zinc nitrate and gallium nitrate, wherein the at. percentage of copper relative to the total no. of metal atoms in said soln. is from 20 at. % to 55 at. %, with (b) a metal carbonate, to produce a co -ppt. comprising said copper, zinc and gallium; (2) a sepn. step, comprising sepg. the co-ppt. from soln.; (3) a calcination step, comprising calcining the co-ppt. by heating the co-ppt. in air; and, optionally, (4) a redn. step, comprising heating the calcined product in the presence of H2. Further provided is the use of the catalyst of the invention in a process for producing H2 by steam reforming of methanol. Addnl., the invention provides a fuel cell system comprising a fuel cell, such as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, and a methanol reformer comprising a catalyst of the invention. Portable electronic devices comprising a fuel cell system of the invention are also provided. A further aspect of the invention is the use of a catalyst of the invention in a process for producing methanol by the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. Thus, the invention further provides a process for producing methanol by the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, which process comprises contacting a gas phase comprising (a) CO2 and (b) H2, with a catalyst of the invention. 
IP Reference WO2013007993 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact -
 
Description "Carbon dioxide capture from combustion and hydrogen production processes: membranes and periodic reactor operation" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact invited talk at the Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description "High temperature membrane and cyclic processes for hydrogen production with carbon capture" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact invited talk on the current membrane and redox cycling technologies for hydrogen production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description "High temperature membrane and cyclic processes for hydrogen production with carbon capture" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Plenary address to the Taiwanese Chemical Engineering body outlining membrane and chemical looping processes for hydrogen production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description "Innovative energy processes based on ceramic membranes" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar exploring possible new routes to hydrogen production and CO2 capture using state-of-the-art membrane technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description "Is Membrane-based oxyfuel combustion possible?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ELforsk seminar on new advanced combustion technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description "Production of Pure Hydrogen by Gas-Solid Redox Reactions" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact invited talk concerning the possibility of using oxygen carrier materials in redox cycling in processes such as water-gas shift for hydrogen production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description A continuous flow method for hydrogen generation from formic acid 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact poster presentation at 17th International Conference on Homogeneous Catalysis in Poznan, Poland, 4-9 July.

Poster on results from project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Alcohol oxidations and asymmetric ketone reductions with (cyclopentadienone)iron carbonyl complexes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact presentation by Tarn Johnson at ACS national meeting in San Diego march 25-29 2012.

lecture by Tarn Johnson
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Development of new materials for alkaline electrolysers and investigation of the potential electrolysis impact on the UK Electrical Grid 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact There was an invited plenary talk by Andrew Cruden at the 11th World Renewable Energy Congress (WREC), Abu-Dhabi, Sept 2010.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Research lecture 'From Asymmetric Hydrogenation to Hydrogen Generation' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Research lecture delivered at Stockholm University.

Lecture on research work achieved in this project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Sustainability in Transport Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A one day event of presentations and exhibits involving the latest research on transport technology including a hydrogen production from membranes and chemical looping exhibit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The role of alternative fuels and powertrains in a sustainable road transport system 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Marcello Contestabile was invited to deliver a lecture based on his recent research at the IDEA League summer school on mobility in Aachen, Germany. The school was attended by PhD and MSc students from Imperial College, Delft (Netherlands), ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and Aachen University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description lecture entitled: Asymmetric Hydrogenation to Hydrogen Generation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact LEcture contribution to First UK-China workshop on Green Catalysis, held at Peking University from 10-12th January 2011.

Lecture at UK/China workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description lecture on From Asymmetric Hydrogenation to Hydrogen Generation' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact invited lecture describing results from this project.

lecture presentation including hydrogen generation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description poster on Hydrogen generation from alcohols by homogeneous catalysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to 17th International Conference on Homogeneous Catalysis in Poznan, Poland, 4-9 July 2010.

17th International Conference on Homogeneous Catalysis in Poznan, Poland, 4-9 July 2010
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010