Novel technologies for in situ environmental monitoring: linking sensor development to improved pollutant transport models.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Reading
Department Name: Geography and Environmental Sciences

Abstract

The quality of surface waters is becoming of increasing concern worldwide as demand for water grows and population pressures increase. Recognising this, EU legislation (the Water Framework Directive) now requires improvements in the chemical and ecological status of European freshwaters. The primary influences on water quality are biological and chemical reactions in the soils and rocks of water catchment areas, and similar reactions in streams, rivers and lakes. The pathways water takes through catchment areas are also important in determining both the quantity and quality of water in lakes and rivers. All these influences are being affected by environmental change: in climate; in agriculture and other land uses; and in the development of industry, transport and urbanisation. This is in turn affecting water quantity and quality, but predicting the effect of such changes is difficult. Various computer models have been used to predict the effects of these changes, with some success. However, it has been known for some time that they have severe limitations in predicting future trends in water quality: for instance, different models may be equally good at explaining the present situation, but may produce very different predictions when run into the future. One way to develop improved models is to incorporate into them a better understanding of environmental processes which can be achieved through making more detailed environmental measurements on streams and rivers. This in turn requires the development of innovative methods of measurement. The focus of this project is to take advantage of recent developments in analytical science to develop a system for making high-frequency chemical measurements in lakes and rivers which will be cheaper, more reliable under field conditions, and have low power and reagent consumption. This should make it possible to collect much more detailed data, which can then be used to develop improved predictive models, possibly requiring quite new approaches. This is an interdisciplinary project involving chemists, engineers and environmental modellers from the Universities of Reading and Hull, the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology and the Environment Agency.Over the last few years, considerable progress has been made in shrinking and redesigning apparatus used for chemical analysis so it can fit on a glass or plastic plate about 4 x 4 cm in size - the so called lab on a chip technology. This project will develop this technique to measure more substances of environmental importance, and ruggedize the equipment so it can be used in the field. The measurements will be compared with conventional technology, and effort will be put in to improving the accuracy, precision and stability of the equipment until we have a viable analysis system. The data generated by both new and conventional equipment will be used for model development and to improve understanding of the processes influencing water quality and quantity.If successful, the project should lead to a wide range of applications and benefits. As well as an improved ability to predict the effects of environmental change, a cheap and reliable method for monitoring water quality will help regulatory agencies, industries and agriculture monitor and mitigate their environmental impacts, and provide a method for the early detection of polluted water supplies, for instance from toxic algal blooms or acts of terrorism. The low power requirements mean that measurements away from mains power supplies become a practical proposition, with potential applications in developing countries as well as the UK. The devices could be used to monitor the chemistry of water streams in industrial processes, and may lead to the development of a commercial product, providing income to the UK economy and the higher education sector.

Publications

10 25 50
publication icon
Arnell N (2015) The implications of climate change for the water environment in England in Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment

publication icon
Halliday SJ (2016) Riparian shading controls instream spring phytoplankton and benthic algal growth. in Environmental science. Processes & impacts

publication icon
Rode M (2016) Sensors in the Stream: The High-Frequency Wave of the Present. in Environmental science & technology

 
Description This project ran in parallel with another EPSRC grant at the University of Hull EP/G014221/1. The project aimed to develop novel technologies for water quality monitoring and apply them to gain new insights into what determines the concentrations of dissolved substances in rivers, notably those significant for aquatic pollution such as phosphorus and nitrogen. This insight can then be applied to improve computer models which predict these concentrations in various circumstances (such as a changing climate or land use). The University of Reading collaborated with colleagues at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) and Environment Agency (EA) to set up instrumentation to make hourly water quality measurements on three lowland rivers which are tributaries of the River Thames: The Cut, which drains the Bracknell area and the Kennet and the Enborne. We were also given access by CEH to their datasets from Plynlimon in Wales. We used mathematical techniques which look for trends and periodic signals in these data to infer which hydrochemical processes are operating in which circumstances. Some major findings are described below.

In the relatively unpolluted waters of Plynlimon, there was a daily cycle of nitrate concentrations. Analysis of the phase and amplitude of this cycle, and its correlation with temperature, indicated the importance of nitrate uptake by stream organisms. Consideration of long-term data shows that land use, river flow, meteorological conditions and antecedent catchment conditions are also important the instream nitrate concentrations at the daily and seasonal timesteps. Superimposed on all this was a 20-year decline in nitrate concentrations due to a reduction in reactive nitrogen deposition which is in turn due to reductions in emissions from combustion sources. The long-term data were vital to give a context to the short-term, high frequency data.

In the lowland River Enborne a daily cycle of nitrate concentrations was also evident, but with very different temperature patterns and seasonal relationships. Concentrations were more than ten times higher than Plynlimon. The Enborne is a rural catchment and it had been thought that agricultural runoff would dominate river concentrations, but analysis of the daily patterns for both nitrate and phosphorus compounds showed clearly that outputs from a small sewage treatment works in the catchment play a major role, especially at times of low flow, in determining the dynamics in the streamwater concentrations.

The concentrations in The Cut were dominated by outputs from the large sewage treatment works serving the urban areas, even though these have advanced treatment facilities.

These daily patterns mean that the time of day at which water samples are taken is of major importance, especially where there is a requirement to comply with a concentration standard. The Cut has a daily cycle in dissolved oxygen in summer ranging from supersaturated in the afternoon to almost anoxic at night, showing the importance of photosynthesis in cleaning the river, but also that nutrient-stimulated algal growth is a major problem.

A combination of long-term low frequency and short-term high frequency data can lead to important insights. For instance, at Plynlimon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has increased and sulphate has declined over 20 years. Iron concentrations have also increased - analysis of the daily patterns showed that this was related to the DOC increase, and so the increase in iron is probably due to an increase in organically-complexed colloidal iron. Both DOC and iron can pose problems in drinking water treatment.

Overall the sub-daily monitoring approach is generating a wealth of insights, and should increase our understanding of controls on water quality and our ability to model it.
Exploitation Route Estimates of pollutant concentrations should be easier and cheaper to make, enhancing the ability to control pollution sources. The increased understanding gained from hourly monitoring for a suite of determinands should enable pollutant sources to be identified with greater confidence, enhancing the ability of regulatory agencies to take appropriate actions and avoid actions which are ineffective. Compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive requirements should be demonstrated more easily.

Calculations of pollutant loads in rivers, and the amount of pollutants rivers supply to sensitive coastal systems (such as estuaries) should be more accurate, enabling more cost-effective regulation. Better understanding of the dynamics of river systems may allow the optimisation of monitoring regimes, with consequent cost savings, and aid compliance with legislation such as the EU Water Framework Directive. On the commercial side, the work may increase sales of monitoring equipment by British-based companies. This work has already been exploited in designing DEFRA's Demonstration Test Catchment research programme, saving time and expense. In future, it should have applications in monitoring and assessment of water pollution and in understanding of the controls on freshwater concentrations of all substances. This should in turn lead to better models of water quality, and more accurate predictions of how it could change in future conditions, such as with changes in climate.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.reading.ac.uk/geographyandenvironmentalscience/Research/ESS/ges-hydro-tech.aspx
 
Description Following a poster presentation of the bank side analysers and the associated infrastructure developed and tested in this project at the UK Environmental Observation Framework meeting held at the Defra Offices in Reading, similar instruments and infrastructure was subsequently deployed into the Defra Demonstration Test Catchments in the Eden, Hampshire-Avon and Wensum to characterise the water chemistry at the hourly time step to enhance load estimation and process understanding. The data collected in this EPSRC-funded project has been further analysed as part of a Macronutrients project, Turf2Surf alongside other water chemistry data sets to understand the coupling of biochemical cycling in river-systems across Great Britain. The importance of the time of sample collection on classification of Water Framework Directive status was included in the assessments for the Living With Environmental Change report card on Water and the Joint Water Evidence Group review of the climate change impacts on water quality.
First Year Of Impact 2009
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Quick Scoping Review for Joint Water Evidence Group (DEFRA-EA) - 2014
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
Impact Report to aid policy planning for response to climate change. The paper cited is the journal article based on the Quick Scoping Review commissioned by DEFRA-EA through JWEG.
 
Description DEFRA-EA (Joint Water Evidence Group): The consequences of climate change on the water environment in the UK
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID WT1540 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2014 
End 05/2014
 
Description Environmental Protection Agency Research Programme 2014-2020
Amount € 349,735 (EUR)
Funding ID 2016-W-MS-24 
Organisation Government of Ireland 
Department Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Sector Public
Country Ireland
Start 03/2017 
End 02/2019
 
Description NERC Macronutrients: Turf2Surf
Amount £303,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/J011967/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2013 
End 01/2017
 
Title Method for monitoring sub-daily concentrations of nitrate, total reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus in the field with telemetry 
Description Design, development and deployment of infrastructure to make field-based measurements of stream water nitrate, total reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus on a near-continuous basis. This infrastructure included the development of flow-through cells with which to draw water samples from, telemetry and power supply in remote locations. This infrastructure development was done by the Environment Agency's National Water Quality Instrumentation Service as part of this project and is described in detail in: Wade, A. J., Palmer-Felgate, E. J., Halliday, S. J., Skeffington, R. A., Loewenthal, M., Jarvie, H. P., Bowes, M. J., Greenway, G. M., Haswell, S. J., Bell, I. M., Joly, E., Fallatah, A., Neal, C., Williams, R. J., Gozzard, E., and Newman, J. R.: Hydrochemical processes in lowland rivers: insights from in situ, high-resolution monitoring, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 4323-4342, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-4323-2012, 2012. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The design for the research infrastructure was adopted by the Demonstration Test Catchments project in the Hampshire-Avon, Wensum and Eden catchments and the design was also adopted by Rothamsted Research at the North Wyke platform. Following presentation of the monitoring infrastructure from this project at a UK Environmental Observation Framework meeting held in the DEFRA Innovation Centre, Reading in 2009, the Demonstration Test Catchments Programme adopted the research infrastructure design developed from this project by the Environment Agency's National Water Quality Instrumentation Service. 
URL https://www.reading.ac.uk/geographyandenvironmentalscience/research/ESS/ges-hydro-tech.aspx
 
Title Hourly physical and nutrient monitoring data for The Cut, Berkshire (2010-2012) 
Description This data set comprises of hourly physical and nutrient monitoring data of The Cut at Bray Marina (National grid reference SU915786), from May 2010 to February 2012. Parameters measured are total phosphorus, total reactive phosphorus, ammonium, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and total chlorophyll. The accompanying hourly averaged flow data (from the EA flow gauging station at Binfield, approximately 10 km upstream of the monitoring site) are also supplied. The monitoring programme was funded by the EPSRC, through the LIMPIDS project. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These data form the basis for the publications written under this grant. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/documents/abe4dd7c-a340-4595-a57f-8c1446ff7656
 
Title Hourly physical and nutrient monitoring data for the River Enborne, Berkshire (2009-2012) 
Description This data set comprises of hourly physical and nutrient monitoring data of the River Enborne near Brimpton (National grid reference SU568648), from November 2009 to February 2012. Parameters measured are total reactive phosphorus, nitrate, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and total chlorophyll. The accompanying hourly averaged flow data (from the EA flow gauging station at the same site) are also supplied. The monitoring programme was funded by the EPSRC, through the LIMPIDS project. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These data supported the papers produced from the project. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/documents/db695881-eabe-416c-b128-76691b2104d8
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation Aarhus University
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation Deltares
Country Netherlands 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation ETH Zurich
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council
Department Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation Ulster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation University of Florida
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description International high-frequency water quality partnership 
Organisation University of Toronto
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International working group to promote the use of novel water quality sensors that met at UZF in Magdeburg in 2014 and then again in Sandbjerg in Demark in 2016. The group involves experts in water quality monitoring and modelling from: Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, United Kingdom Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Research Institute, WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland Ecological Modelling Laboratory, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, N. Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Bioscience and DCE-National Centre of Environment and Energy, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Deltares, P.O. Box 85467, NL-3508TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg, Germany
Collaborator Contribution Together these experts produce a paper on the state of the art of novel sensor use in water quality and aquatic ecological monitoring. The group will meet again at Ulster University in 2018. At the Sandeberg meeting, representatives of the Danish government were present to hear about these monitoring techniques.
Impact Rode M, Wade AJ, Cohen MJ, Hensley RT, Bowes MJ, Kirchner JW, Arhonditsis GB, Jordan P, Kronvang B, Halliday SJ, Skeffington R, Rozemeijer J, Aubert AH, Rinke K, Jomaa S. 2016. Sensors in the stream: the high-frequency wave of the present. Environmental Science and Technology. 10.1021/acs.est.6b02155.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Best use of high-frequency water quality and biological data to improve hydrochemical and ecological models (Sandbjerg, Denmark) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact DIscussion of advantages and disadvantages of high frequency monitoring and novel sensors for water quality and ecological modelling.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://bios.au.dk/en/about-bioscience/organisation/catchment-science-and-environmental-management/wo...
 
Description Catchment Science 2015 (Wexford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation given on 'Using high-frequency water quality data to assess sampling strategies for the EU Water Framework Directive'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.teagasc.ie/publications/2015/3739/index.asp
 
Description Developing novel technologies for water quality modelling and monitoring (HYDRA Conference, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presenting the initial work to fellow students and academics in SE England.

The meeting was an opportunity for postgraduate students to present their research to a multi-disciplinary audience of fellow research students and academics from the HYDRA community, to share ideas and experiences and to develop contacts

Nil
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Developing novel technologies for water quality modelling and monitoring (London Technology Network) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster given to London Technology Network meeting: Innovative Water Treatment and Processing Technologies

http://www.ltnetwork.org/
.

The event focussed on the challenges currently faced by the water industry, water treatment technologies, sustainable technologies and desalination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
URL http://www.ltnetwork.org/
 
Description Developing novel technologies for water quality monitoring and modelling (Knowledge Transfer Network, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Knowledge transfer network event which offered the opportunity to engage with a wide range of businesses, regulators, research councils and academic institutions.

Event was "Knowledge Transfer Network: Instrumentation Technologies for Water Catchments Monitoring" The aim was to share information about technology which which will provide important enabling technologies for academics, industrialists and the government.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
URL http://www.qi3.co.uk/archives/3245
 
Description Developing novel technologies for water quality monitoring and modelling (RCUK Water Showcase, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact RCUK Water Research Showcase.

Event was targeted towards an audience of industry experts and policy makers, intended to demonstrate the exciting research currently funded by the Research Councils in: Water Use, Water Infrastructure, Business and the Economy, Environment and Climate Change, Farming and Food, Sanitation and Health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Development of NERC Business Case for Capital Investment for Catchment Observatories 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Development of NERC Business Case for Capital Investment for Catchment Observatories, including a NERC-led workshop in London, 08 November 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://nerc.ukri.org/latest/events/list/capital2018/
 
Description High resolution monitoring of phosphorus and nitrate in lowland rivers (SWIG Workshop, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the Sensors for Water Interest Group meeting - Sensors for Nutrient Monitoring: Phosphate, 23rd October 2013, The View, Thames Barrier, 1 Unity Way, Woolwich, London SE18 5NJ. Chaired by Andrew Chappell, Environment Agency

The main focus of this workshop was monitoring phosphate using sensors. The options for phosphate monitoring are more limited and it is usually measured using sampling and laboratory analysis. This is part of a series of 'back to basics' workshops and will look at phosphate measurement, bringing together users, manufacturers and research groups to discuss some exciting sensor developments and explore the use of instruments for field and on-line monitoring.

The event was noted by the Technology Strategy Board who put together a web-page to further publicise the outcomes. https://connect.innovateuk.org/web/espktn/article-view/-/blogs/8964216
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.swig.org.uk/
 
Description Hourly to seasonal hydrochemical dynamics in lowland and upland UK river-systems: (EGU, Vienna) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral paper at European Geophysical Union Conference in April 2012

Model-based assessments of the impacts of environmental change on European freshwater ecosystems are needed to aid informed resource management. This talk focussed on how such model-based assessments can be improved using the latest results from in-situ, continuous sub-daily water quality monitoring in upland and lowland UK river systems.

Led to development of international network focused on sub-daily water quality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description IAHS IAPSO IASPEI Joint Assembly, Gothenberg, 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation on 'How can models help solve water quality problems? A case study of the River Thames catchment, UK'. Invited presentation at IAHS IAPSO IASPEI Joint Assembly, Gothenberg, Sweden, 22-26 July 2013.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description International Workshop on temporal high resolution water quality monitoring and analysis (Magdeburg, Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact 21st and 22nd of July 2014 at Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ Magdeburg, Germany

Preparation of a review paper on benefits of collecting hourly water quality monitoring, collation of a database, collation of data describing merits and limitations of different monitoring technologies, development of an international research community, paper on instream biogeochemical functioning

Preparation of a review paper on benefits of collecting hourly water quality monitoring, collation of a database, collation of data describing merits and limitations of different monitoring technologies, development of an international research community, paper on instream biogeochemical functioning
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ufz.de/export/data/1/55878_Workshop%20Flyer%20UFZ_2.pdf
 
Description Invited seminar - Instream processes - University of Birmingham (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar - The relative importance of instream processes in catchment biogeochemistry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited seminar at UCL, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lunchtime seminar in the Department of Geography, UCL on 'The relative importance of instream processing in catchment biogeochemistry' on 26 February 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited seminar, University of Warwick (2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar on 'Multi-stressor Impacts on Water Quality'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Long-term low-frequency or short-term high-freqency monitoring - are both necessary? (EGU, Vienna) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact European Geophysical Union General Assembly 2011 HS2.16 - Water quality at the catchment scale: Advances in measuring and modelling nutrient, sediment, and contaminant fluxes

http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2011/EGU2011-271.pdf
.

This session of a major international conference aimed to get together scientists working on experimental as well as on modelling studies to improve the prediction and management of water quality constituents (e.g. for dissolved oxygen, nutrients, organic matter, algae or sediments) at the catchment scale.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2011/EGU2011-271.pdf
 
Description NERC Environmental Evidence for the Future Initiative 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Review of the key knowledge gaps and evidence needs pertaining to a set of future environmental policy and practice challenges in light of the UK leaving the EU.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.nerc.ac.uk/research/partnerships/crosscouncil/eef/
 
Description NERC Innovation in monitoring workshop (Southampton) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Brokerage event to build partnerships between academia and business for applications to the NERC 'Innovative monitoring approaches for infrastructure, oil & gas and offshore renewable energy' funding call.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.nerc.ac.uk/innovation/activities/naturalresources/oilandgasprog/roundtwo/
 
Description NERC SPA Scoping Group: Future Landscapes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact This Scoping Group has been convened to develop a full case for a Strategic Programme Area (SPA) on Designing Future Landscapes for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description New insights into hydrochemical processes in lowland river systems gained from in situ, high-resolution monitoring (EGU, Vienna) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation - European Geophysical Union, 8-12 April 2013, Vienna.

Led to a workshop on sub-daily monitoring of water quality held in Magdeburg, Germany.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description New insights into hydrochemical processes in lowland river systems gained from in situ, sub daily monitoring (Bonn, Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Terrestrial Environmental Observatories - International Conference 2014, From observation to prediction in terrestrial systems
29 September to 2 October 2014, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany

Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards. Collaboration with Prof. Dr. Michael Rode, UFZ.

Collaboration with Prof. Dr. Michael Rode, UFZ.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.tereno-conference2014.de
 
Description Novel Technologies for Water Quality Monitoring (Science for a Better Thames, Reading) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Described the intital phase of the Novel technologies project supported by EPSRC.

Science for a Better Thames - initiation of a Knowledge Transfer Network


Continued involvment in "Science for a Better Thames", Knowledge Transfer Network
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Streamwater nitrate dynamics across decadal to sub-daily timescales in an upland system in mid-Wales (Magdeburg, Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards, development of a grant application and also led to a further workshop for interested parties.

Development of a grant application and also led to a further workshop for interested parties, and a publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ufz.de/export/data/1/55878_Workshop%20Flyer%20UFZ_2.pdf
 
Description UK EOF (Lancaster, 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Forum to discuss future water quality monitoring for regulatory purposes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ukeof.org.uk/
 
Description UK Environmental Observation Framework, Reading, 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Statement of Needs workshops - with emphasis on freshwater and groundwater? The aims of the workshop was to consider the capability of the UK to meet its observation needs.

At the meeting, representatives from the EA and Demonstration Test Catchments project were interested in the new infrastructure developed to monitoring water quality (nitrate, total reactive phosphorus, total reactive phosphorus) which included data telemetry, power supply in remote areas, pumped flow through cell. This infrastructure was developed by the Environment Agency's National Water Quality Instrumentation Service as part of our project. The DTC adopted the system for deployment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
URL http://www.demonstratingcatchmentmanagement.net/
 
Description Water quality workshop (Delhi) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This India-UK collaboration, led by NERC, the Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and India's Department of Science & Technology (DST) will support research focused on improving water quality by providing a better understanding of the sources and fate of different pollutants and by supporting the development of management strategies and technologies to reduce pollution levels.

The programme is supported by the Newton-Bhabha Fund, established by the governments of the UK and India to provide a framework for increasing research and innovation collaborations that support sustainable economic growth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nerc.ac.uk/research/funded/programmes/indiauk/
 
Description Workshop with Agilent (Reading, 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion about possible project for joint deployment of monitoring equipment and partnership between academia and industry to develop new monitoring sensors/deploy laboratory information into the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.agilent.com/home