Materials for Next Generation CO2 Transport Systems (MATTRAN)

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Marine Science and Technology

Abstract

The large-scale implementation of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) cannot be realised without a pipeline network that is economic, safe and efficient. In the UK, this means designing and constructing a 'next generation' transport system for the collection of CO2 from disparate anthropogenic sources, predominantly power plant, and transporting it under supercritical conditions through more densely populated areas for offshore storage. This has not been attempted anywhere in the world and presents key challenges which the UK can take the lead in solving. Transport is an integral and critical link in the chain between capture and storage and failure to address the issues associated with transportation immediately could significantly delay the execution of CCS in the UK. This project, Materials for Next Generation CO2 Pipeline Transport Systems (MATTRAN) will take that lead and provide the tools and information necessary for pipeline engineers to select appropriate materials and operating conditions to control corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and fracture propagation in pipelines and associated equipment carrying supercritical CO2 from the capture processes likely to be realised in the near and long term future. However, in order to be able to achieve this overall aim, fundamental scientific research is required to provide the data and predictive models necessary to produce accurate and validated predictions. It is recognised that there is currently no standard definition for the composition of the CO2 stream expected from the different capture processes. Small levels of constituents can play a large role in the phase behaviour, thermodynamic properties and solubility of water in the supercritical CO2 stream. The first tasks in the project are therefore to determine the expected ranges of compositional variation and conduct the necessary phase experiments in the supercritical range to characterise the behaviour of a selected subset of the CO2 streams judged to have the biggest impact. This experimental data will be used to address another gap in the existing knowledge on supercritical CO2 process streams, the prediction of the phase behaviour and thermodynamic properties using existing equations of state. Currently there is no consensus in the literature regarding which equation of state provides the most accurate predictions in the supercritical range. This presents a problem for pipeline engineers in modelling the hydraulic behaviour of the CO2, both in the pipeline and in the event of an accidental or controlled release. In this project, the experimental data will be compared with existing equations of states and new models developed and provided to the hydraulic and fracture propagation models that will be used in the interconnected Work Packages. The remaining Work Packages involve the specification of the pipeline and associated equipment materials to determine the conditions under which corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and fracture propagation will occur. Once the constituents in the CO2 stream have been selected, experiments investigating corrosion, stress cracking and fracture propagation will be conducted. This database of experimental data does not currently exist and without this data, the operating conditions of the pipeline and the property requirements of the materials cannot be safely defined. The MATTRAN project brings together a consortium of scientists, mathematicians and engineers working from the molecular scale of the CO2 in the pipeline to the macro-scale of fracture propagation and pipeline failure to produce the data required in a systematic and co-ordinated manner that will ensure that the required results are generated efficiently and quickly disseminated to the industry. In addition, the MATTRAN consortium involves academics and researchers from five institutions and introduces new researchers to the field of CCS research from four of those institutions.

Publications

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Amir Chahardehi (Author) (2011) Structural safety in CO2 transport pipelines in Carbon Capture Journal

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Chahardehi A (2011) Structural Integrity of CO 2 Transport Pipelines - A Review in Key Engineering Materials

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Demetriades T (2013) Developing a new equation of state for carbon capture and storage pipeline transport in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering

 
Description The MATTRAN project has produced the following key findings and outcomes:



• The likely ranges of non-CO2 components from major industrial and power plant sources have been identified. This work has updated the previous knowledge in this area and, in particular, allowed realistic experimental protocols to be defined for testing in CO2 streams containing impurities.



• The effects that different impurities have on key aspects of pipeline design, operation, integrity and health and safety have been investigated, and new requirements that need to be considered when specifying the maximum levels of these impurities for entry into the pipeline system have been proposed.



• A novel, numerically cheap equation of state has been produced that more accurately describes the phase and density behaviours of CO2 mixtures.



• Reliable methods for reproducibly making dilute mixtures of impurity gases in CO2 with well-defined compositions have been developed.



• The published database of densities of key CO2 binary and ternary mixtures as a function of temperature and pressure and the boundary in temperature/pressure space between single and multiple phases in these mixtures has been extended.



• A best practice for conducting hydraulic modelling using commercially available software has been proposed and published. The hydraulic modelling approach developed in the MATTRAN programme has allowed the effect of impurities on pipeline network design to be investigated.



• A dense phase CO2 dynamic flow loop rig has been designed and built which can test materials in realistic environments and operation conditions for CO2¬ transportation. This unique facility is now available for further academic and industrial research.



• The database of corrosion data for pipeline steels, stainless steels and polymers in binary CO2 environments with water has been extended to include CO2-SO2-H2O and CO2-H2S-H2O.



• A test protocol for slow strain rate testing of pipeline steels, stainless steel and duplex stainless steel has been developed to allow the stress corrosion cracking testing of these steels in CO2-H2O environments in combination with sulphur in the form sulphate, sulphite and sulphide. No stress corrosion cracking has been observed in these environments for duplex stainless steel, 316 stainless steel or pipeline grade carbon steels in any of the environmental conditions tested.



• Based on the development of a unique fluid-structure interaction model backed by experimentation, this study, for the first time, clearly demonstrates running brittle fractures as a highly plausible failure mode in pressurised pipelines transporting CO2. The model has been applied to identify the range of operating conditions, and the type of stream impurities that have the most impact on the susceptibility of the pipeline to undergo brittle fracture.



• The International Forum for the Transportation of CO2 by Pipeline, which ran annually between 2010 and 2013, has been established to disseminate information rapidly to the industry.
Exploitation Route The main application of the MATTRAN research is in the design and operation of dense phase CO2 pipeline systems, specifically, in allowing appropriate materials to be specified for pipelines and ancillary equipment to ensure the safety and reliability of the pipeline network. The MATTRAN team had an established network of industrial links which has been extended throughout the project. This has been the key pathway to exploitation of the research.



One of the key philosophies of the team was that, given the urgent requirement to develop CO2 pipeline networks in the UK, learning from the MATTRAN project had to be disseminated quickly and to as wide an audience as possible. The findings of the project have therefore been published in 36 publications including book chapters, technical reports, academic and non-academic conferences, review articles and journals. Members of the team are also influencing the development of national and international standards development based on the expertise and knowledge developed in CO2 transportation through MATTRAN.



The research initiated in the MATTRAN project has also been exploited in the development of further funding from research councils, the European Union and industrial sources, recognition of the expertise of the team, the quality of the research produced and the continued requirement for research into CO2 transportation. Indeed, in the recent UKCCSRC Phase 1 research funding call, all of the projects funded in the transport area were spawned from the research initiated in MATTRAN.
Sectors Chemicals,Energy

 
Description Enables quantitative modelling of the CO2 mixtures that are relevant to CCS. Extension of our knowledge of how impure CO2 behaves in pipelines. Beneficiaries: Pipeline modeller, industrial engineers Contribution Method: Dissemination of knowledge A new CFD model for brittle fractures in CO2 pipelines. Given the unique thermodynamic properties of CO2, there is concern that a small diameter puncture in a CO2 pipeline may transform into a catastrophic running fracture resulting in a sudden and massive escape of CO2. The brittle fracture model developed coupled with its experimental validation for the first time allows pipeline operators to select pipelines with the correct fracture toughness to avoid such failures, thus improving CO2 pipelines safety. Beneficiaries: The follow are expected to be the beneficiaries of this work:• Pipeline engineers selecting pipeline materials with the appropriate fracture toughness• Design and spacing of crack arrestors in CO2 pipelines• Safety authorities considering pipeline routing and minimum safe distances to populated areas Contribution Method: • Education and training of PhD students • Presentations at international conferences and journal publications Effect of impurities on CO2 pipeline corrosion. Beneficiaries: Health and safety,legislative and regulatory regimes These data are available for testing and validating equation of state for modelling gases in CCS transport pipelines. These data are necessary because, under these conditions, CO2 behaves as a highly non-ideal gas. Data to be used for understanding the behaviour of gases in pipelines with the ultimate aim of avoiding accidents associated with those pipelines. Beneficiaries: Those designing an building CCS piplines and those setting the safety standards for CO2 transport. Contribution Method: Dissemination of knowledge Improved baseline understanding of CO2 compositions for CCTS systems. Work undertaken for the MATTRAN consortium has identified state-of-the-art knowledge of likely carbon dioxide (CO2) specifications entering pipelines in carbon capture, transport and storage (CCTS) systems receiving CO2 from power stations. It is important to have a good understanding of potential CO2 compositions entering these pipelines since this information is needed to ensure that equipment suppliers and others involved in designing and delivering CCTS projects can determine the most effective way to manage CO2 purity. These insights are also relevant to regulators as they determine how CCTS projects should be inspected, including for safety and environmental performance. Beneficiaries: Original equipment manufacturers and other industrial stakeholders involved in CCTS project design and implementation, also regulators Contribution Method: change, energy, environment, innovation, manufacturing
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Chemicals,Education,Energy,Environment
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description British Standards PSE 17/2
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description EASAC report: Carbon capture and storage in Europe
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description ISO Standards Committee ISO/TC 265 WG2 - CO2 Transportation
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description COOLTRANS Dense Phase CO2 R&D Programme
Amount £360,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Grid Transco 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description COOLTRANS Dense Phase CO2 R&D Programme
Amount £360,000 (GBP)
Organisation The National Grid Co plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2011 
End 12/2013
 
Description Dense Phase CO2 studies
Amount £112,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Grid Transco 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Dense Phase CO2 studies
Amount £112,000 (GBP)
Organisation The National Grid Co plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2013 
End 11/2014
 
Description Determination of water solubility limits in CO2 mixtures to deliver water specification levels for CO2 transportation
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K000446/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Flexible CCS Network Development (FleCCSnet)
Amount £221,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K000446/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Multiphase flow modelling for hazard assessment of dense phase CO2 pipelines containing impurities
Amount £115,026 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K000446/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and Transport
Amount £4,065,101 (GBP)
Funding ID 309102 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start  
 
Description Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on its Storage and Transport
Amount £4,065,101 (GBP)
Funding ID 309102 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start  
 
Description Tractable equations of state for CO2 mixtures in CCS: Algorithms for automated generation and optimisation, tailored to end-users
Amount £10,127,951 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K000446/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Molecular simulation 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration working with experts on molecular simulation of phase behaviour to aid the development of equations of state
Start Year 2009
 
Description Non-parametric modelling and uncertainty quantification in CO2 modelling 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The use of cutting-edge techniques in model callibration and uncertainty quantification to improve CO2 equations of state
Start Year 2012
 
Description Structural health monitoring techniques for CCS injection wells 
Organisation Disruptatek Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Structural health monitoring techniques for CCS injection wells
Start Year 2010
 
Description Supply of Steel materials to whole consortium 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Welding department, Cranfield University; BhR group, Cranfield University
Start Year 2012