Premium upgraded Biomass Solid Fuels - Fundamentals of torrefaction and performance of torrefied fuels

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Energy Resources Research Unit

Abstract

Biomass - vegetation such as trees, grasses or straws - is resurging as a source of sustainable, environmentally-friendly fuel for use in power stations. This is because, when grown in a sustainable way, it is almost carbon-neutral - the carbon-doxide emitted when the biomass is burned, is readsorbed from the atmosphere during the photosynthesis of the next crop of biomass. Consequently, there is a great deal of interest in using biomass in coal-fired power stations by substituting a portion of the coal. Today, many power-stations in the UK have adopted this co-firing approach to reduce their carbon (dioxide) emissions. This is a good strategy since the biomass is burned in the very large coal power stations which have a higher efficiency than the small systems needed if the same amount of biomass was to be burned alone. However, in the power stations the coal is crushed to a fine powder in huge mills before being blown into the burners in the boiler. Most biomass does not grind or crush very well because it is springy and fibrous. Consequently, when power generators attempt to powder the biomass in the coal mills it tends to form a mat on the bottom of the mill. This has limited the amount of biomass which can be processed in the mills and hence limited the amount of biomass used in the power-stations, and hence limited the carbon savings from co-firing biomass. Some power stations have invested millions of pounds to install separate, different types of mills for cutting biomass so that they can use more - for example, up to 20% by weight is used in Fiddlers Ferry power station. Another strategy is a process known as torrefaction in which the biomass is pre-treated so that it becomes more brittle and easier to crush. This process involves heating biomass to a moderate temperature (~280 C) in the absence of air. It is similar to the process used to roast coffee beans and so is sometimes refered to as roasting biomass. During torrefaction some material is lost from the biomass - particularly moisture and some gases and volatile substances - but the material which is left, the residue, still contains typically 80% of the heating value of the original biomass, and is transformed into a harder, darker fuel, which is much easier to crush. This process is attracting a great deal of interest from all sectors involved in the bioenergy chain: - growers see this is a way of adding value to the biomass they grow and reducing transportation costs (since the fuel is dry and has a greater energy per unit volume); power-generators see this as a simpler fuel to handle in the power stations; and there is also interest in using torrefied biomass as a fuel in other conversion processes, such as biomass gasification to liquid (transport) fuels (BTL). Furthermore, torrefied biomass does not go mouldy upon storage like raw biomass and so it becomes attractive for extending the supply window for using biomass. In order for torrefaction of biomass to happen on a large scale much information is needed in order to design safe, environmentally-friendly torrefiers. This research is aimed at providing much of this information and answering these questions: What are the explosion risks within torrefiers or mills using torrefied biomass? (Fine dust can result in explosions under certain concentrations, and knowledge of these concentrations is needed in order to incorporate adequate safety design features.) What would the effluents from the process (liquid and gas) be composed of? Can the gas and vapours produced provide the heat to drive the torrefaction? How would torrefied biomass burn in the power station? It also aims to develop a tool which engineers can use to help them design the torrefier itself, so that they know what temperature is needed, and how long the biomass needs to reside within the torrefier so that an optimum fuel is produced.

Planned Impact

Torrefaction of biomass is attracting a great deal of interest from industry at the present time, for a number of reasons, which include the improvement in storage options, and in milling properties of biomass. Hence, the industrial beneficiaries from this research will be in the area of biomass co-firing by power generators and the biomass pulverisation equipment suppliers. There is also synergism with the area of biofuels for bioheat on a large scale, as the combustion problems are similar, and torrefaction is already being considered in integrated processes with pellet production. This work is directed at 100% biofuel firing as well as co-firing applications. The work is also relevant in the longer term in terms of the use of torrefied biomass in entrained flow gasifiers, an area that is gaining interest for the production of transport fuels. Because torrefaction is an energy densification process, it could be utilised near to biomass production, and the torrefied biomass transported to large combustion or gasification processes with considerable green-house gas savings, and better revenue for biomass suppliers. The equipment suppliers for the biomass pulverisation and torrefaction equipment will benefit from this work through the provision of explosion protection data for the equipment. Both power generators and equipment suppliers will benefit in regard to their future fuel handling design options. The fundamental combustion data of devolatilisation and char combustion rates, together with nitrogen-partitioning, both during torrefaction and during combustion, will enable appropriate NOx reduction strategies to be selected. The UK Government and society will benefit due to the reduction in non-renewable CO2 emissions from the greater use of co-firing of biomass in power generation using current installations. Torrefaction of biomass should result in a greater proportion of biomass being co-fired in a boiler and hence a greater reduction of CO2 from existing power plants. Many of the UK's coal fired power stations have life extensions through turbine and boiler tube retrofits that will keep them operating for decades to come. Reducing CO2 from these plants is essential if the UK Government's targets for CO2 reduction are to be contributed to by the existing infrastructure for coal based power generation. The explosion safety data for biomass and torrefied biomass that this project will generate is also of benefit to society through the provision of data that will enable any biomass pulverisation plant or other biomass handling plant with a dust hazard to be safely designed. The information will also be relevant to the HSE in issuing guidance on the safe operation of biomass plant. The implementation of biomass into the UK energy mix will be of benefit to society as a whole through the creation of employment and economic benefits in many sectors including agricultural, biomass resources and procurement, power and heat generation, and related industries such as environmental monitoring, health and safety. Two PhD students and one research fellow will be added to the workforce training in this important subject area for CO2 reduction. There is a scarcity of this expertise in co-firing with biomass and in the importance of torrefaction. The dissementation and knowledge transfer plan includes (1) publicity via CampusPR, lecutres, CPD, articles (2) workshops and meetings with stakeholders and user groups, (3) an industrial advisory group consisting of identified partners; (4) development of new partnerships and exploration of joint ventures . Key deliverables from the impact plan have been identified throughout the 42 month project, and will be driven by the research team, led by the PI, with assistance from University teams such as the CPD office, Faculty Enterprise Team, Keyworth Institute and the Leeds Enterprise and Innovation Office.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The torrefaction of biomass is a mild pyrolysis process which produces a very attractive fuel for co-firing or full biomass boiler conversions. This work concerned optimisation of the process for UK energy crops and residues, elucidation of the fundamental reactions occurring, and the combustion behaviour of the resulting fuel. It has been established how certain biomass or torrefied biomass mills and combusts in comparison to coal. The expected combustion behaviour and measured rates have been utilised to predict performance of the fuel in a large scale boiler.

A data set has been generated concerning safety issues in the handling of torrefied biomass and around the handling of the dust. Safety limits for dust concentrations to prevent explosion have been measured.
Exploitation Route Data used by industry and policy makers in the economic, preferred and safe use of torrified biomass.
Sectors Energy

 
Description 1) The work led to TSB funded work (project number 103758) with SSE and Energy Environmental Ltd which involved a large scale co-firing trial of torrefied biomass with coal at Uskmouth Power Station on 22 February 2013, and led to an improved understanding of CO2 reductions, as well as milling and combustion performance. The operation of the coal mill remained normal on the torrefied biomass and coal mix, and unlike normal biomass, no accumulation/flooding with torrefied biomass were observed during or after the trial. Similarly, no significant deviation was observed in NOx, SOx and dust emissions. Results indicated there is a potential for significant capital cost savings over a traditional biomass conversion by using a torrefied biomass fuel. Significant cost savings can be made in the milling and the associated pulverised fuel transport facility compared to a traditional biomass conversion. 2) The mass and energy balances were used by the Supergen Bioenergy Hub in their assessment of torrefied biomass supply chains, which can inform best practice. 3) The work has led to an Innovate UK project with Wilson Biochemical concerning autoclaving and torrefaction of MSW to produce a fuel for power station use. An application for end of waste status is in progress. This could provide a low-carbon fuel for cofiring with coal, or for use in dedicated power and/or heat. 4) An unexpected impact of the work is associated with particulate emission from burning torrefied biomass in small-scale domestic stoves, where they appear to be at similar levels to those seen for smokeless fuels. This finding is being discussed with Defra and the stove industry.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Energy,Environment
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Continuing Professional Development Course in Biomass Combustion. This attracts delegates from all sectors including regulators and government departments, as well as industry. The 2017 course attracted over 40 delegates
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Biomass Combustion - an annual week long CPD course delivered by academics in Supergen Bioenergy, and by external industrial and government/NGO representatives. We have trained of the order of 250 delegates to date, from >70 different companies/NGO/Government departments.
 
Description EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Bioenergy
Amount £4,336,514 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/L014912/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2023
 
Description EPSRC opening new fuels
Amount £1,035,606 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M015351/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 12/2017
 
Description Impact acceleration award -Improving fuel flexibility while managing operational risk
Amount £51,895 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K503836 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 04/2015
 
Description Innovate UK -Co-firing waste-derived torrefied biogenic fibre with coal
Amount £141,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Project number 132123 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Supergen Bioenergy Hub (Supergen III)
Amount £3,567,384 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/J017302/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2012 
End 07/2017
 
Description Supergen Bioenergy Hub Flexible Funding
Amount £3,500,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/J017302/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 07/2017
 
Description Technology Strategy Board: Carbon abatement technologies- Strand 2 (Feasibility Study- New Ideas)
Amount £60,608 (GBP)
Funding ID Project number 103758 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2012 
End 12/2012
 
Description Technology Strategy Board: Cleaner more efficient conventional fuels FS
Amount £40,860 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Title Torrefied biomass Combustion and Explosion Data 
Description Fundamental reaction rates in combustion; kST values; minimum explosion concentrations 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Difficult to judge at this point, as the torrefied biomass market is still underdeveloped. 
 
Title torrefaction optimisation 
Description Data set on a range of different UK and Nigerian biomass and energy crops which enable optimisation of the torrefaction process. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Used for mass and energy balances in Supergen Bioenergy Hub study of Torrefied Biomass Supply Chains 
 
Description Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) 
Organisation Afrique One
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provided fuels and characterisation data that assisted in the development and validation of a torrefaction model that would predict product yields and composition of products from fuel properties.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at AFR developed and validated a model for biomass torrefaction. For this, they refined their existing FG-BioMass pyrolysis model, and extended it to accommodate large fuel particles, and so produce a torrefaction model capable of predicting torrefaction of large-particle biomass. The model also included the effect of drying.
Impact A biomass torrefaction model to predict product yield and product composition from fuel characteristics and process conditions was developed and validated for a range of fuels and particle sizes. This was an engineering collaboration.
 
Description Domestic Biomass Emissions 
Organisation Arigna Biofuels
Country Ireland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team at Leeds, has developed a stove testing facility which is fully instrumented for gas analysis and particulate sampling and analysis. It has undertaken testing of a range of fuels from different partners. Some of this has been aimed towards exploring new revenue streams for partners, some has been to compare emissions from new fuels with those of approved fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Arigna fuels provided equipment and fuels to begin testing biomass emissions from domestic stoves as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub (the follow on grant from this award). They also provided several weeks of staff time during commissioning and initial testing. The other partners listed provided fuels, data, advice and staff time.
Impact There are several publications which are reported in the appropriate section. In addition, the work has formed part of the thesis of Dr Edward Mitchell and is now contributing to the research of two additional PhD students.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Domestic Biomass Emissions 
Organisation Bio-Bean Ltd
PI Contribution The research team at Leeds, has developed a stove testing facility which is fully instrumented for gas analysis and particulate sampling and analysis. It has undertaken testing of a range of fuels from different partners. Some of this has been aimed towards exploring new revenue streams for partners, some has been to compare emissions from new fuels with those of approved fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Arigna fuels provided equipment and fuels to begin testing biomass emissions from domestic stoves as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub (the follow on grant from this award). They also provided several weeks of staff time during commissioning and initial testing. The other partners listed provided fuels, data, advice and staff time.
Impact There are several publications which are reported in the appropriate section. In addition, the work has formed part of the thesis of Dr Edward Mitchell and is now contributing to the research of two additional PhD students.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Domestic Biomass Emissions 
Organisation Certainly Wood Ltd
PI Contribution The research team at Leeds, has developed a stove testing facility which is fully instrumented for gas analysis and particulate sampling and analysis. It has undertaken testing of a range of fuels from different partners. Some of this has been aimed towards exploring new revenue streams for partners, some has been to compare emissions from new fuels with those of approved fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Arigna fuels provided equipment and fuels to begin testing biomass emissions from domestic stoves as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub (the follow on grant from this award). They also provided several weeks of staff time during commissioning and initial testing. The other partners listed provided fuels, data, advice and staff time.
Impact There are several publications which are reported in the appropriate section. In addition, the work has formed part of the thesis of Dr Edward Mitchell and is now contributing to the research of two additional PhD students.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Domestic Biomass Emissions 
Organisation HETAS Limited
PI Contribution The research team at Leeds, has developed a stove testing facility which is fully instrumented for gas analysis and particulate sampling and analysis. It has undertaken testing of a range of fuels from different partners. Some of this has been aimed towards exploring new revenue streams for partners, some has been to compare emissions from new fuels with those of approved fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Arigna fuels provided equipment and fuels to begin testing biomass emissions from domestic stoves as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub (the follow on grant from this award). They also provided several weeks of staff time during commissioning and initial testing. The other partners listed provided fuels, data, advice and staff time.
Impact There are several publications which are reported in the appropriate section. In addition, the work has formed part of the thesis of Dr Edward Mitchell and is now contributing to the research of two additional PhD students.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Domestic Biomass Emissions 
Organisation Reheat International Ltd
PI Contribution The research team at Leeds, has developed a stove testing facility which is fully instrumented for gas analysis and particulate sampling and analysis. It has undertaken testing of a range of fuels from different partners. Some of this has been aimed towards exploring new revenue streams for partners, some has been to compare emissions from new fuels with those of approved fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Arigna fuels provided equipment and fuels to begin testing biomass emissions from domestic stoves as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub (the follow on grant from this award). They also provided several weeks of staff time during commissioning and initial testing. The other partners listed provided fuels, data, advice and staff time.
Impact There are several publications which are reported in the appropriate section. In addition, the work has formed part of the thesis of Dr Edward Mitchell and is now contributing to the research of two additional PhD students.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Domestic Biomass Emissions 
Organisation Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The research team at Leeds, has developed a stove testing facility which is fully instrumented for gas analysis and particulate sampling and analysis. It has undertaken testing of a range of fuels from different partners. Some of this has been aimed towards exploring new revenue streams for partners, some has been to compare emissions from new fuels with those of approved fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Arigna fuels provided equipment and fuels to begin testing biomass emissions from domestic stoves as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub (the follow on grant from this award). They also provided several weeks of staff time during commissioning and initial testing. The other partners listed provided fuels, data, advice and staff time.
Impact There are several publications which are reported in the appropriate section. In addition, the work has formed part of the thesis of Dr Edward Mitchell and is now contributing to the research of two additional PhD students.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Domestic Biomass Emissions 
Organisation Stove Industry Alliance
PI Contribution The research team at Leeds, has developed a stove testing facility which is fully instrumented for gas analysis and particulate sampling and analysis. It has undertaken testing of a range of fuels from different partners. Some of this has been aimed towards exploring new revenue streams for partners, some has been to compare emissions from new fuels with those of approved fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Arigna fuels provided equipment and fuels to begin testing biomass emissions from domestic stoves as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub (the follow on grant from this award). They also provided several weeks of staff time during commissioning and initial testing. The other partners listed provided fuels, data, advice and staff time.
Impact There are several publications which are reported in the appropriate section. In addition, the work has formed part of the thesis of Dr Edward Mitchell and is now contributing to the research of two additional PhD students.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Domestic Biomass Emissions 
Organisation Woodsure
PI Contribution The research team at Leeds, has developed a stove testing facility which is fully instrumented for gas analysis and particulate sampling and analysis. It has undertaken testing of a range of fuels from different partners. Some of this has been aimed towards exploring new revenue streams for partners, some has been to compare emissions from new fuels with those of approved fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Arigna fuels provided equipment and fuels to begin testing biomass emissions from domestic stoves as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub (the follow on grant from this award). They also provided several weeks of staff time during commissioning and initial testing. The other partners listed provided fuels, data, advice and staff time.
Impact There are several publications which are reported in the appropriate section. In addition, the work has formed part of the thesis of Dr Edward Mitchell and is now contributing to the research of two additional PhD students.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Valorisation of waste 
Organisation Biorenewables Development Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The team undertook: 1) Analysis of historic data, 2) Analysis and classification of fuels, 3) Torrefaction trials 4) Combustion trials 5) provision of data to partners, 6) Preparation of reports and slide presentations, 7) Advice on "end of waste" application, 8) Further small consultancy projects concerning utilisation of end of waste fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Wilson, BDC, Sol Environmental and North Energy were part of a collaboration with us on a project funded by Innovate UK. Wilson and BDC developed a pilot-scale fuel production facility, Leeds undertook the majority of the practical work on the fuel that was provided, and North Energy provided a consequential LCA study of the process using empiric data where available. Sol-Environmental produced the end of waste documentation.
Impact Work is commercial, in confidence, so no publications as yet. Wilson are looking to develop a full-scale facility - but this is still in the discussion stage.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Valorisation of waste 
Organisation North Energy Associates
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The team undertook: 1) Analysis of historic data, 2) Analysis and classification of fuels, 3) Torrefaction trials 4) Combustion trials 5) provision of data to partners, 6) Preparation of reports and slide presentations, 7) Advice on "end of waste" application, 8) Further small consultancy projects concerning utilisation of end of waste fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Wilson, BDC, Sol Environmental and North Energy were part of a collaboration with us on a project funded by Innovate UK. Wilson and BDC developed a pilot-scale fuel production facility, Leeds undertook the majority of the practical work on the fuel that was provided, and North Energy provided a consequential LCA study of the process using empiric data where available. Sol-Environmental produced the end of waste documentation.
Impact Work is commercial, in confidence, so no publications as yet. Wilson are looking to develop a full-scale facility - but this is still in the discussion stage.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Valorisation of waste 
Organisation Sol Environment Ltd
PI Contribution The team undertook: 1) Analysis of historic data, 2) Analysis and classification of fuels, 3) Torrefaction trials 4) Combustion trials 5) provision of data to partners, 6) Preparation of reports and slide presentations, 7) Advice on "end of waste" application, 8) Further small consultancy projects concerning utilisation of end of waste fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Wilson, BDC, Sol Environmental and North Energy were part of a collaboration with us on a project funded by Innovate UK. Wilson and BDC developed a pilot-scale fuel production facility, Leeds undertook the majority of the practical work on the fuel that was provided, and North Energy provided a consequential LCA study of the process using empiric data where available. Sol-Environmental produced the end of waste documentation.
Impact Work is commercial, in confidence, so no publications as yet. Wilson are looking to develop a full-scale facility - but this is still in the discussion stage.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Valorisation of waste 
Organisation Wilson Bio-Chemical Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The team undertook: 1) Analysis of historic data, 2) Analysis and classification of fuels, 3) Torrefaction trials 4) Combustion trials 5) provision of data to partners, 6) Preparation of reports and slide presentations, 7) Advice on "end of waste" application, 8) Further small consultancy projects concerning utilisation of end of waste fuels.
Collaborator Contribution Wilson, BDC, Sol Environmental and North Energy were part of a collaboration with us on a project funded by Innovate UK. Wilson and BDC developed a pilot-scale fuel production facility, Leeds undertook the majority of the practical work on the fuel that was provided, and North Energy provided a consequential LCA study of the process using empiric data where available. Sol-Environmental produced the end of waste documentation.
Impact Work is commercial, in confidence, so no publications as yet. Wilson are looking to develop a full-scale facility - but this is still in the discussion stage.
Start Year 2016
 
Description CPD Biomass combustion 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The annual week-long course was delivered by members of the Supergen Consortium (academics and industrial speakers and Government/NGO representatives). During the 4-year period of the grant, 113 delegates participated from 57 different companies/NGO/Government organisations. The training course sparks a great deal of discussion and networking and has resulted in the development of working relationships for follow-on funding and consultancy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013
URL http://www.engineering.leeds.ac.uk/short-courses/environmental/energy-from-biomass-combustion/index....
 
Description Presentation at the 2018 Wood Heat Association Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented findings of lower emissions from torrefied fuels used in biomass heating. A great deal of discussion followed and this has been on-going and we have performed further testing of a number of fuels. A publication is pending.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press article (torrefaction) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in Yorkshire post about torrefaction (of Christmas Trees) led to increased enquiries about our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/christmas-trees-could-provide-annual-low-cost-fuel-bonanza-1-303...
 
Description Workshops on Torrefaction 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Two workshops on Torrefaction were organised at the University of Leeds. These were part of the dissemination activities of the project: "Premium Upgraded Biomass Solid Fuels" which attracted international speakers, and delegates from academia and industry, plus other stakeholders (UK and International) :
1. One-day workshop: 28th March 2012 (56 delegates)
2. Two-day workshop: 1-2 April 2014 (44 delegates)
Outcomes: Two working workshops were run in collaboration with the University of Bath at the 2014 workshop (as part of the Supergen Bioenergy Hub activities) to identify barriers for the use of torrefied biomass and supply-chain parameters and supply technology options for the UK. The findings were presented at the World Bioenergy 2014 Conference, Jönköping, Sweden and have been published (Adams, P.W.R., Shirley, J., Whittaker, C., Shield, I., Darvell, L.I., Jones, J.M., McManus, M.C. Integrated assessment of the potential for torrefied wood pellets in the UK electricity market. Proceedings of the World Bioenergy 2014 Conference, pp. 235-239, 3-5 June, Jönköping, Sweden)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014
URL http://www.engineering.leeds.ac.uk/short-courses/Torrefaction.shtml