Robust Intelligent Lamp Post (ILP) Sensor Networks for Energy Efficient Transportation Systems

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Abstract

The purpose of the proposed research is to develop radically new strategies and protocols for the supply of both energy and data communications along existing power transmission lines used by Intelligent Vehicle and Transport Infrastructures, IVTI. Energy demand is reduced due to its potential for seamless integration of novel pervasive sensors with legacy technologies for indoor and outdoor monitoring using existing power line infrastructures. The project builds upon our expertise in communication and information technology at King's College London and the pioneering mote technology developed at the Newcastle University in the EU ASTRA, and the EPSRC MESSAGE, projects. The impact of these results will be significant at a time when UK Government acknowledges the crucial role of Intelligent Vehicle and Transport Systems, IVTS, technology to make more efficient use of existing infrastructure in the delivery of a low carbon transport systems for the future. The development of dense, pervasive, multitask sensor networks, that provide real-time traffic flow information and monitor several environmental factors (such as pollutants from vehicles) has been demonstrated in MESSAGE to facilitate the development of more efficient traffic control schemes, thus leading to a significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental pollution. We aim to disseminate the results not only through outstanding publications but importantly through existing links in the regional transport boards, Foresight Intelligent Infrastructure Forum in UK and Europe, and ITS World Congress generating knowledge dialogue at all stages of the project.

Publications

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Galatioto F (2013) Exploring the processes governing roadside pollutant concentrations in urban street canyon. in Environmental science and pollution research international

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Galatioto G (2011) Integration of low-cost sensors with UTMC for assessing environmental impacts of traffic in urban area in 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems and ITS America Annual Meeting 2011

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Gulliver J (2015) Development of an open-source road traffic noise model for exposure assessment in Environmental Modelling & Software

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Kumar P (2015) The rise of low-cost sensing for managing air pollution in cities. in Environment international

 
Description Engagement with Envirowatch continues with regular updates on progress. The Alphasense company who make the sensors and in particular the nitrogen dioxide sensor have responded the problems identified by our deployment of the sensors in the field by upgrading the sensor technology. The first deployment in Manchester failed due to prolonged humidity which diluted the electrolyte. Different electrolytes have been used; then the orifice of the sensor was made smaller; cross sensitivity to ozone was drawn to their attention and a filter was fitted; more recently a fourth electrode was added to correct for temperature and humidity but at the expense to sensitivity. TORG have worked alongside the company to develop a solution. The most recent sensor is now 'fit for purpose' and we are currently engaged in a full scale evaluation of sensors in collaboration with colleagues in the Urban Observatory facilities.
The research led to further developments in the sensors and the emote system to be driven with and without paper. More specifically (a) identified the need for improvements in the design of the sensor to be fit for purpose for use on the roadside. improvements have been made by the manufacturers in response to our findings so that with work continuing after the Lamppost project a robust sensor has been recently marketed and (b) an emote design has been to include the gateway functionality in the emote technology so that they can be deployed independently of an array of emotes with a gateway. These systems are now useful for indoor measurement as well as for isolated locations, on motorways, in rural areas and residential streets or wherever there is power available. The data from the emotes is much more valuable to the practitioner when simultaneously meteorological conditions and traffic data are measured. It is this aspect that continues in collaboration with Amey consulting, activities that were crucially initiated during the lamppost project.
Exploitation Route There are many other pervasive sensor manufacturers internationally now benefiting from our work supporting Envirowatch on the evaluation of sensors as they are now manufactured with substantial improvement which will benefit all who purchase them. Envirowatch have taken steps to have their particular input to this issue recognised. TORG have facilitated the colocation of precision with the emote and Jeff Neasham from the Electrical Engineering at Newcastle University is responsible for the delivery of the system technology.
The emotes continue to monitor pollution in the Urban Observatory and validation exercises continue. Meetings are planned with other manufacturers keen to use the facilities of the urban environment to validate their sensors.
Sectors Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

 
Description The LAMPPOST research further developed the e-mote technology pioneered in the MESSAGE project. The algorithms used to calibrate for both humidity and temperature were further refined. The development of the system to accommodate the ozone sensor helped measure the cross sensitivity of the nitrogen dioxide sensor to ozone. New sensor technology was released by the manufacturer and they were found to fail at high levels of humidity experienced in Manchester. Knowledge acquired during the LAMPPOST helped to prove the need to address the dilution of the electrolyte due t0o high humidity. In more recent years we have supported the calibration the series of new generation sensors in collaboration with the spin out company of the MESSAGE project Envirowatch. As a result Alphasense have responded with a fit-for-purpose sensor with a guarantee limit of 80% maximum humidity and Envirowatch have modified their funding model to replace the sensors regularly each 6months (as opposed to 18m-24m previously) Engagement with Envirowatch continues with regular updates on progress. The Alphasense company who make the sensors and in particular the nitrogen dioxide sensor have responded the problems identified by our deployment of the sensors in the field by upgrading the sensor technology. The first deployment in Manchester failed due to prolonged humidity which diluted the electrolyte. Different electrolytes have been used; then the orifice of the sensor was made smaller; cross sensitivity to ozone was drawn to their attention and a filter was fitted; more recently a fourth electrode was added to correct for temperature ad humidity but at the expense to sensitivity. TORG have worked alongside the company to develop a solution. The most recent sensor is now 'fit for purpose' and we are currently engaged in a full scale evaluation of sensors in collaboration with colleagues in the Urban Observatory facilities. Other engagement activity has included IAA KTS Secondment to Amey Plc Beneficiaries: Amey Plc Contribution Method: Involves setting up of the NUIDAP Newcastle University integrated database and assessment platform on the Tyne and Wear UTMC. Start Date: 01.11.14. End Date: 30.09.15 IAA KTS Secondment Margaret Bell September 2016 - 28 February 2017 with Amey to engage with potential users of NUIDAP to understand how the interface needs to be tailored to provide the information needed by the traffic engineers and air quality officers to deliver their responsibilities. Engagement was one to one meetings with Birmingham, Calderdale, Newcastle, Gateshead, Medway, Transport for London, Plymouth and Transport for Scotland and workshops, and seminars hosted by Transport for Scotland (60+) Arup Leeds (20+) and Newcastle (40+). PhD student Marouf S, carried out a systematic calibration of the noise sensor in the Emote marketed by Envirowatch, the spin-out company of Newcastle University, and used it to explore in depth the probability density functions of noise changing along a street and at junctions within urban environments across Newcastle. This work was taken further to use the NUIDAP database platform to develop algorithms to predict the noise levels every five minutes at different positions along the road, namely acceleration away from the junction, cruising mid-link and queuing on the approach to a junction. This in the future will allow noise exposure of people living in urban areas to be more accurately estimated using the data available as a by-product of SCOOT and the CNOSSUS model. Indeed Shadman Marouf has submitted and successfully defended her thesis. Correction algorithms have been created and used to validate data collected previously. The modelling approach allows real-time estimates (every five minutes) of noise to be predicted in three areas of the road namely acceleration, cruising and queuing, in advance of signalised junction. Detail have been discussed with Amey Consulting and subject to funding may be coded in AQATANE the commercial version of NUIDAP.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Environment,Transport
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Contribution to Undergraduate Teaching Module Durham University. Gave a full day of lectures to MEng students in their Final year. Funded by Durham University, contributed to revision prior to exams. Material from the SECURE and Lamppost projects was shared with the students providing the key message that radical changes of transport provision in the future is essential to deliver sustainability and how pervasive sensors can help understand traffic related problems and develop interventions.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Workshop for KT attendees Transport Scotland, TRL
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The use of the eMotes and the database developed to compare the emote data with traffic and environment to reveal solutions to traffic related pollution hotspots. Workshops seminars ITS(UK) SEIG activity had led to many local authorities being influenced in the ways in which they manage air quality episodes. Issues relating to current traffic management and transport policy seems to tie the hands of the engineers with who we come into contact and changes are very slow. In Transport Scotland however and integrated approach has meant that through my engagement activities TS and SEPA have adopted much of the IPR transferred to them.
 
Description AQATANE Air Quality Analytics for Traffic Management in Newcastle
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Transport 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description EPSRC Impact Acceleration Account research sabbatical
Amount £25,969 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2014 
End 10/2014
 
Description Ricardo Group
Amount £26,120 (GBP)
Funding ID Tender ref. 041 
Organisation Ricardo UK Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2012 
End 03/2015
 
Description Ricardo Group
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Tender ref. 041 
Organisation Ricardo UK Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2012 
End 05/2013
 
Description DEFRA 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
Start Year 2006
 
Description Department for Transport 
Organisation Department of Transport
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Met regularly and discussed output of the project and opened up channels of communication with other colleagues. Outputs help fundamental understanding which in turn helped steer policy and influence decision making at National Level.
Collaborator Contribution Graham Pendlebury Chaired the Advisory group of the SECURE and was proactive in promoting the SECURE project. Gave presentations to the ITS(UK) Smart Environment Interest Group Conferences which gave further outreach to the project. His effective Chairmanship managed the commitment of the other 13 stakeholders who were contracted to this project. Contact was established at the pre- proposal stage of the project and therefore could be identified and named in the proposal. I have been engaged with the Department of Transport since the mid 1970s but as the research changes collaboration is established with different individuals and divisions within DfT.
Impact In 2016 invited to review a paper on emissions following the Volkswagen scandal Transport and environment embracing air quality and climate change.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Responding to the invitation to have input to the PIARC report on Approaches to Air Quality in relation to road operations. 
Organisation Transport Scotland
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution By raising awareness of sources of emissions and how they disperse in the urban environment and tactical and strategic solutions using ITS presented to the PIARC Working Group the ensuing knowledge influenced the writing of the report. Following on from the presentation given in November 2017 at the joint meeting of the ITS(UK) SEIG and the PIARC World Road Association air quality groups, Bell was invited to provide input to and feedback on the PIARC Working Group 1 of Technical Committee 3.2 report "Approaches to Air Quality in Relation to Road Operations" which included the Role of Intelligent Transport Systems and Case Studies. Case studies contributed include the Demonstration of the NUIDAP in AQATANE and Tactical and strategic management that emerged from research funded by the EU in the fifth Framework which built on earlier SRC/EPSRC research funded during the 1987-1997 period in the days when Bell was lecturer/senior lecturer at Nottingham University and Directed the Instrumented City funded by the SERC/EPSRC. Research outputs were shared also from earlier projects funded by the EPSRC in the period 1997-2007 whilst senior lecturer/professor at Leeds University including the real-world emissions measurements, driver behaviour and canyon modelling..
Collaborator Contribution Sharing the goals of the report and a wider view of non technological approaches to delivering solutions to air quality problems.
Impact Contribution to their reports.
Start Year 2018
 
Description SERCO 
Organisation SERCO
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
Start Year 2006
 
Description Scottish Environment Protection Agency 
Organisation Scottish Environment Protection Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Invitation from Scottish Environment Protection Agency to carry out a Review of the Aberdeen Air Quality Modelling Pilot Project. Provided substantial feedback and a Final Report May 2017. This invitation resulted from a long standing collaboration and engagement if research projects and sharing and transfer of knowledge from MESSAGE Lamppost and SECURE since 2007
Collaborator Contribution N/A
Impact The EPA produced an updated version of the Aberdeen Air Quality Modelling Pilot Project report
Start Year 2017
 
Description Sensor trial in Port ship 
Organisation Svitzer A/S
Country Denmark 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Established preliminary agreement with Svitzer to deploy a mote sensor array on board of a ship in Tees port.
Start Year 2012
 
Title Algorithms developed by Newcastle University for the real-time prediction of congestion sensitive emissions algorithms embedded in the NUIDAP, Newcastle University Integrated Database and Assessment Platform. In addition the Statistical Analysis Module which identifies outlier days so that impact assessments of intereventions can be comprehensively evaluated. The Hazard model has also been coded which means that the long 
Description These algorithms were developed over many years mainly based on EPSRC research. They have been incorporated in the NUIDAP the IPR of which has been transferred to the Amey Company by way of successive EPSRC funded Impact Acceleration Awards over recent years. As a result of the recent secondment it is anticipated that real-world applications will arise in the next year. 
IP Reference  
Protection Protection not required
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact These algorithms have been applied in Medway, Stockport and Newcastle and a much richer understanding of the causes of pollution have been gained. This has allowed improved action planning to deliver solutions which address and better manage air quality. The biggest barrier is the current political environment and a reluctance of the general public to take steps to change their behaviours.
 
Company Name Envirowatch 
Description This company was a spin out to commercially exploit the e-Mote researched and developed by Jeff Neasham of the School of Electrical Engineering Newcastle University in the EPSRC funded MESSAGE project. My colleagues Dr Fabio Galatioto, Dr Paul Goodman and Professor Margaret Bell have worked alongside Envirowatch since 2011 to enhance and validate the accuracy of the sensors addressing more specifically the issues with the Nitrogen Dioxide Sensor in collaboration with Alphasense. An ozone sensor was incorporated in the MESSAGE system by Envirowatch as an output from the EPSRC Lamppost project 
Year Established 2011 
Impact Continued close relationship with this Envirowatch to overcome set backs due to the Alphasense sensors proving not to be fit for purpose. Product has been modified in response to user needs to have its own GPRS SIM card to be a standalone system for application on motorways, indoors, garages etc; application within railway stations; validation and self correction algorithms for noise developed as a result of a PhD project funded by the Iraq Government.
Website http://envirowatch.ltd.uk
 
Description "Air Quality Management - Taking the Poison out of Motoring?" hosted by ICE Transport PIN - Wed 17th Jan 2018, Aecom, Chesterfield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Trials and Tribulations of delivering acceptable levels of Air Quality and reaching Carbon targets
Research funded, mainly by the EPSRC (including Instrumented City LANTERN, FUTURES, 4M, MESSAGE, PhD studentships), and more recently in the SECURE project have provided the understanding of the sources, causes and the solutions to resolving air pollution whilst also delivering lower carbon emissions. This presentation was designed to share these outputs with the Civil Engineering profession so that they appreciate the radical changes needed to deliver win-win for climate change. This involves changes in public attitudes and behaviour - which can be influenced by the design of the built environment and appropriate changes to land use. Hence my eagerness to give this presentation. The abstract for the presentation was

Even though vehicle technologies become ever more efficient and sophisticated, unintended consequences result in different air quality problems. Also, it is increasingly the case that the most inefficient and variable component in the modern passenger car is the driver. This presentation investigates variability in driver behaviour and seeks to quantify their effects. In the quest of driving down carbon dioxide with new technologies and introducing renewable fuels the impacts on air quality have not always been beneficial. Results of research quantifying the impacts of intervention measures to address air quality at local, city and regional scale are presented to demonstrate that success requires an integrated approach of several measures coupled with behavioural change. Issues and conflicts in trying to deliver policies that address both climate change and air quality impacts will be presented and concludes that in essence demand management is likely to be the only way forward.

This presentation will be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders, Local Authorities, traffic engineers, planners, bus operators, consultants, vehicle manufacturers and decision makers. In addition, the paper will be informative for politicians and the general public. The global aim of the presentation is to deliver an understanding of the fundamentals of air quality and thus to illustrate positive ways in which simple changes in behaviour and adopting alternative transport choices can take the poison out of motoring,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ice.org.uk/eventarchive/air-quality-management-chesterfield
 
Description 7th Smart Environment Interest Group Conference" ITS and Air Quality : Taking Stock" Wednesday 15th November 2017, 11:00-16:00 Hosted by Amey The Colmore Building, 20 Colmore Circus, Queensway, Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As founder (in 2000) and Chair of the ITS(UK) Smart Interest group we hold seminars and conferences to raise awareness of research and activity in the specific area of how intelligent transport systems deliver environmental impact. This forum has been the channel of communication of all the research carried out in my research group and can be claimed to have substantially influenced the way in which technology has been developed used and impacts evaluated. In particular this forum over the years has led to Transport Scotland with SEPA delivering a monitoring and modelling framework across Scotland. Amey hosted this conference and gave a presentation on the outputs from the EPSRC Impact Acceleration Secondment strengthening the collaboration between Amey and Newcastle University by exploiting the Newcastle University Integrated Database and Assessment Platform which was initially developed in MESSAGE enhanced in Lamppost and exploited since through three IAA awards. The commercial product AQATANE was demonstrated in the project of that name funded by the DfT.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invitation from the Prescot Parish Church Mother's Union to give a presentation on "Pollution" on 8th November 2017 held at the Church Hall Prescot Merseyside. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact By request I set the scene with a short introduction of my career and how I progressed my education from being a pupil at the local Senior (then Grammar) School to being awarded the CBE. The presentation then provided in a very simple terms the sources, causes and challenges of tackling the transport related pollution. The key messages which emerged from the research outputs I described allowed me to present some advice as follows: Think twice about using the car; Use non-motorised modes especially for short trips; Use public transport (your LA and Bus companies are investing in Clean Buses); Chose Local shops/Schools and walk/cycle; Ride share and offer to collect other's shopping; Reduce the need to travel by motorised vehicles; Adopt Eco driving styles if you must drive-be cooperate/considerate when driving and lastly Live close to work and walk. The audience ranged in ages from early thirties to over ninety and over 40 were in attendance. I used dried peas in plastic boxes to demonstrate concepts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation-Newc-Aston 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation in mathematics group in Aston university on the topic of Mathematical Challenges in the Forecasting of Environmental Change: Mitigation and Adaptation Approaches, 30th September 2013. Mainly researchers and academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Professional engagement-NEWC-TfS and SEPA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ITS(UK) SEIG Chair meeting in London; Organised. Attended full day of SEIG Seminar hosted in Edinburgh by Transport Scotland October 2014 and SEPA. Member of the Air Quality Management Group for Scotland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Workshop-ENNA-Summer SChool 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Over three days presentations on sustainable transport to postgraduates MSc and PhD; tour around laboratories and face to face research discussion. Three staff attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013