Decision making in an unstable world

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bristol
Department Name: Experimental Psychology

Abstract

For humans and machines decision making is not always simple. Sometimes the world changes so quickly that experience does not always tell you how to behave. Humans can cope reasonably well in this unstable and complicated world but we don't have a full understanding of how they do this. Solving this problem requires a wide range of researchers from very different backgrounds to work together. This grant assembles a team from Mathematics, Statistics, Computer Science, Psychology, Economics, Earth Sciences, Geography, Neurology, Education and Biology.We will carry out experiments on human volunteers while they make decisions and try to understand how these decisions are made. The resulting models will then be useful in the design of artificial decision making systems such as computer based traffic flow systems, automatic stock market trading systems and early warning systems for disasters. This project also includes a number of researchers who work on real world problems such as food choice, financial decision making, disaster management and human addiction.A major challenge in this area is to build genuine understanding and common working practices across the subjects. We have planned a range of activities to help build a common language and understanding which will result in a new and sustainable community of decision making researchers.

Planned Impact

An understanding of decision making is crucial across a wide range of contexts in society and engineering. Our research already has impact in many applied areas and these applications are partly the inspiration for the next generation of research that will be carried out in this project. Specific areas of impact that we can already predict include: Complex engineered systems often include some decisional process. This is sometimes augmented by human interaction with these systems. For example a pilot may make a decision about where to fly but this will be informed by computer systems that filter the sensed information about the environment. The pilot may also be making decisions in conjunction with a co-pilot, and again there will be computer systems deciding how to respond to the control decisions made by the pilots. Understanding human decision making and building more robust artificial decision making systems is a central question for any industry that is involved in the design or construction of complex systems of this kind. We have a range of industrial partners with these interests including Selex, BAE Systems, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, QinetiQ, and NASA. Our research will continue to be shared with these partners and future spin-off projects will be developed where appropriate to ensure knowledge transfer. Humans often have to make complex and challenging decisions. The manner in which the information is presented can have an impact on the quality of decisions made. For example most people face significant and complex personal financial decisions, such as the choice of a mortgage product. Understanding in more detail how these decisions are made could impact on Government policy in this area. The involvement of The Personal Finance Research Centre, who have significant government links, will ensure that our work can benefit individuals and society in this way. Understanding how decisions are made is critical to understanding behaviour in disaster situations. A framework for understanding decision making in this context will lead to more informed disaster management decisions and ultimately reduce the impact of the disaster. The involvement of The Bristol Environmental Risk Research Centre (BRISK) will allow the work to have an international impact in this area. Although outside the remit of this project, the understanding of addiction and other psychological disorders will significantly benefit from an improved understanding of decision making. We have extensive links with NHS groups studying these areas, and will ensure that the discoveries are disseminated widely in this field. Finally, while the research produced in this project will have a significant immediate impact, the training of a large cohort of highly skilled inter-disciplinary researchers in decision making will provide a clear boost to UK industry for the foreseeable future, both through those who move into industry, and those who continue to carry out further ground-breaking academic research of the type we propose here.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description In this grant we create a new cross-disciplinary centre of excellence for research into decision making science at Bristol University. As part of this objective we trained five new PhD students within the centre who, because of the unique research environment created by the grant, became native inter-disciplinarians in the area of decision-making science. All five students graduated and 4 of them are currently pursuing an academic career and one is applying their advanced knowledge in human decision making in a commercial context.
The team of academics this project supported were leading academics from mathematics, computer science and psychology. But we also build significant links with a team of biologist who were funded at about the same time via an ERC Advanced Grant and the value of these links is reflected in a number of the publications associated with this award (Ez-Zizi at al, 2018; Fawcett et al, 2014; Ballard et al, 2016). Significant links were also developed with a local SME 'Prime Decision' who provided behavioural insights consultancy to a wide range of multinationals and allowed the students and research staff funded on the grant to apply their knowledge in this context.
A central theme in this grant was the development of mathematical and computational models of decision making. One dominant class of model in this field are accumulator models in which evidence in favour of one decision or another is accumulated over time until it reaches a given threshold and then this initiates the decision. Work on this grant by Malhotra et al (2018, 2017) significantly developed these models and formally demonstrated the benefits, in specific defined contexts, of having a threshold which reduced over time (so called 'collapsing bounds'). Lloyd and Leslie (2013) developed Baysian models in this context and Cassey et al (2013) developed models that incorporate adaptive sampling. Theoretical work by Marshall et al (2012) explored the extent to which these models were optimal and linked them directly to know processes occurring within the mammalian brain.
The relationship between these models and the neural architecture that supports them were further specified in a number of subsequent papers (Mikhael and Bogecz, 2016; Bogacz at al, 2016; Jahans-Price at al, 2014; Nevado-Holgado et al, 2014)
This theoretic work highlighted a set of inter-related processes that are key to our understanding of decision making, this led to an important empirical work stream to investigate these processes in humans. The decision of what should be selected is directly linked to the rewards associated with the decision options and in a series of studies we investigated how this affects both learning; and the memory representations that are held of events and decision (Mason et al, 2017a, b; Lloyd et al, 2019). Another key factor is the mechanism by which the decision environment is explored in order to acquire information for accumulation; this was another focus of the work carried out (Javstad and Gilchrist, 2019; Clark and Gilchrist, 2018; Ludwig and Evens, 2017; Ludwig at al, 2014). We demonstrated important interrelationships between the reward structure in the environment and the exploration behaviour that occurred.
The primary focus of the work was human and artificial decision making systems but we also demonstrated the utility of the work beyond this context and applied it to the behaviour of small birds (Ez-Zizi at al, 2018) and Drosophila (Julienne at al, 2017) and more generally to how decision rules might have evolved in complex environments (Fawcett et al, 2014; Ballard et al, 2016).
We also developed a range of projects in which we applied this work to real world challenges. We demonstrated how simple decision making 'nudges' could change clinical decision making by doctors within a hospital intensive care unit (Bourdeaux et al, 2016) and the models provided a framework to understand the effects of Deep Brain Stimulation used for the treatment of Parkinson's patients (Green at al, 2013).
Exploitation Route Via this grant, we have built a community of researchers in this field in Bristol and a number of grants are in preparation
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Healthcare

 
Description This project worked closely with doctors working in the NHS to evaluate ways to change doctor behaviour. This project worked with Prime Decision (an SME) to provided scientifically informed advice to a range of companies and charities. The project supported regular meetings of a people working in the commercial sector with an interest in artificial and human decision making.
First Year Of Impact 2010
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Healthcare
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description 6th International Conference of the ERCIM WG on Computational and Methodological Statistics. 16/12/13. Keynote/invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.


• Increased requests for further information
• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.cmstatistics.org/ERCIM2013/
 
Description Access to Bristol 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Taught workshop for teenagers as part of Access to Bristol scheme to introduce them to modelling in Biology. Pupils engaged with learning and increased knowledge of further education.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Animal and Plant Sciences, Sheffield (seminar). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Ecological rationality and environmental complexity'

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Applied Behavioural Sciences Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact How can insights from fields like behavioural economics and decision theory be practically applied to business? This group is created for people who want to find out. It provides a forum to discuss the challenges and opportunities involved in applying ideas and concepts from the behavioural sciences

Nothing to note
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.meetup.com/behavioural/
 
Description BIRS Optimal Cooperation, Communication, and Learning in Decentralized Systems.13-17/10/2014, Keynote/invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact • Increased requests for further information
• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions

Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.mathpsych.org/conferences/2013/
 
Description Brain awareness week at At-Bristol science centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Made 'brain caps' - taught children about parts of the brain, and their functions.

Interactive outreach talk for children (KS1/Lower KS2) as part of Brain and Body day at At-Bristol. The Brain and Body day is designed to promote an interest in human biology by allowing students to explore and investigate both artefacts and their own bodies.

Got children thinking about what actually happens in the brain - even things like walking and sneezing that they didn't previously think of.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
 
Description Bristol Bright Nights public engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In collaboration with Christos Ioannou of the School of Biological Sciences, we designed and ran a study with the attendees of the Bristol Bright Nights event as well as sharing with them our research under the topic of collective intelligence.

Data gathered from participants in the activities helping with research into how people use information from others when making decisions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bnhc.org.uk/festival-of-nature/bristol-bright-night/bristol-bright-night-2014-brought-sci...
 
Description Bristol Bright Nights public engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Engaged with public to describe different scientific reactions and techniques through the meduim of cocktails
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bristol Decision Making Conference (invited speaker) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on my current research to internal decision-making researchers. Interesting questions and discussion followed presentation.

Various researchers asked me be kept up to date with the progress of my work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2014
URL http://www.bris.ac.uk/decisions-research/conference2014/
 
Description Bristol Decision Making Seminar Presentation (invited speaker) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at BDM weekly seminar to present current research

Talk(s) generated interesting questions and discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.bristol.ac.uk/decisions-research/seminars/
 
Description Can engaging the reward system enhance declarative memory formation? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Poster presentation. SNF Computational Modelling Summer School, Bergun, Switzerland.
.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Cognitive Summer School (poster presentation) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 30 people attended 3 week workshop on modelling decision making and memory

nothing to note
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.cogsci.uci.edu/~joachim/ss2012/
 
Description Conference on Social Decision Making: Bridging Economics and Evolutionary Biology; Monte Verita, Switzerland (plenary speaker). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'The importance of individual differences for games of conflict and the evolution of cooperation'

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Decision-making in Nature 2-4/5/12. Keynote/invited speaker, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.

• Increased requests for further information
• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/naturalsciences/mathematics/eventssumm...
 
Description Decision-making seminar talk, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk to people from many parts of the university about my research, jointly with a colleague

Had helpful questions that made me re-think aspects/interpretations of the research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Decision-making seminar talk, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk to people from many parts of the university about my research

Some researchers were interested in meeting to discuss the wider topic with us.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Demonstrating. Interview practice for Msc students 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Sat on a panel for Msc mock interviews for a PhD.

nothing to note
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Engagement with Copify 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Working with Copify to implement our algorithms to improve the matching process between jobs and workers.

ongoing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://uk.copify.com/
 
Description Ernst Strüngmann Forum on Evolving the Mechanisms of Decision Making (steering committee and participant). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Book chapter on 'Robustness in a variable environment'

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description European conference of eye movements, Sweden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a poster presentation at a week-long conference

Discussed theories with researchers doing very similar research, one of whom then visited us a year later to give a talk and discuss further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description European conference of visual perception, Belgrade 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Good discussions with people working in similar fields

Shared findings with researchers that have been working on the same problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description FSL Imaging Workshop in Bristol 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training of graduate students and post-doctoral researchers. The course covered both the theory and practice of functional and structural brain image analysis. Main purpose: To stimulate thinking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL https://www.nitrc.org/forum/forum.php?forum_id=3514
 
Description Festival of Nature public engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In collaboration with Christos Ioannou of the School of Biological Sciences, we designed and ran 2 studies with the attendees of the Festival of Nature as well as sharing with them our research under the topic of collective intelligence.

- Asked to also attend the Bristol Bright Nights event
- Data gathered from participants in the activities helping with research into how people use information from others when making decisions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bris.ac.uk/decisions-research/festivalofnature/
 
Description ISBE 2014, New York 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference. To stimulate thinking.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Interactive science demonstration & cinematic project in Wales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Interactive performance and science workshop with teenagers, giving lesson and demonstrations of EEG. Main purpose: To stimulate thinking. Result: Pupils asked lots of questions and went away knowing more about neuroscience and psychology than they had learnt at school. Impact: Getting teenagers more interested in different areas of science than those which they'd be exposed to.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description International Federation of Operational Research Societies 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.


• Increased requests for further information
• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ifors2014.org
 
Description Invited instructor on the Summer School for Computational Modelling of Cognition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training of graduate students and post-doctoral researchers

Training of young scientists; skill enhancement; influencing the way psychological science is conducted
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited talks at: Aston University, UK, 2015; Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2015; University of Wales, Bangor, 2014; University of California Irvine, 2014; University of Southampton, UK, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Various talks about perceptual decision-making.

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description London Judgement and Decision-making Seminar (19/3/14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Academics attended a talk which sparked questions afterwards

• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pals/news-and-seminars/ljdm-seminar-series/archive/ljdm-schedule-spring-2014
 
Description Masterclass for 13-14 year olds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation of the basics of game theory. Students then broke into supervised groups and worked on problems. Results were then discussed back in the main forum.

Nothing to note
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/et/edm/aboutthedepartment/outreachandpublicengagement/outreacheventsandactivit...
 
Description Mathematical Psychology conference. 4-7/8/13, Paper presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.


• Increased requests for further information
• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.mathpsych.org/conferences/2013/
 
Description Meet with Centre for Sustainable Energy 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Met with researchers from Centre for Sustainable Energy to discuss how to gather and analyse data in their Neighbourhood Electricity Demand Challenge

nothing to note
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Modelling Biological Evolution, Leicester 2015 (keynote speaker). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Ecological rationality and environmental complexity'

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Neural Information Processing Systems Workshop (16/12/11, Keynote/invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.

nothing to note.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://media.nips.cc/Conferences/2011/NIPS-Workshops-Book-2011.pdf
 
Description Open day at University of Bristol, eye tracking demo. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact People came over during the open day and I showed them a demo with the eyetracker and taught them about the techniques and the research going on in the dept.

Helped some people understand what sort of research occurs in the university.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Open day steward, 2015, bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Engaged with public to describe the University of Bristol
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Outreach with secondary school in the LSB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Workshop for secondary school children in field and lab techniques. Pupils engaged with learning and increased knowledge of further education.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Poster Presentation - Decision Making in Nature May 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented at a poster session of the conference Decision Making in Nature at Imperial College in London. Poster was called: Why aren't two heads better than the best one?'

Abstract: The adage 'two heads are better than one' suggests that when two people discuss an ambiguous situation, the outcome of a joint decision will be closer to reality than each individual's evaluation. What is happening to the informational content of the discussion? Does precision increase and agreed answers migrate toward the more accurate of the pair? If not, what other factors might be influencing the decision.
.

none notable
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Poster at Annual Meeting of Psychonomics Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation - Information foraging for perceptual decisions

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.psychonomic.org/Default.aspx
 
Description Poster at Decision Making Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented a poster at the Decision making conference

Talking about my work inspired deeper thought about processes and requests from others for further information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster at Decision Making Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation - Information foraging for perceptual decisions

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bris.ac.uk/decisions-research/conference2012/
 
Description Poster at Decision Making conference 2014, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster - Optimal wait times at the nest for monogamous breeding bird species.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster at Easter ASAB conference, 2014, Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster - Optimal wait times at the nest for monogamous breeding bird species.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster at Easter ASAB in Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presented a poster at the Easter ASAB to share my current research

Questions asked stimulated my own and hopefully others thoughts on my research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster at NSPSS (Natural Systems and Processes Poster Session) 2014, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster - Optimal wait times at the nest for monogamous breeding bird species.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster at Theoretical and empirical aspects of decision-making conference, Bristol, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The switch effect in reinforcement learning under uncertainty

Feedback on my research and communication of research to others
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Poster at the European Conference on Eye Movements 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation - Spatio-temporal stimuli interactions in visual-oculomotor pathway: Are they spatiotopic or retinotopic?

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://ecem2015.univie.ac.at/
 
Description Poster at the decision making conference (Bristol) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about "Reinforcement learning under expected and unexpected uncertainty".


Received some interesting comments and questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012
URL http://www.bris.ac.uk/decisions-research/conference2012/
 
Description Poster at the international conference on working memory conference (Cambridge) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about "the effect of working memory capacity on learning in humans"

Received some interesting comments and questions which helped me design a future behavioural experiment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2014
URL http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/blog/2012/08/international-conference-on-working-memory/
 
Description Poster at the reinforcement learning and decision making conference (Princeton, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about "Reinforcement learning under expected and unexpected uncertainty".

Received some interesting comments and questions which helped me build a new model to explain my behavioural data.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://rldm.org/past-meetings/rldm2013/
 
Description Poster at the reinforcement learning and decision making conference 2013 (Princeton, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Reinforcement learning under expected and unexpected uncertainty

Feedback on my research and communication of research to others
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Poster competition at Festival of Postgraduate research 2015, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster - Optimal wait times at the nest for monogamous breeding bird species.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Poster presentation at Reinforcement Learning & Decision Making 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussed research with other academics at the conference. Roughly 20-30 people came and talked about the poster.

Stimulated thinking about research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Poster presentation at Psychonomics 2014, Long Beach, CA, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented Poster - reward uncertainty and memory. Main purpose: To stimulate thinking. Impact: Feedback on my research and communication of research to others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2014
 
Description Poster presentation at Psychonomics 2014, Long Beach, CA, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "The effect of working memory capacity on the Speed and Accuracy of Learning in Reinforcement Learning Models"

Feedback on my research and communication of research to others
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster presentation at Psychonomics 2015, Chicago, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster - reward uncertainty and memory. Impact: Feedback on my research and communication of research to others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Poster presentation at Psychonomics, Long Beach, CA, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation - Why aren't 2 heads better than the best one?

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster presentation at Society of Judgment and Decision Making 2014, Long Beach, CA, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "The effect of working memory capacity on the Speed and Accuracy of Learning in Reinforcement Learning Models"

Feedback on my research and communication of research to others
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster presentation at Society of Judgment and Decision Making, Long Beach, CA, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster - reward uncertainty and memory. Main purpose: To stimulate thinking. Impact: Feedback on my research and communication of research to others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster presentation at Society of Judgment and Decision Making, Long Beach, CA, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation - Why aren't 2 heads better than the best one?

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster presentation at the International conference on working memory, Cambridge, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Using reinforcement learning to learn working memory tasks

Feedback on my research and communication of research to others
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Present a paper at NetGCoop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact • Increased requests for further information
• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions

Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://netgcoop.imag.fr
 
Description Presentation at Decision Making Conference, Bristol, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a 25 minute presentation entitled 'Better Together - Understanding Collaborative Decision Making'.

none noted
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at MathsPsyc 2013, Postdam, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave 20 minute presentation entitled 'Exploring factors in Joint decision making'

Arranged visit to Chris Summerfield's lab in Oxford as a follow on from talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation to MAD group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a presentation to the MAD research group about current research on Pair Bonds and Monogamy

Discussion was generated on defining the pair bond
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Royal Society satellite meeting on 'Theories of minds: the theoretical bases of comparative cognition' (invited speaker). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Ecological rationality and environmental complexity'

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description SNF Cognitive modelling workshop in Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training of graduate students and post-doctoral researchers - a workshop where researchers in the field taught post-docs and PhD students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description SNF Cognitive modelling workshop in Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A two week workshop where researchers in the field taught post-docs and PhD students. We then worked on own projects and presented them using some modelling methods learnt.

Poster presentation and summer school project/talk. Swiss National Science Foundation European Summer School on "Computational Modelling of Memory and Decision Making.

Asked to review a paper for CogSci conference, as the organiser taught at the summer school
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Seminar at Max Plank Institute for Human Development, Berlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Ecological rationality and environmental complexity'

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at Yahoo! Labs Europe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a seminar to Yahoo! Labs. This resulted in ongoing discussions to collaboratively develop a new bit of theory and algorithms to solve a current business need

ongoing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2014
URL http://labs.yahoo.com/event/david-leslie-presents-thompson-sampling-in-multi-armed-bandits-and-games...
 
Description Seminar: Glasgow University (26/4/12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Academics attended a talk which sparked questions afterwards

• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/mathematicsstatistics/events/details/?id=8898
 
Description Seminar: Imperial College London (16/11/12) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Academics attended a talk which sparked questions afterwards

• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/naturalsciences/mathematics/statistics...
 
Description Seminar: Lancaster University (26/11/13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Academics attended a talk which sparked questions afterwards

• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2013
 
Description Seminar: University of York (3/10/13) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Academics attended a talk which sparked questions afterwards




• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://maths.york.ac.uk/www/node/13739
 
Description Seminar: Warwick University (15/5/14) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Academics attended a talk which sparked questions afterwards




• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/statistics/event_diary/?num=30&skip=30&start=120214&tag=seminars&v...
 
Description Swiss graduate workshop on "Evolution of proximate mechanisms" Arolla (invited speaker). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on 'Function, mechanism and ecological rationality'

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Talk at Decision Making Bristol 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The effect of spatial probability and reward on response time. Shared findings with researchers and gained feedback on my PhD work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk at 'Round Table' departmental talk series, 2015, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk - 'Optimal wait times at the nest for monogamous breeding bird species.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at At-Bristol science museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Gave a talk to 20-60 primary school pupils, with a mini interactive 'experiment' and questions afterwards

Many interesting questions and interest in how people become scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Talk at Bristol Human Behaviour and Evolution group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk - Better Together, but why?

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at Decision Making Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk - reward-related influences on memory. Impact: Feedback on my research and communication of research to others. Main purpose: To stimulate thinking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bris.ac.uk/decisions-research/conference2014/
 
Description Talk at Decision Making Bristol 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research talk at Decision-making Bristol attended by 50-70 academics. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards

Stimulated thinking and communicated research output.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk at MathPsych 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk presented at international conference. Around 50-70 academics attended the talk. Talk generated questions and discussion afterwards.

Feedback on my research and communication of research to others
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk at Subjective Probability, Utility and Decision Making Conference, Budapest, Hungary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk - Combining Information to Make Judgements

Contact with other professionals interested in the same area of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at behaviour 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "When's Daddy coming home?" The value of information in monogamous bird species where incubation is shared by both parents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at the European Conference on Eye Movements 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk on the work from PhD which was invaluable - received insightful feedback from researchers in the field. Main purpose: to share information. Result description: The effect of reward and probability on responses. Impact: Feedback on research and communication of research to others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at the European meeting of PhD students in evolutionary biology, University of Exeter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk given at European Meeting of PhD Students in Evolutionary Biology.

Is hyperbolic discounting an adaptation for rate maximization?

Abstract: In laboratory experiments, animals typically choose a small food

reward delivered after a short delay over a larger reward delivered

after a longer delay, but will reverse this preference when both

delays are increased by equal amounts. This and related phenomena

suggest that animals value delayed rewards according to what is called

hyperbolic discounting. In the experimental setting such behavior is

suboptimal, but it might be produced by a decision rule that is well

adapted to natural environments. For example, Alex Kacelnik has

proposed that hyperbolic discounting may lead a foraging animal to

maximize its rate of energy intake.



Kacelnik's proposal can be analyzed mathematically by making a very

simple modification to a well-known model from optimal foraging

theory. Under this model, it can be optimal to reverse preferences

when both delays are increased by the same amount or when both rewards

are multiplied by the same factor, both of which have been observed in

experiments. However, it has also been observed that animals may

change their mind after an initial delay if given an opportunity to do

so, a feature which this model can not account for. In addition to

this problem, I will discuss several other, well-known discrepancies

between the empirical data on intertemporal choice and the adaptive

explanation based on rate maximization.
.

none notable
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk at the Young Vision researchers colloquium, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The colloquium allows PhD students and post doctoral research associates and others at an equivalent research stage to present their work and obtain valuable feedback in an informal environment. Main purpose: To share information. Result: The effect of reward and probability on responses. Impact: Feedback on research and communication of research to others.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk at the decision making conference (Bristol) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about "learning to use working memory".


Received some interesting comments and questions which helped me improved my work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
URL http://www.bris.ac.uk/decisions-research/conference2014/
 
Description Talk to MAD research group, 2013 Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk - Pair Bond and monogamous species
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk to the Invariants society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Nothing to note

Gave talk to 40 undergraduate mathematicians to demonstrate use of mathematics in cognitive modelling
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.invariants.org.uk/termcard/Hilary/2012
 
Description UCLID. 1-2/7/13, Keynote/invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.



• Increased requests for further information
• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/uclid2014
 
Description Visit to a school in Bristol to do a 'Brilliant Brain' day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Pupils listened to a talk about the brain and research into how we think, and asked many questions afterwards. We then did an experiment about brain speed, measuring their reaction times to get them excited about the experimental process.

The school said how much the children enjoyed the day and the children could tell us many things they'd learnt
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Winter ASAB conference, 2013, 2014, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference. To stimulate thinking.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
 
Description Work with Prime Decision 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Interact with Prime Decision on an ongoing basis to improve their understanding of behavioural science and machine learning.

nothing to note
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2012,2013,2014
 
Description World Congress of the Game Theory Society (21/7/12-26/7/12, Paper presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers attended a talk that sparked questions afterwards. Speaker attended many other talks.

• Increased requests for further information
• Audience reported change in views, opinions or behaviour
• Own/colleagues reported change in views or opinions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://games2012.bilgi.edu.tr
 
Description Young Vision Researchers Colloquium., Bristol/Cardiff 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A day of talks and poster presentations, during which I gave a poster presentation, talking to many people about my research


no notable impact
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014