LFC-UK: Development of Underpinning Technology for Laminar Flow Control

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Mathematics

Abstract

The world's oil supply is decreasing rapidly and over the next 10 or 20 years the price per barrel will spiral inexorably. Aviation is a significant consumer of oil and is also implicated in global warming through its generation of massive quantities of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Aircraft noise continues to be an increasingly important problem as airports expand. For these reasons aviation as we know it now will rapidly become unviable. There is no single solution to the problem and enormous changes to engines, airframe design, scheduling and indeed people's expectations of unlimited air travel are inevitable. Here we address one of the most important issues, improved aerodynamics, and develop the underpinning technology for Laminar Flow Control (LFC), the technology of drag reduction on aircraft. This will become the cornerstone of aircraft design. Even modest savings in drag of the order of 10% translate into huge savings in fuel costs and huge reductions in atmospheric pollution. Applications of the technology to military aircraft where range is often the main requirement and marine applications are similarly important.

The development of viable LFC designs requires sophisticated mathematical, computational and experimental investigations of the onset of transition to turbulence and its control. Existing tools are too crude to be useful and contain little input from the flow physics. Major hurdles to be overcome concern:

a) How do we specify generic input disturbances for flow past a wing in a messy atmosphere in the presence of surface imperfections, flexing, rain, insects and a host of other complicating features
b) How do we solve the mathematical problems associated with linear and nonlinear disturbance growth in complex 3D flows
c) How do we find a criterion for the onset of transition based on flow physics which is accurate enough to avoid the massive over-design associated with existing LFC strategies yet efficient enough to be useable in the design office
d) How can we use experiments in the laboratory to predict what happens in flight experiments
e) How can we devise control strategies robust enough to be used on civilian aircraft
f) How can we quantify the manufacturing tolerances such as say surface waviness or bumps needed to maintain laminar flow

The above challenges are huge and can only be overcome by innovative research based on the mathematical, computational and experimental excellence of a team like the one we have assembled. The solution of these problems will lead to a giant leap in our understanding of transition prediction and enable LFC to be deployed. The programme is based around a unique team of researchers covering all theoretical, computational, and experimental aspects of the problem together with the necessary expertise to make sure the work can be deployed by industry. Indeed our partnership with most notably EADS and Airbus UK will put the UK aeronautics industry in the lead to develop the new generation of LFC wings.

The programme is focussed primarily on aerodynamics but the tools we develop are relevant in a wide range of problems. In Chemical Engineering there has long been an interest in how to pump fluids efficiently in pipelines and how flow instabilities associated with interfaces can compromise certain manufacturing processes. In Earth Sciences the formation of river bed patterns behind topology or man-made obstructions is governed by the same process that describes the initiation of disturbances on wings. Likewise surface patterns on Mars can be explained by the instability mechanisms of sediment carrying rivers. In Atmospheric Dynamics and Oceanography a host of crucial flow phenomena are intimately related to the basic instabilities of a 3D flow over a curved aerofoil. Our visitor programme will ensure that our work impinges on these and other closely related areas and that likewise we are aware of ideas which can be profitably be used in aerodynamics.

Planned Impact

The primary impact of the Programme will be to enable Laminar Flow Control (LFC) aircraft through improved accuracy of aerodynamic prediction of laminar-turbulent transition. Planned caps on aviation carbon emissions mean that any technology delivering reduced fuel burn will impact directly on the availability of air travel for all within the next 50 years. Recent events have underlined that air travel is embedded in global social and economic activity; technologies which enable aviation to grow rather than decline are of vital importance to preserving air travel as a benefit for society. This enabling technology will also benefit economically the global industry supplying the aviation market; placing the UK in the forefront of this technology will benefit the Airbus-UK, Rolls Royce, BAE Systems, EADS, AgustaWestland and Bombardier who together generate a significant fraction of UK wealth in engineering.

There are also a number of other technological opportunities arising through a better understanding and modelling of the laminar-turbulent transition phenomenon, most notably in Chemical Engineering where there is wide interest in preventing transition to turbulence and in interfacial flows where instabilities are important, and in Earth Sciences and Atmospheric Dynamics.

A summary of the benefits to the UK engineering sector follows. Airbus-UK: reinforcement of the UK's leadership in wing design and manufacture through UK-based technological advance; EADS UK, BAE Systems, QinetiQ: development of UK technological capability to facilitate partnering with US and European defence suppliers for UAS and marine applications; AgustaWestland: improved rotor blade design capability, again within a competitive European framework; Bombardier Belfast: better structural design, manufacture and in-service performance of engine nacelles designed with Laminar Flow, a key area for development within the UK; Rolls-Royce: improved design of blade rows with intermittent laminar/turbulent regions; the Commercial CFD community involved in automobile design (including motorsport); the Chemical Engineering sector as indicated above; even UK sport, through an improved ability to predict flow transition and the stability of the associated vortical flows that impact on human performance. For all these organisations their in-house aerodynamic modelling capabilities all have origins in university collaborations similar to those proposed here. We would expect to see significant changes in practice within 3-5 years of the Programme completion. Also these goals and beneficiaries align with both BIS and MOD industrial policy.

LFC-UK will build upon existing relationships between the collaborating researchers and the industries listed above in both the management and execution of the Programme. Perhaps uniquely, our industrial partners have agreed to second staff into the project, a major improvement upon classical methods of transferring methodology from academia to industry; we will also exploit the TSB-funded Centre for Fluid Mechanic Simulation (CFMS), co-locating both Programme and Industry development and evaluation work to ensure close collaboration in method development and evaluation and transfer of knowledge and understanding to the beneficiaries; classical dissemination routes (publications, workshops, web) will also be employed.

Finally the Applied Mathematics and Engineering community will benefit by the recognition that excellent mathematics and computational skills can be brought together to help solve a major problem relevant to a broad section of society. The partnership between academia and industry will encourage more UK industries to invest in joint research with academia to solve important practical problems. Our work will also impact related areas of research and we will ensure this takes place by workshops and conferences together with a visitor programme targeting both aerodynamicists and experts in related fields.

Publications

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Alderman J. (2016) A method of reducing the drag of transport wings in 34th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference

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Atkin C.J. (2012) Recent developments to the viscous garabedian and korn method in 28th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences 2012, ICAS 2012

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Cantwell C (2015) Nektar++: An open-source spectral/ h p element framework in Computer Physics Communications

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Crowley B.J. (2016) Investigation of the discrete effects of suction in large scale arrays for Laminar flow control in 34th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference

 
Description Notable research highlights concern receptivity theory, the implementation of theoretical tools within the industrial design environment, and the unexpected contributions to the theory of coherent structures in fully turbulent flows. In receptivity theory work has been carried out in close collaboration with Airbus Group Innovations on the effect of surface finish on the initiation of disturbances ultimately leading to transition. Remarkably it has been shown that the direction in which a strip of aluminium is rolled or how paint is applied to a wing surface have significant effects on transition prediction.
New sites of receptivity associated with the vibration of a wing have been found and shown to be implicated in transition on real wings. That research has opened up a range of important projects associated with the effect of elastic vibrations on transition. Other notable results concern the effects of steps, gaps and waves on transition; that was the topic for a detailed joint workshop at Filton last summer. The workshop successfully communicated the results from the project to industry whilst at the same time was an excellent forum for industry to explain the 'road-blocks' on the way to implementation of laminar flow control. The workshop further highlighted the crucial importance of transonic effects on transition prediction from both the theoretical and the industrial design standpoints.
On the computational side our 3D PSE capability has proved remarkably successful at predicting transition in very 3D configurations, so much so that it is now being used by Airbus Group Innovations. As a direct result of LFC-UK's interactions with industry, for the first time research engineers at Airbus have fully appreciated the importance and benefits of modelling 3D instabilities. Our development of a 3D compressible Navier Stokes code to determine the flow around wings is virtually complete and has been applied to many situations to provide data for stability calculations. Significant results have been found for transition in separated flows and large scale numerical simulations of transition in compressible flows using codes developed at Southampton have been compared to theoretical results and excellent agreement found.
The development of rapid methods for predicting the secondary instability of nonlinear states is now becoming an area of major activity. Initial progress has been made for streamwise vortex dominated flows but the major problem of how to predict when a nonlinear crossflow vortex breaks down will be the focus of the new work. The work on the breakdown of streamwise vortices was developed in parallel with work on self-sustained processes in shear flows. A highlight of that work is the development of the first rigorous description of certain types of coherent structures in boundary layers. The work explains the interaction of wall streaks and small-scale turbulence convected downstream at the edge of the boundary layer and explains the generation of lambda or hairpin vortices in turbulent flows. That work has applications well beyond the scope of the original proposal and indeed opens up exciting new areas concerning turbulence control.
On the experimental side the major initial delay in the project caused by Professor Gaster's withdrawal has been significantly offset by the successful crossflow experiment carried out by Professor Morrison and his collaborators. The test section used for the experiments was the AERAST wing kindly supplied to the project by AIRBUS-UK. The results show that the Imperial College tunnel which will be used for transition experiments has turbulence levels low enough for accurate transition studies to be carried out. Further experiments here, In the Airbus tunnel at Filton, and ARA are being planned. Moreover Professor Gaster and his wind tunnel are now successively installed at City University where he is preparing experiments on Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A further boost to the project has been the recent confirmation of Imperial College as a major partner in the national wind tunnel programme.
Exploitation Route A summary of the ways our findings might be taken forward or put to use by the UK engineering sector is as follows: (i) Airbus-UK: reinforcement of the UK's leadership in wing design and manufacture through UK-based technological advance; (ii) EADS, BAE Systems, QinetiQ: development of UK technological capability to facilitate partnering with US and European defence suppliers for UAS and marine applications; (iii) AgustaWestland: improved rotor blade design capability, again within a competitive European framework; (iv) Bombardier Belfast: better structural design, manufacture and in-service performance of engine nacelles designed with Laminar Flow, a key area for development within the UK; (v) Rolls-Royce: improved design of blade rows with intermittent laminar/turbulent regions; (vi) the Commercial CFD community involved in automobile design (including motorsport); (vii) the Chemical Engineering sector as indicated above; (viii) UK sport, through an improved ability to predict flow transition and the stability of the associated vortical flows that impact on human performance. For all these organisations their in-house aerodynamic modelling capabilities all have origins in university collaborations similar to those developed by LFC-UK. We would expect to see significant changes in practice within 3-5 years of the Programme completion.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Environment

 
Description The 'Publications' and 'Engagement Activities' sections give details of publications in leading journals and presentations at conferences in the UK and overseas, including several keynote addresses. LFC-UK papers formed the basis of two sessions at the ICAS 2014 Congress in St Petersburg, a general congress attracting interest from across the aerospace and aviation sector. Several workshops hosted at Imperial College to draw in outside researchers have taken place and these led to collaborations with amongst others Cambridge, UCL, Manchester, Southampton and, on the experimental side, KTH and Texas A&M. LFC-UK members have participated in NASA's initiative to focus on future CFD work, although the closer work on receptivity requested by NASA is difficult given NASA's links with Boeing. The importance of our work for the future of aviation was also commentated upon in an article in the Economist. The already-achieved impact of LFC-UK is exemplified by the collaboration between Airbus Group Innovations and Imperial College. This work has included a broad range of technical issues: the exploration, using non-linear stability analysis, of Saric's distributed roughness technique for delaying the onset of crossflow transition; the application of a new, linearized-Navier-Stokes code to study the effects of roughness characteristics of real aircraft skins on the onset of transition; and the application of fully-three-dimensional linear non-parallel stability analysis to assess the impact of surface waviness on transition. The study of real-surface roughness and waviness using such methods is both world-leading and a remarkably rapid adoption of such technology by industry. Four researchers from the project have spent time at Airbus Group Innovations on six-month internships and two researchers have spent four-month internships at McLaren. The internships have focussed both upon application, under industry conditions, of tools being developed by the researchers themselves and on exposure of the researchers to industrial challenges. The feedback from the secondees has been extremely positive, and they have returned with a desire to improve further the cross-working of the industry and academic teams. Two workshops have been held for industry. The first, held in October 2012, was an introductory event aimed at exposing the LFC-UK project team to industrial activities and challenges faced, and attracted about 40 participants. The second, held in September 2013, was focused more on the technical challenges of predicting the influence of manufactured aerodynamic surfaces on transition. The workshop showcased the maturing outputs from the LFC-UK programme, featured greater technical detail than the previous workshop and attracted around 80 participants. The first workshop inspired a good deal of engagement with both the Aircraft Research Association and with Bombardier Aerospace, who were previously less active collaborators in the programme. ARA are undertaking a major industrial-scale wind tunnel test of a hybrid laminar flow control system, funded through the UK Aerodynamics Centre, and have understood the value of LFC-UK researchers to the delivery of their own project. The dialogue with Bombardier Aerospace has matured into a TSB-funded project, SANTANA (System Advances in Nacelle Technology AerodyNAmics), in which both Imperial College and City University London play a major role in helping Bombardier Aerospace to develop low-drag and low-noise technologies for engine nacelles. The project started in January 2014 and has resulted in a further £0.6M of research funding to UK academia, brought about through engagement of the LFC-UK project with industry. Two further TSB-funded projects ALFET (Advanced Laminar Flow Enabling Technologies) and EFT (Enhanced Fidelity Transonic Wing) have been negotiated. The focus of ALFET (with about £1m of funding split between Imperial and City) is the industrialization of LFC-UK work, with 6 man-years of postdoc time dedicated to taking the theoretical and computational tools and translating them into the industrial environment. A final example of advocacy is the participation of three LFC-UK investigators, and two of the experimental facilities being used in the programme, in the recently-launched National Wind Tunnel Facility, which has attracted £13M investment from EPSRC and UK Aerodynamics. The public launch of the NWTF and recent success in Centres for Doctoral Training by David Willetts, MP is a clear example of advocacy for the importance of engineering and physical science and for the goals of the LFC-UK programme.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Environment
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Council of Science and Technology Review on Modelling
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Aerospace Technology Institute - strategic R&D projects
Amount £498,872 (GBP)
Funding ID 113022 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2017
 
Description Aerospace Technology Institute - strategic R&D projects
Amount £311,751 (GBP)
Funding ID 113001 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2016
 
Description EU European Training Network:SSeMID
Amount £220,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description Airbus Group Innovations 
Organisation Airbus Group
Department EADS Innovation Works
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution TBC
Collaborator Contribution TBC
Impact TBC
 
Description Airbus UK 
Organisation Airbus Group
Department Airbus Operations
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Organisation of a workshop hosted by Airbus at Filton, and participation in the workshop.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of facilities and catering for a workshop at Filton, and participation in the workshop.
Impact 2 day workshop held at Filton in September 2013, with about 50 delegates.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Aircraft Research Association Ltd 
Organisation Aircraft Research Association
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Use of swept wing model wind tunnel test data
Collaborator Contribution Provision of swept wing model wind tunnel test data
Impact TBC
Start Year 2011
 
Description McLaren Racing 
Organisation McLaren Racing
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have transferred fundamental ideas behind vortex stability and identification to their design practice. More recently we are been applying computational modelling tools developed in an academic setting to example flow problems of direct interest to McLaren.
Collaborator Contribution Data and motivation on how to focus our research direction
Impact .
Start Year 2007
 
Title Callisto v3.7 
Description Callisto is Airbus's low-order boundary layer modelling software for design purposes. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The software was released in support of a novel drag reduction device (patented by Airbus) being flight tested in the Clean Sky 2 programme. 
 
Title Nektar++ version 4.0.1 
Description Nektar++ is a tensor product based finite element package designed to allow one to construct efficient classical low polynomial order h-type solvers (where h is the size of the finite element) as well as higher p-order piecewise polynomial order solvers. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The software is being used by a number of national and international groups and our web site is currently being visited up to 100 times a day according to google analytics 
URL http://www.nektar.info/downloads/file/nektar-source-tar-gz-2/
 
Description Boundary Layer and Stability Methods for Surface Deformations. C. Thomas, M. Gipon, S. Mughal & R. Ashworth. 11th ERCOFTAC SIG 33 Workshop, Progress in Transition Modelling and Control, St Helier, Jersey, 15 - 17 April 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impacts noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Boundary Layer and Stability Methods for Surface Deformations. C. Thomas, M. Gipon, S. Mughal & R. Ashworth. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium, Cambridge, 30 March - 2 April 2015  
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impacts noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conference Presentation: The effect of roughness on the stability of three-dimensional boundary layers, Alex White and P Hall. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2012, University College London 27-29 March 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: A local scattering theory for the effect of isolated roughness on boundary layer instability and transition. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2014, 28-30 April 2014, Cardiff University, X. Wu. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Applications of the spectral/hp element method in CFD. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2014, 28-30 April 2014, Cardiff University. D. Moxey. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Assessment of the asymptotic theory of receptivity using numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. In 10th European Fluid Mechanics Conference, 14th-18th September 2014 Copenhagen, Denmark. N. De Tullio, A.I. Ruban. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Free-Stream Turbulence on Swept-Wing Transition , T. SAEED, J. MORRISON. 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, 24 - 26 Nov., 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Experimental investigation of the behaviour of the flow in the vicinity of an incompressible turbulent attachment line. In 47th International Symposium of Applied Aerodynamics. AAAF, Paris, France. Atkin, C., & Gowree, E. R. (2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Generation of T-S waves by vibrations of the wing surface, A.I. Ruban. GLOBAL FLOW INSTABILITY AND CONTROL V, September 19-22, 2012 Creta Maris Resort, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Impact of Junction between Rigid and Porous wall on Boundary-Layer Instability, Jamie Nutter and Xuesong Wu. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2012, University College London 27-29 March 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Impact of abrupt changes on boundary-layer transition: rigid-porous and porous-rigid wall junctions, Jamie Nutter. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2013, 9th-12th April, University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Instability of Streaks and Its Dependence on the Characteristics of Free-stream Disturbances, X. Wu. GLOBAL FLOW INSTABILITY AND CONTROL V, September 19-22, 2012 Creta Maris Resort, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Linear and nonlinear receptivity of the boundary layer in transonic flows, A.I. Ruban, M.A. Kravtsova & T. Bernots. 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, 24 - 26 Nov., 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Methodologies for solving Vortex Wave Interaction problems to obtain edge states , A. ISONI, H. BLACKBURN, P. HALL, S. SHERWIN, 65th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, San Diego, California, November 18 - 20, 2 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: New exact coherent states in plane Poiseuille flow , M. NAGATA, K. DEGUCHI, 65th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, San Diego, California, November 18 - 20, 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Non-Parallel-Flow Effects Of Stationary Crossflow Vortices At Their Genesis. IUTAM-ABCM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 8-12 September 2014. A. Butler and X. Wu. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Nonlinear Equilibrium States in Growing Boundary Layers , P HALL, K DEGUCHI. 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, 24 - 26 Nov., 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No short term impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Numerical and asymptotic analysis of Gortler vortices generated by surface roughness, A. H. White, P. Hall, and M. S. Mughal. 11th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2013 (ICNAAM 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: On continuous spectra of the Orr-Sommerfeld/Squire equations and entrainment of free-stream vortical disturbances, Xuesong Wu. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2013, 9th-12th April, University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: On the experimental measurement of a turbulent incompressible attachment line. In 48th International Symposium of Applied Aerodynamics. AAAF, St-Louis, France. Atkin, C., & Gowree, E. R. (2013, March 25). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Recent developments to the viscous Garabedian and Korn method. In 28th International congress of the Aeronautical Sciences. Brisbane, Australia: ICAS. Atkin, C., & Gowree, E. R. (2012, September 24). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity of Acoustic waves in Transonic flow, T. Bernots. European Postgraduate Fluid Dynamics Conference 2012, 10 July 2012 - 12 July 2012 , Imperial College London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity of Cross-flow vortices, Curtis Banks. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2012, University College London 27-29 March 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity of crossflow vortices and the effects of surface curvature, Curtis Banks. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2013, 9th-12th April, University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity of the Boundary Layer to Elastic Vibrations of the Wing Surface, David Pryce. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2013, 9th-12th April, University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity of the Boundary Layer to Elastic Vibrations of the Wing Surface, David Pryce. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2012, University College London 27-29 March 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity of the boundary layer on a wing surface to elastic vibrations of the wing surface (FM02-026), Anatoly I. Ruban, David Pryce. 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICTAM2012), Beijing, 19 t 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity of the boundary layer to vibrations of the wing surface with emphasis on compressibility effect, Tomass Bernots. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2013, 9th-12th April, University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity to crossflow vortices, Thomas de Cointet. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2013, 9th-12th April, University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Receptivity to wall imperfections over a swept wing, Christian Thomas, Philip Hall and Shahid Mughal. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2012, University College London 27-29 March 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Self-Sustaining Processes in Shear Flows, Joseph Maestri. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2012, University College London 27-29 March 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Subcritical transition in channel flows. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2014, 28-30 April 2014, Cardiff University. J. Maestri. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: The High Reynolds Number Limit of Nonlinear Equilibrium States in Couette Flow, K DEGUCHI, P HALL. 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, 24 - 26 Nov., 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No short term impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: The effect of thin liquid films on boundary layer separation. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2014, 28-30 April 2014, Cardiff University. R. Cimpeanu. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: The role of acoustic feedback in boundary-layer instability, X. Wu. 11th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2013 (ICNAAM 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No short term impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Transition to turbulence in cylindrical geometry. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2014, 28-30 April 2014, Cardiff University. M. Gipon. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Transmission coefficient of Tollmien-Schlichting waves undergoing small indentation/hump distortion, Hui Xu, Spencer Sherwin, Xuesong Wu. 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, 24 - 26 Nov., 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Transonic Flow Separation caused by a Discontinuity in Surface Curvature, Thomas de Cointet. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2012, University College London 27-29 March 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Viscous and non-parallel-flow effects on stationary cross-flow vortices. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2014, 28-30 April 2014, Cardiff University. A. Butler. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Vortex-wave interaction in Poiseuille-Couette flow. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2014, 28-30 April 2014, Cardiff University. L. Dempsey. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Conference Presentation: Vortex-wave interaction in plane Poiseuille-Couette flow, Liam Dempsey. British Applied Mathematics Colloquium 2013, 9th-12th April, University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference Presentation: Vortex-wave interaction theory and self-sustained processes in shear flows (FM07-012), Philip Hall. 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICTAM2012), Beijing, 19 to 24 August, 2012. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Vortex-wave interactions in shear flows: spatial localization and the birth of spots, P. Hall. GLOBAL FLOW INSTABILITY AND CONTROL V, September 19-22, 2012 Creta Maris Resort, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No short term impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Conference Presentation: Vortex-wave interactions/self-sustained processes in shear layers , P. HALL, 64th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, November 20-22, 2011, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description H. Vemuri, J.F. Morrison and E. Kerrigan. Tollmien-Schlichting Wave Cancellation by Feedback Control, American Physical Society 67th Annual DFD Meeting 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Hui Xu, Philip Hall, Spencer Sherwin, Effect of curvature modulation on Gortler vortices in boundary layers, 67th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, 59(20), San Francisco, California, November 23-25, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description J Maestri, Subcritical transition in channel flows, American Physical Society 67th Annual DFD Meeting 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description M. A. Kravtsova and A.I. Ruban. Generation of Steady Longitudinal Vortices in Hypersonic Boundary layer. 11th ERCOFTAC SIG 33 Workshop, Progress in Transition Modelling and Control, April 15-17, St Helier, Jersey, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impacts noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Nonlinear disturbance development and receptivity of crossflow. C. Thomas. The First Madingley Workshop, 23-25 July, Madingley Hall, Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at 20th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 16-20 June 2014, Atlanta, USA, C.Thomas, R. Ashworth & S. Mughal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well recieved

No short term impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at 29th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), St. Petersburg, September 7-12, 2014, T. Saeed. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at Airbus-UK Annual Flight Physics DiPaRT 25-27 Nov 2013, S. Mughal. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

Talk stimulated discussion and generated interest in the work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation at Airbus-UK Annual Flight Physics DiPaRT 25-27 Nov 2013. (R. Ashworth & S. Mughal) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation well received.

Strong interest from Airbus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation at European Postgraduate Fluid Dynamics Conference 2012, 10 July 2012 - 12 July 2012 , Imperial College London, J. Maestri. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Presentation at IUTAM-ABCM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 8-12 September 2014, S. Mughal. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

Talk stimulated discussion and generated interest in the work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Qadri, U. & Schmid, P., Global stability and frequency response of flow over shallow cavities, Annual Meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics APS, San Francisco, November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description R. Bosworth and J.F. Morrison. Flat-plate receptivity to convected disturbances at localised roughness - TS wave generation, American Physical Society 67th Annual DFD Meeting 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description R. Cimpeanu "Cloud on the Horizon: High Speed Droplet Impact, Spreading and Thin Film Dynamics", 8th GRACM International Congress on Computational Mechanics, Volos, Greece, 12-15 July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description T. Saeed, Insights into the effects of roughness height on swept-wing travelling waves. Submitted a Technical Note to the AIAA Journal in October 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Article published.

Not yet known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The Effect of Surface Waviness on the Growth and Development of TS Waves. C. Thomas, S. Mughal & R. Ashworth. 68th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, Boston, 22 - 24 November 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received, sparking discussion.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Wu, X. & Dong, M. A local scattering theory for the effects of isolated roughness on boundary-layer instability and transition: transmission coefficient as an eigenvalue. European Fluid Dynamics Conference 2014, September 14-17, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk well received.

No immediate impact noted.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014