Stereoselective degradation of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bath
Department Name: Chemistry

Abstract

Pharmacologically active compounds (PACs) constitute a vast and diverse group of chemicals. Despite low ppt concentrations of these compounds in environmental matrices, PACs pose considerable environmental concern as many of them are active at very low concentrations. Additionally, PACs are present in the environment as multi-residue mixtures, and therefore synergistic effects of PACs should also be considered. Due to the non-volatile nature of the majority of PACs, and their continuous introduction into the environment, their environmental impact cannot be underestimated. PACs have also been detected in drinking water, which poses a direct risk to humans and raises the issue of contaminated water sources and especially water reuse.

Water is a limited resource in an expanding global economy and population. In the future its accessibility will be significantly impacted by changing climate. Reclaiming water for non-potable (irrigation, urban, industrial) or potable purposes is therefore considered to be an important element of sustainable water resource management. There are, however, certain risks associated with water reuse including microbiological and chemical risks (e.g. the presence of PACs in reclaimed water). They have to be verified before water reuse is to be implemented on a wider scale.
Several groups of PACs such as beta-blockers, antibiotics or analgesics have been studied before in the environment but surprisingly their chiral character, despite its great importance in the pharmaceutical industry, has been overlooked by environmental researchers.

More than half of the drugs currently in use are chiral compounds and many of those are distributed as racemates consisting of an equimolar mixture of two enantiomers. Enantiomers of the same drug have the same chemical formula and physicochemical properties but they differ in interactions with chiral environments such as enzymes. Therefore in biological systems they have to be recognised as two different substances that elicit different responses: one enantiomer of the same drug may produce the desired therapeutic activity, while the other may be inactive or even toxic. The ratio of active/inactive enantiomer of the chiral drug can change significantly after its administration, metabolism in and excretion from the body. It can be subsequently altered during wastewater treatment and when the drug is already present in the environment. This is because degradation of enantiomers can be stereo-specific and can in some cases lead to an increase in the drug's toxicity. As a result chiral PACs might reveal different environmental persistence, fate and toxicity. Currently, the environmental fate and toxicity of chiral drugs are assessed without taking into consideration their enantiomeric form. This might lead to a significant under or overestimation of toxicity of chiral drugs and to inaccurate environmental risk assessment.

As a consequence there is an urgent need to identify chiral drugs, which are resistant to currently used wastewater treatment technologies, are characterised by stereoselective degradation during wastewater treatment and can as a result be released into the environment or remain in reclaimed water in the form of non-racemic mixtures. This project will tackle this issue as it aims to test the hypothesis that degradation of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters is stereoselective and will be undertaken at the laboratory scale with the usage of microcosm protocol and in a full scale wastewater treatment plant.

This research project has the potential to provide significant advances in understanding of the mechanisms of the distribution and fate of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters and open up a new area of research directed at the stereoselective behaviour of drugs in the environment. It will also be of vital importance for the verification of risks associated with water reclamation

Planned Impact

The proposed research, due to its innovative and multidisciplinary nature has the potential to benefit a wide range of user groups:
1. The scientific community
This project will significantly advance knowledge and raise awareness of the importance of the phenomenon of chirality of drugs in the areas of water technology, ecotoxicity of drugs and their impact on the environment and human health. The outcomes of the project will be of vital importance to those researching into (waste)water treatment processes, water reuse and drinking water quality as it will provide an assessment of treatment technologies for the removal of chiral drugs and will give an indication of whether wastewater is sufficiently treated before it is released into receiving waters or is reclaimed for potable use. Environmental scientists with interests in environmental pollution will benefit considerably from the project as it will assess the impact a discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater can have on the aquatic environment. An understanding of the stereoselective pathways of microbial degradation of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment will give invaluable information about possible changes in overall toxicity of chiral drugs and therefore will be vital to ecotoxicologists.
2. Policy makers and government agencies
This research will provide an assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment in the context of stereoselective removal of chiral drugs and will break new ground in adding to the current body of knowledge. In the light of the research, statutory agencies and legislators such as DEFRA and Environment Agency will be in a better position to make judgments regarding the restriction of specific pharmaceuticals which may negatively impact on human health and the environment. There may be grounds for legislative, procedural or policy changes in the area of wastewater treatment which are likely to be of significant interest to regulators at an European and international level. This would include the European Commission and Parliament and WHO.
3. Commercial/private sector
The research will focus on the degradation of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment, and therefore will provide a valuable insight into key processes of interest to those working in water industry. Through estimation of process efficiency, the research will also provide environmental scientists in the commercial sector with a better understanding of the impact of wastewater treatment on the state of the environment. It should also indicate the necessity of new technological development to enhance existing treatment processes. The development of an analytical methodology will also be of use to the commercial sector including environmental and forensic scientists as well as pharmacists.
4. The general public
Water is a limited resource in an expanding global economy and population. In the future its accessibility will be significantly impacted by changing climate. As a consequence, reclaiming water for (non-)potable purposes is considered to be an important element of sustainable water resource management. There are, however, certain risks associated with water reuse including microbiological and chemical risks (e.g. the presence of drugs in reclaimed water). These have to be verified before water reuse is to be implemented on a wider scale. Through dissemination of the outcomes via appropriate media channels this research will enhance public knowledge of key water quality and environmental concerns and priorities for future research and monitoring activity.
5. Other
Finally, the research project will further develop expertise in environmental chemistry at the University of Bath through collaboration with other research staff to meet project objectives. A PhD student working on this project will benefit from acquiring expertise in a multidisciplinary field of water science including analytical and environmental science and water technolology.

Publications

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Evans S (2017) Enantiomeric profiling of a chemically diverse mixture of chiral pharmaceuticals in urban water. in Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)

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Evans, S. And Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., (2013) Study of stereoselective degradation of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and receiving water bodies in 14th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment, 2013-06-25 - 2013-06-28, Barcelona

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Evans, S., Bagnall, J. And Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., (2013) Chiral illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals - stereoselective degradation, and its implications for analysis, toxicology and regulatory frameworks in Joint Annual Meeting of the Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre Plymouth University, and the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry UK Branch, 2013-09-09 - 2013-09-10, Plymouth

 
Description This project aimed to raise awareness of the phenomenon of chirality in the context of the removal of pharmacologically active compounds (PACs) during wastewater treatment and its possible consequences regarding environmental toxicity and risk to human health of PACs. The project tested the hypothesis that two enantiomers of the same chiral drug, due to their different interactions with biological systems, should be recognised in environmental studies as two different substances that can elicit different responses potentially leading to changes in environmental fate and ecotoxicity of the drug. The groups of chiral drugs studied during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters included: amphetamine-like compounds (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and MDA), beta-blockers (propranolol, atenolol, alprenolol, sotalol and metoprolol), antidepressants (fluoxetine, citalopram, mirtazapine and venlafaxine) and others (ephedrines, terbutaline, salbutamol and tramadol).
The set project objectives were fully met. New methods utilizing chiral chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry were developed for both liquid and solid environmental matrices.
This project proved the hypothesis that two enantiomers of the same chiral drug, due to their different interactions with biological systems, should be recognised in environmental studies as two different substances that can elicit different responses potentially leading to changes in environmental fate and ecotoxicity of the drug. Several chiral drugs were found, for the first time, to be subject to enantioselective degradation taking place during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters. Microcosm experiments revealed that stereoselective degradation occurs due to microbial metabolic processes utilised during wastewater treatment. Toxicity studies revealed that two enantiomers of the same drug show different toxicity towards certain aquatic organisms such as daphnia magna and algae.
The above is of critical significance in the environmental risk assessment of pharmacologically active compounds, which currently does not take into account enantiomerism of pollutants and potentially leads to a significant under or overestimation of toxicity of chiral drugs and to incorrect environmental risk assessment as chiral drugs are released into the environment in their non-racemic forms.
Exploitation Route This research project provided significant advances in understanding of the mechanisms of the distribution and fate of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters and opened a new area of research directed at the stereoselective behaviour of drugs in the environment. The project provided strong evidence that degradation of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment is enantioselective. The nature of the research is likely to mean that outcomes will be of interest to government bodies, such as the Environment Agency and DEFRA, in addition to the water industry (Wessex Water, see letter of support) and the general public.
Sectors Chemicals,Environment,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://people.bath.ac.uk/bkh20/EPI0386081.htm
 
Description This research project provided advances in understanding of transformation mechanisms of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and opened a new area of research directed at stereoisomerism of chiral drugs during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters. The phenomenon of chirality is of critical importance in assessing the possible risk chiral drugs might pose to human health and the environment. With a growing population and changing climate limiting accessibility of clean water and forcing new solutions based on water reuse, an understanding of stereoselective pathways of chiral drugs in the environment is vital to provide safe sustainable water resource management solutions for future generations. Outcomes of the project were used to inform new procedures utilized in the newly-emerging interdisciplinary field of wastewater-based epidemiology which aims to provide an integrated approach towards public health monitoring at a community level based on innovative epidemiology techniques.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Chemicals,Environment,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description DTG Directed, Stereochemistry of antimicrobial agents in urban water cycle and its impacts upon the evolution of antimicrobial resistance
Amount £89,114 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R008094/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description EU Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowships
Amount £260,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 629015 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2016
 
Description IAA - Accelerating Advanced Water Analytics@Bath
Amount £10,440 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K503897/1 IAA131 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2014 
End 08/2015
 
Description IAA - Wessex Water Research Project
Amount £106,228 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/ K503897/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2013 
End 06/2015
 
Description Industrial CASE Studentships
Amount £83,515 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/L009579/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description Research Project Grants
Amount £225,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RPG-2013-297 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2014 
End 07/2017
 
Description Wessex Water Research Project
Amount £130,604 (GBP)
Organisation Wessex Water 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2013 
End 10/2015
 
Title New analytical methods for the analysis of chiral pharmacologically compounds in environmental matrices 
Description New analytical methods utilising chiral liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were developed to allow enantiomeric profiling of chiral pharmacologically active compounds in wastewater and receiving waters. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact New methods allowed for studies of chiral pharmacologically active compounds in the environment and during wastewater treatment. They were fundamental in testing the hypothesis that two enantiomers of the same chiral drug, due to their different interactions with biological systems, should be recognised in environmental studies as two different substances that can elicit different responses potentially leading to changes in environmental fate and ecotoxicity of the drug. The methods were also utilized in the newly emerging, interdisciplinary field of wastewater-based epidemiology to study community-wide health. 
 
Description Collaboration with Astra Zeneca 
Organisation AstraZeneca
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution PhD studentship: expertise, facilities, co-funded by EPSRC
Collaborator Contribution PhD studentship: expertise, financial contribution
Impact Excellent proof-of concept results, presentations.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Environment Agency 
Organisation Environment Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Collaboration within NE/N019261/1 project entitled: 'Impact of stereochemistry of antimicrobial agents on their environmental fate, biological potency and the emergence of resistance'
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration within NE/N019261/1 project entitled: 'Impact of stereochemistry of antimicrobial agents on their environmental fate, biological potency and the emergence of resistance'
Impact Ongoing
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Wessex Water 
Organisation Wessex Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution expertise, equipment, facilities
Collaborator Contribution expertise, equipment, facilities
Impact Several, including academic papers: Petrie, B., Proctor, K., Youdan, J., Barden, R. and Kasprzyk-hordern, B., 2017. Critical evaluation of monitoring strategy for the multi-residue determination of 90 chiral and achiral micropollutants in effluent wastewater. Science of the Total Environment, 579, pp. 569-578. Petrie, B., Gravell, A., Mills, G. A., Youdan, J., Barden, R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2016. In situ calibration of a new chemcatcher configuration for the determination of polar organic micropollutants in wastewater effluent. Environmental Science & Technology, 50 (17), pp. 9469-9478. Petrie, B., Youdan, J., Barden, R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2016. A new framework to diagnose the direct disposal of prescribed drugs in wastewater - a case study of the antidepressant fluoxetine. Environmental Science & Technology, 50 (7), pp. 3781-3789. Petrie, B., Youdan, J., Barden, R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2016. Multi-residue analysis of 90 emerging contaminants in liquid and solid environmental matrices by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1431, pp. 64-78. Petrie, B., Barden, R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment:current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring. Water Research, 72, pp. 3-27.
Start Year 2012
 
Title New analytical methods for the analysis of chiral drugs at enantiomeric level 
Description New analytical methods utilising chiral liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were developed to allow enantiomeric profiling of chiral pharmacologically active compounds in environmental matrices. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact N/A 
 
Description What's Your water telling you? Urban water profiling inform the state of the environment and public health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern B entitled: 'What's Your water telling you? Urban water profiling inform the state of the environment and public health', RSC Event, Bristol, 13th Feb 2018, University of the West of England
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 3. Cartwright, N and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. To understand the risks to the environment from chemicals, , Environment Agency meeting 'Working Together for a Better Environment', Bristol, 21st February 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk on collaboration between University of Bath, Wessex Water and Environment Agency
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.instituteofwater.org.uk/events-info/613/
 
Description Innovation through partnership working, DEFRA, London 15th November 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Talk at DEFRA WQ Team away day
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. ,'Water and you: green, grey and you', Pint-of-Science Festival, Bath, 2014-05-19 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Several people attended the meeting

Positive feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 'Divining human health through urban wastewater profiling', Bath Science Café, Bath, 2014-09-08 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact >40 people attended the talk, which stimulated questions and discussions afterwards

Positive feedback from the audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 'Testing urban water for community-wide public health assessment', CCAF Symposium 'The alchemy of what we swallow', 2014-09-09, Bath 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Approximately 100 people attended

Positive feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2013. Wastewater profiling at a community level: a new paradigm in epidemiological studies of public health, University of Bristol, School of Social and Community Medicine, 2013-0-01, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact approximately 20 people attended

Positive feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2014. Urban water cycle: environmental and health perspectives, STEM CPD Day, 2014-06-18, Bath 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 100 pupils attended the talk

Positive feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public talk entitled: 'Healthy waters: Pharmaceuticals in the environment - cause for concern? Bath Festival of Nature, 2nd June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern. Title: Healthy waters: Pharmaceuticals in the environment - cause for concern? Bath Festival of Nature, 2nd June 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Lessons learned from the SewProf Project and beyond', Global Consortium for Sustainability Outcomes, Workshop 2019, River Room, King's College London, Strand Campus, WC2R 2LS London, United Kingdom 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Lessons learned from the SewProf Project and beyond', Global Consortium for Sustainability Outcomes, Workshop 2019, River Room, King's College London, Strand Campus, WC2R 2LS London, United Kingdom (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Urban water fingerprinting for environmental and public health assessmen', Kwaluzu-Natal University, Durban, 1st of February 2019, South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Urban water fingerprinting for environmental and public health assessmen', Kwaluzu-Natal University, Durban, 1st of February 2019, South Africa (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, My career in water, 18th UK Young Water, Professionals Conference, University of Bath, 10 -12th April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, My career in water, 18th UK Young Water, Professionals Conference, University of Bath, 10 -12th April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern 'Antimicrobials in water cycle: Research gaps', Israel-UK Synergy programme grant symposium and workshop, 25th and 26th April 2018:"One Health: antimicrobial resistance from mechanisms to interdisciplinary solutions" The Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Castrignano E, Edler, F, 'Antimicrobials in water cycle: Research gaps', Israel-UK Synergy programme grant symposium and workshop, 25th and 26th April 2018:"One Health: antimicrobial resistance from mechanisms to interdisciplinary solutions" The Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Urban water fingerprinting to inform the state of the environment and public health', University College London Chemical & Physical Society Guest Lecturer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Urban water fingerprinting to inform the state of the environment and public health', University College London Chemical & Physical Society Guest Lecturer 16th October 2018 (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., What's Your water telling you? Urban water profiling inform the state of the environment and public health, RSC Event, Bristol, 13th Feb 2018, University of the West of England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., What's Your water telling you? Urban water profiling inform the state of the environment and public health, RSC Event, Bristol, 13th Feb 2018, University of the West of England (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern, Pharmaceuticals in the environment - cause for concern?, Viewpoints Keynsham: Healthy Water, 23rd of March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern, Pharmaceuticals in the environment - cause for concern?, Viewpoints Keynsham: Healthy Water, 23rd of March 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern, entitled: Water fingerprinting for public health assessment', Wetenschappelijke Advies Raad / Scientific Advisory Council KWR, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands, 1st of June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern, entitled: Water fingerprinting for public health assessment' at Wetenschappelijke Advies Raad / Scientific Advisory Council KWR, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands, 1st of June 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Urban water profiling for community-wide public health and environmental risk assessment, University of Bath Minerva series, 3rd of May 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description WBE for drug use and public health assessment' Amsterdam International Water Week Conference, 30 October - 3 November 2017, Amsterdam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern entitled: 'WBE for drug use and public health assessment' at Amsterdam International Water Week Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017