TRUMP: A Trusted Mobile Platform for the Self-Management of Chronic Illness in Rural Areas

Lead Research Organisation: University of Aberdeen
Department Name: Computing Science

Abstract

Chronic diseases are now the leading causes of death in both developing and developed countries. Such conditions include diabetes, asthma, arthritis, heart failure, COPD, dementia and a range of disabling psychological conditions such as depression. In the UK the cost of care of people with chronic conditions consumes the majority of health and social care resources, for example, accounting for over 80% of GP consultations. While the UK and India have very different practices and structures for healthcare delivery, the effective management of chronic illness is a priority for both countries. Patients in rural areas, however, present particular challenges that neither country's healthcare systems are well configured to address. This issue is particularly relevant to India with 71% of the population in rural areas. While less than 1 in 5 of the UK population are rural dwellers, large parts of the country are sparsely populated; for example in Scotland, 29% of the population live in rural areas. Rural healthcare inequality in both countries arises from a number of factors, including transport costs and the inaccessibility of specialist services.

The goal of the TRUMP project is to explore the potential of mobile technologies in the development of a platform to support chronic disease management by simultaneously considering the needs of rural areas of India and the UK. Trust in such systems is vital if they are be accepted by patients and health workers alike, and this issue will form a central part of the development of the platform. Two common chronic conditions, diabetes and depression, have been chosen as exemplars for the development of the platform and its evaluation.

TRUMP is a multidisciplinary project involving academic researchers from the UK and India, together with partner organisations drawn from the business and community sectors. Working together, this team will: perform a detailed analysis of the healthcare context, design sustainable technology solutions compatible with local and national healthcare policies; incorporate existing proven chronic management programmes and training. This implies support for novel patient record systems, mechanisms for tracking the patient (symptoms and behaviour), as well as patient awareness of self-management.

Planned Impact

Patients, Families & Medical Practitioners
An essential element of the research programme proposed is engagement with real patients, their families and medical practitioners in both the UK and India. This is an important means to evaluate the research being conducted, but also presents key opportunities to develop effective relationships with important stakeholders. There is an opportunity for the research to influence professional practice in healthcare regarding the use of m-health solutions through an understanding of the applicability of technological interventions, the clinical benefits of these interventions, and their cost effectiveness and sustainability.

Influencing Policy
Underpinning this research is the goal to influence public policy such that m-health interventions are considered beneficial and cost effective. This is a rationale behind the membership of the advisory board summarised in the proposal. The project team has an excellent track record in this area; for example, the proposed research dovetails with a multidisciplinary protocol development group, encompassing researchers and health care consumers, funded by the Scottish Chief Scientist's Office and led by applicant Cameron.

Developing Capacity
A number of Indian NGOs will be working closely with academic and research staff to run pilot studies; this will directly contribute to enhancing the research skills within those organisations. Commercial software partners will be exposed through the project to expertise in a range of non-technical disciplines, increasing their awareness of the clinical, technical and socio-economic challenges facing m-health deployments, and enhancing their ability to deliver effective solutions; they will also be exposed to a range of emerging technologies through close working with academic partners.

Wider Public
There is a great deal of public anxiety about electronic patient record (EPR) systems in the UK; for example the recent Royal Academy of Engineering report Privacy and Prejudice noted: "Young people have significant concerns regarding EPRs. These arise due to the perceived weaknesses of an EPR system, including both the robustness (or not) of the technology and the potential errors that will be made by the users." There is thus an opportunity through TRUMP to engage with this complex socio-technical issue. Project team members in India have good links with the e-government and national identity card initiatives, and will use these forums to engage with the wider rural community across the different states to educate the citizens on the benefits of m-health.

Research Staff Development
The interdisciplinary nature of the research proposed will provide valuable opportunities for research staff employed on the project to develop and understanding of the research questions and challenges of other disciplines as well as different methods and techniques used. Specific and generic training, including ethics training, offered by each participating institution and by the research team itself will support this. The international dimension of the project will also benefit the development of researchers by exposing them to different research cultures and perspectives.

Commercialisation
The project is supported by the involvement of IBM in both the UK and India, and by ZMQ in India. This both aids the research, and provides an important means to commercialise and exploit the technologies developed within the project. As stated by Dr Peter Waggett (IBM Hursley) in his supporting letter "the inclusion of [his] involvement in this research programme will ensure that the transition route will be accelerated and grounded in best practice from industry". Similarly, ZMQ Software, as highlighted in their supporting letter, will bring significant expertise in the deployment of mobile-based solutions for development, introducing a route for exploitation in the context of their "Mobile for Development" initiative.
 
Description The project has developed insights into the challenges of delivering rural healthcare solutions in the UK and India, a range of software technologies to support trusted management of personal information.
Exploitation Route Software technologies (many of which are opensource) can be utilised by a range of industries, or could be built upon by other researchers. Policy makers could utilise the insights into rural healthcare delivery.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Healthcare

URL http://www.trump-india-uk.org/
 
Description Project outcomes have led directly to a greater understanding of e-health interventions in rural India, which is likely to impact on future initiatives of that kind. A variety of new software technologies emerged, spanning data encryption and access control; while it is too early to point to any particular non-academic impacts of these, we are confident that they will be of interest to a range of stakeholders. An unexpected development involved use of the project's sensor data management platform as part of an investigation into the potential use of the Internet of Things to monitor food safety compliance in commercial restaurant kitchens; funded by the UK's Food Standards Agency.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Healthcare
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Contribution to UK Government Verify.UK Programme
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact We have contributed to the UK Government's Verify.UK programme in the area of identity and privacy management. We have helped in the development of the UK Government's identity assurance programme whereby we have defined the trust management framework with different levels of trust. This will help the Verify.UK scheme to work in a federated environment by working closely with the private sector including the banks, identity providers, post office and Verisign.
 
Description Future of Identity expert panel meeting
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact TRUMP Team Member contributed to the future of identity expert panel meeting which was organized by the Government office of Science. This drafted the next 10 year challenges in the area of using different identity attributes for identity management. The report that was published as part of this panel was prepared as the Foresight report in the area of future of identity.
 
Description British Council
Amount £125,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description REACH
Amount € 419,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 12/2014 
End 12/2018
 
Description Trust, Identity, Privacy & Security in the Digital Economy [Trusted Things and Communities: Understanding & Enabling A Trusted IoT Ecosystem]
Amount £809,735 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N028074/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 08/2019
 
Description Trusted Things & Communities: Understanding & Enabling A Trusted IoT Ecosystem
Amount £1,100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N028155/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 06/2019
 
Title Healthcare Data Attitudes Survey Database 
Description Results of a survey of over 300 people into attitudes around sensitivity and sharing of healthcare information. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Results have influenced thinking in terms of our trusted information architecture for management of personal health data. 
 
Title Lightweight ABE algorithm 
Description Lightweight cryptographic algorithm to use in mobile healthcare 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Lots of interest shown from fellow researchers 
 
Description TRUMP - Grampian Opportunities 
Organisation Grampian Opportunities
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Focus groups held by research team with members of Grampian Opportunities support network which helped stimulate thinking on both sides.
Collaborator Contribution Grampian Opportunities (GO) supports disabled people and people with mental health problems have choice and control in their lives. Members attended research team events and recruited other participants for focus groups.
Impact Partner is non-academic.
Start Year 2014
 
Description TRUMP - IIIT-Bangalore 
Organisation International Institute of Information Technology
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Access to our thinking on trusted information infrastructures, including work on provenance enabled personal data management, risk-aware access control. We have also provided IIIT-B with access to software prototypes.
Collaborator Contribution Colleagues at IIIT-B are providing expertise to support development of a trusted information architecture to manage personal health data; their particular emphasis is on possible worlds knowledge models.
Impact Collaborators from IIIT-B are computer scientists and their primary interactions are with other computer scientists at the University of Aberdeen; they are however part of the much larger (and highly multi-disciplinary) TRUMP project.
Start Year 2012
 
Description TRUMP - IIPH - Hyderabad 
Organisation Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution UK-based team members have spent time training local researchers to conduct fieldwork activities, and have spent time working in the field jointly with IIPH-Hyderabad colleagues.
Collaborator Contribution Access to fieldwork areas in rural India (Guntur); support for UK researchers working in India (translators, local researchers); assistance with processing data.
Impact Activities in progress.
Start Year 2012
 
Description TRUMP PhD Studentship 
Organisation Lancaster University
Department School of Computing and Communications
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Funded PhD Studentship
Collaborator Contribution Hosted and supervised studentship
Impact 5 publications (including a thesis).
Start Year 2012
 
Description TRUMP studentship: BMCE Networks 
Organisation BMCE Networks Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of improved resource utilization in mobile video delivery.
Collaborator Contribution Liaised with emergency services through BMCE Networks and Gaist to inform direction of research and provide realistic use cases. Partners provided platform to enable deployment/evaluation of technology.
Impact Series of publications and Multipath Dissemination Protocol Daemon - items are listed elsewhere in researchFish.
Start Year 2012
 
Title Card sort survey application 
Description Web application for conducting online surveys using a drag-and-drop card sorting method. Available as open-source via the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact It has enabled the production of large quantities of research data. 
URL https://github.com/chrisburnett/AttitudeSurvey
 
Title Lightweight ABE 
Description Lightweight cryptographic algorithm to use in mobile healthcare 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Several requests from fellow researchers to use the algorithms 
 
Title Multipath Dissemination Protocol Daemon Software 
Description Multipath Dissemination Protocol Daemon. - Linux implementation to share multipath connectivity information and configure devices. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact None known 
URL http://github.com/richardwithnell/mpdd
 
Title Provenance Policies Framework 
Description Experimental framework and implementation of the PolProv (Policies and Provenance) system, with medical example scenario. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact No specific impacts to report. 
URL https://github.com/chrisburnett/PolicyProvenance
 
Title TRAAC Framework and Simulator 
Description Experimental framework and implementation of the TRAAC (Trust and Risk Aware Access Conrol) model 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Cited in published work on the TRAAC model. 
URL https://github.com/chrisburnett/TRAAC-Simulator
 
Title TRUMP module for OpenMRS 
Description Module for the OpenMRS medical record platform, implementing XACML-based access control. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact No specific impacts to report at this time. 
URL https://github.com/chrisburnett/Trump-Module
 
Description Brightclub 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 110 members of the public attended a stand-up comedy night to inform/entertain them about research.

No direct feedback received, but the people in attendance appeared to enjoy the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.aberdeenperformingarts.com/events/techfest-2014-bright-club
 
Description Can mobile phone technology assist people living with diabetes or depression? Talk for Association of Social Anthropologists 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at Association of Social Anthropologists Decennial Conference, Edinburgh, June 2014, followed by questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Digital Futures 2012 - Risk-Aware Access Control for Electronic Health Records 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A paper was presented at the Third RCUK Digital Economy All Hands Conference (Digital Futures 2012), Aberdeen, UK, 2012.
Title: Risk-Aware Access Control for Electronic Health Records [L. Chen, M.J. Kollingbaum, T.J. Norman & P. Edwards, ]

No specific impacts to report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Digital, Countryside, Life workshop at Newtonhill School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Delivering two interactive workshops with a total of 25 pupils (10-12 years) and 2 teachers at Newtonhills Primary School, Aberdeenshire. The workshops involved 1 PhD student and 3 postdoctoral researchers, along with the Hub Outreach Officer talking about their research and associated dot.rural projects through interactive activities with small groups of pupils.

None known to date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Initial anthropological insights on trust from multi-disciplinary research in South India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Results presented to colleagues at IIPH-Hyderabad, May 2014 .

No specific impacts reported
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Initial anthropological insights on trust from multi-disciplinary research in South India - IIPH-Hyderabad 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on Initial anthropological insights on trust from multi-disciplinary research in South India followed by discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description MAGic2015 Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk "At the Margins of Biomedicine: The Ambiguous Position of Registered Medical Practitioners in Rural Indian Healthcare" given at MAGic2015 - Anthropology and Global Health: Interrogating Theory, Policy and Practice followed by discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description May Festival: Digital, Countryside, Life Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of research teams across the RCUK Digital Economy portfolio participated in an open afternoon during the University's May Festival. The drop-in event enabled members of the public to see demos, talk to researchers, see outputs of researchers, give opinions on topical issues and try out technologies developed. Around 100 people visited during the 2 hour activity.

None yet to report
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Mood Under the Microscope, May Fest, University of Aberdeen 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participation in Open Day "Mood Under the Microscope" as part of the public facing May Fest, University of Aberdeen 2014. Explained the work of the TRUMP project to the public and answered questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Participation in Making Healthcare Data Sustainable: Challenges and Opportunities for the Semantic Web Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 12 participants (mixture of NHS clinicians and computing science researchers) participated in a meeting to identify and understand the opportunities for computing science in making healthcare data sustainable. Participants included Drs David Corsar, Gemma Webster, Liang Chen and Chris Burnett.

Change of practice within institution resulting from conversations that took place during meeting that would not have occurred otherwise.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at ASA14 Decennial: Anthropology and Enlightenment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact TRUMP work was presented at a leading anthropological conference (Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and Commonwealth).
Title: Can mobile phone technology assist people living with diabetes or depression? Initial insights on trust from multi-disciplinary research in south India

No specific impacts to report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nomadit.co.uk/asa/asa2014/panels.php5?PanelID=2702
 
Description Presentation at Academic Primary Care Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two posters about TRUMP research were presented to a meeting of the Society for Academic Primary Care in Glasgow.

No specific impacts to report.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.sapc.ac.uk/index.php/recentconfs/conf2012
 
Description Presentation at Health Informatics Scotland 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented a paper at Health Informatics Scotland 2013, hosted by British Computer Society, at Herriot Watt University, Edinburgh.
Title: TRUMP: a trustworthy platform for mobile self-management interventions [C Burnett et al]

Not aware of any specific impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk/his/events/health-informatics-scotland-conference-2013.aspx
 
Description Presentation at Health Informatics Scotland 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented a paper at Health Informatics Scotland 2014, hosted by British Computer Society, at The Grand Central Hotel, Glasgow.
Title: Exploring Public Attitudes to Sensitivity and Sharing of Health Data (Chris Burnett, Peter Edwards, Timothy Norman and Mariesha Jaffray)
Presentation led to discussion about our dataset of public attitudes to healthcare data.


No specific details to report at this time.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk/his/events/health-informatics-scotland-conference-2014.aspx
 
Description Presentation at IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks - LCN2014 (Canada) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Research results were presented to interesting audience.
Title: Lightweight Static and Dynamic Attributes Based Access Control Scheme for Secure Data Access in Mobile Environment

Citations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ieeelcn.org/prior/LCN39/index.html
 
Description Presentation at IEEEMobileCloud2013 (USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Research results were presented to interesting audience.
Title: Low Complexity Multi-Authority Attribute Based Encryption Scheme for Mobile Cloud Computing


Citations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/gaojerry/IEEEMobileCloud2013/
 
Description Presentations to Scottish Enterprise: Head of Digital Economy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentations on the RuralPAWS (Hasan Hamdoun), FITS (John Nelson), Social Journeys (David Corsar), CURIOS (Gemma Webster) and TRUMP (Pete Edwards) projects were given to Dr Ian Blewett, Head of Digital Economy, Scottish Enterprise. This led to planning a follow-up meeting and requests for further information particularly related to policy relevant work.

None yet to report
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Research Visit to Padova University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Knowledge transfer between City University London and Padova University.

Research collaboration established between City University London and Padova University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.math.unipd.it/~conti/
 
Description TRUMP poster at RCUK-India 5th Anniversary Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A poster about the TRUMP UK-India collaboration was presented at the RCUK in India 5th anniversary event held in New Delhi, November 2013. It led to discussions with Indian academic colleagues, representatives of the UK research councils, FCO, etc.

Following the event, we received requests for further information about the project from a representative of the British Medical Journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Talk by Prof Pete Edwards at Walmart Labs, Bangalore, India, February 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Pete Edwards gave a talk "Towards and Intelligent Information Infrastructure" at Walmart Labs, Bangalore (the IT group for Walmart Group across the globe) followed by questions and discussion. This was followed by a small group meeting with the Head of e-commerce for India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk by Prof Pete Edwards at Wipro, Banglore, India February 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Prof Pete Edwards gave a talk on "Towards and Intelligent Information Infrastructure" at Wipro Staff including the Chief Technology Officer and other colleagues in Bangalore, India. The talk was followed by questions and discussion, and a small group meeting with the CTO and other senior staff followed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Transforming through digital innovation, Scientia Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Transforming through digital innovation is an article about the work of the dot.rural Digital Economy Hub in Scientia Issue 2. The article highlights 5 individual dot.rural projects. Scientia a magazine published by the University of Aberdeen to promote its research to various audiences.

The dot.rural article can be found on pages 35-37.

None known to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.abdn.ac.uk/news/documents/Scientia_magazine2013.pdf.
 
Description UK-India business event at the BT Head Office 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To improve understanding of others' thinking. More than 100 people participated and contributed to the debate about using mobiles in government and industry. Indian businesses are interested in some of the products from UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Visit from European Centre for Environment and Human Health (University of Exeter Medical School) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact TRUMP was presented to directors of the European Centre for Environment and Human Health (Exeter)

Led to discussions about possible future joint-working between Aberdeen and Exeter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description What the NHS can learn from the smartphone on data consent, The Conversation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article on The Conversation (5/2/2014) by Dr Chris Burnett and Dr Edoardo Pignotti responding to controversy around the NHS care.data programme, read by over 900 people (November 2014)

None yet known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://theconversation.com/what-the-nhs-can-learn-from-the-smartphone-on-data-consent-22464